PRINCIPLES OF HENRIFAYOLPresented To:Dr. Rubina BhattiPresented By:Saba AbbasRoll No. 05B.S (Hons)5th SemesterDEPARTMENT OF LIBRARY &INFORMATION SCIENCEThe Islamia University of Bahawalpur
INTRODUCTION:Principles of management are generalizations based onexperience and careful analysis of case studies. These areuniversally applicable. These are not rigid. Change incircumstances would required adaption of these. Intelligence,judgment, experience and understanding of human relationsare necessary for adaptation of principles.Henri Fayol is regarded as the father of classical school,sometimes, this school is referred to as the “traditional” or“universalist” school. Fayol used scientific approach. Hisprinciples are described below:
FOURTEEN PRINCIPLES OF HENRIFAYOL Division of Work Authority Discipline Unity of Command Unity of Direction Subordination ofIndividual Interest toGeneral Interest Remuneration Centralization Scalar Chain (Line ofCommand) Order Equity Stability of Tenure ofPersonnel Initiative Esprit De Corps
DIVISION OF WORK:In a small one man library, one person would becarrying out all the functions such as ordering,classification, cataloguing, preparation, shelving,servicing of documents etc., there would be nodivision of work. But in a large library if all theprofessional assistants carry out all these functions,then this would lead to inefficiency and confusion.
AUTHORITY:Authority can be either statutory or personal.Statutory authority belongs to a person due to hisposition. Personal authority is achieved due toqualities of leadership. Possession of authority meansresponsibility for actions. Actual work in the librarymay be done by different persons but the ultimateresponsibilities lie with the chief librarian for all thatgoes on. He can delegate authority for a certain job. Ifthe same is misused, then it can be withdrawn.
DISCIPLINE:In the best interest of the organization, there shouldbe complete obedience, diligence, energy andoutward marks of respect. This is equally applicabletoe very body. The best way to establish and maintaindiscipline is to provide good leadership to staff,dissolve disputes with justice and enforce penaltieswithout prejudice.
UNITY OF COMMAND:An employee should be responsible to, and alsoreceive orders from only one superior. Any orders bythe chief librarian to a professional assistant shouldbe transmitted through an assistant librarian, who isincharge of the section. Thus an organizationalstructure should be such that each employee issupervised by only one supervisor.
UNITY OF DIRECTION:According to Fayol, there should be “onemanager and one plan for all the operationswhich have the same objective in view”. Unity ofcommand depends on working of staff togetherproperly but unity of directions is provided bymeans of properly arranging the organization sothat there is one head and one plan to make itsure that coordination effort would be achieved.
SUBORDINATION OF INDIVIDUAL INTERESTTO GENERAL INTEREST:According to this principle individual interests mustbe subordinated for the sake of common good.Thus primary concern of an employee should bethe growth and development of the organization.Head of the order section should not be permittedto take long leave during the last days of thefinancial year, if funds remain to be spent and billshave to be passed before the end of the financialyear.
REMUNERATION:Salaries to employees and method ofpayment should be fair enoughcomparable to other staff of the parentbody with equivalent qualifications.Employees should be given incentivesfor successful efforts.
CENTRALIZATION:Centralization of administration may becarried out in varying degrees, dependingupon the local situation. Anything thatincreases the importance of the role of asubordinate should be decentralized. Onthe other hand anything that decreases theimportance of the role of a subordinateshould be centralized.
SCALAR CHAIN (LINE OFCOMMAND):This principle implies that authority andresponsibility should flow in a clear unbrokenline from the highest executive to the lowestrank. This refers to hierarchy. A hierarchyconsists of a series of steps, extending in anunbroken line from chief librarian to the lowestemployee an attendant. This line serves as ameans of communication.
ORDER:Order refers to the best possiblearrangement to achieve the mostefficient operation of the organization.As regards movement of materials, itwould be economical if order sectionand cataloguing section are located sideby side.
EQUITY:In dealing with employees treatment ofequality must be put into practice.Justice must be combined withfriendliness and kindness by those inexecutive towards staff. Salary scalesmust be based on education, ability,experience and level of responsibility.
STABILITY OF TENURE OFPERSONNEL:Stability of staff is an important factor.Rapid turnover of staff should causeanxiety. In this context it is better to fill upsome positions in a library with mediocrepersons, who will stay with the libraryrelatively for long periods. At the same timethere should be promotion avenues forcompetent persons.
INITIATIVE:It is essential that initiative of employeesmust be cultivated and encouraged.Incentives may be offered in this regard.Provision of incentives can stimulateoutput, leading to greater efficiency andeffectiveness.
ESPRIT DE CORPS:This principle refers to strength in unitybeing an extension of principle of unity ofcommand. Library administration shouldcreate environment which leads toharmony and unity. Equity, initiative, unityof command and leadership qualities of thesenior staff can do much to promote espritde corp.
CONCLUSION:The principles of management are universally applicable.These are flexible and not absolute. These are applicableregardless of changing conditions. These form basis ofscientific management.The principles of management listed above have beenrecognized by librarians. The application of scientificmanagement based on these is beginning to be used inlibraries. Librarians seem to be showing more interest inthis area of study and applicable. However, it is true thatlibrarians have been slow to accept these ideas.