What is Effective Listening Definition: Absorbing information Showing that you are listening and interested Providing feedback. Involves: Choice of the right words & Nonverbal Cues. Effective listeners - let speakers know they have heard and understood the speakers.
6 Sources of Difficulty by the Listener: 1. Being preoccupied and not listening. 2. Being so interested in what you have to say that you listen mainly to find an opening to get the floor. 3. Formulating and listening to your own rebuttal to what the speaker is saying.
4. Listening to your own personal beliefs about what is being said. 5. Evaluating and making judgments about the speaker or the message. 6. Not asking for clarification when you know that you do not understand.
3Basic Listening Modes Competitive or Combative Listening which takes place when we are more interested in upholding our own point of view rather than in trying to make sense of or exploring someone else’s view. Passive or Attentive Listening where we are attentive and passively listening because we are truly interested in hearing and understanding the other person’s point of view. Active or Reflective listening (most practical and important) where we are also genuinely interested in understanding what the other person is thinking, feeling, wanting or what the message means.
4 Techniques for Effective Listening Reflecting
Letting the other party know that what they are saying to us is being heard.
Asking for additional information.
Shifting the discussion to a different topic.
Advising - Giving advice.
Types of listening Discriminative listening Listening for something specific but nothing else (eg. a baby crying). Appreciative listening Looking for ways to accept and appreciate the other person through what they say. Seeking opportunity to praise. Alternatively listening to something for pleasure, such as to music.
3. Empathetic listening Seeking to understand what the other person is feeling. Demonstrating this empathy. 4. Comprehensive listening Listening to understand. Seeking meaning. 5. Critical listening Listening in order to evaluate, criticize or otherwise pass judgment on what someone else says.
6. Relationship listening Listening in order to support and develop a relationship with the other person. Therapeutic listening Seeking to understand what the other person is feeling. Demonstrating this empathy. Biased listening Listening through the filter of personal bias.
Evaluative listening Listening in order to evaluate, criticize or otherwise pass judgment on what someone else says. 10. Dialogic listening Finding meaning through conversational exchange, asking for clarity and testing understanding.
Bottom-Up Skills Decoding process – the direct decoding of language into meaningful units, from sound waves to meaning. The emphasis of this model is a phoneme-by-phoneme, then word-by-word building up of an understanding of what is being said.
Bottom-Up Skills discriminating between intonation contours discriminating between phonemes hearing morphological endings selecting details recognizing fast speech forms finding stressed syllables recognizing reduced forms recognizing words as they link together in connected streams recognizing prominent details recognizing sentence level features in lecture text recognizing organization clues
Top-Down Skills Refers to the attribution of meaning, drawn from one’s own world knowledge, to language input. Use available clue to understand topic. What the learner brings to the page.
Top-Down Skills discriminating between emotions getting the gist recognizing the topic using discourse structure to enhance listening strategies identifying the speaker evaluating themes finding the main idea finding supporting details making inferences understanding organizing principals of extended texts
Bottom-Up Listening Activity Dictogloss - The teacher reads out a number of sentences, and asks learners to write down how many words there would be in the written form.
Top-Down Listening Activities putting a series of pictures or sequence of events in order listening to conversations and identifying where they take place reading information about a topic then listening to find whether or not the same points are mentioned or inferring the relationships between the people involved
When to focus on the top-down or bottom-up? Transactional discourse - language that serves in the expression of ‘content’. Interactional discourse - language involved in expressing social relations and personal attitudes. (Brown and Yule, 1983:1)