Pengantar metabolisme

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Pengantar metabolisme

  1. 1. Metabolisme Susila Sastri
  2. 2. Metabolisme <ul><li>Definisi: rangkaian reaksi-reaksi kimia dalam sel yang terjadi secara continue dan saling berhubungan satu dengan yang lain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anabolisme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Katabolisme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ampibolic </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Overview Metabolisme
  4. 4. Metabolisme <ul><li>Bahan bakar tubuh : carbohydrates, fats, dan proteins </li></ul><ul><li>( makromolekul) </li></ul><ul><li>Energi : oxidasi :CO 2 and H 2 O. </li></ul><ul><li>Cadangan dalam tubuh : triacylglycerol (fat), glycogen (carbohydrate) </li></ul><ul><li>Penurunan atau penambahan BB normal: Energi dipakai – Energi tersedia </li></ul><ul><li>insulin dan glucagon; regulator pemakaian dan penyimpanan bahan cadangan </li></ul><ul><li>Karbohidrat utama dalam darah : glukosa : regulator insulin dan glukagon dalam darah </li></ul>
  5. 5. Puasa <ul><li>Puasa : hypoglisemia , memicu pamkreas agar glukagon disekresi </li></ul><ul><li>Glucagon: cadangan carbohydrat membebaskan glucose ke sirkulasi ( brain) </li></ul><ul><li>Puasa lebih 3 : ketone bodies (derived from fat) as an alternative fuel supply for the brain . </li></ul>
  6. 6. Anabolisme <ul><li>Biosintesis senyawa biomolekul (glikogen, protein, trigliserida) </li></ul><ul><li>Butuh Energi (endergonic). </li></ul><ul><li>ATP: ADP + Pi (ATP-ADP cycle) </li></ul><ul><li>Misal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glikogenesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glukoneogenesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biosintesa asam lemak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biosintesa protein </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Katabolisme <ul><li>Pemecahan molekul besar : molekul kecil (glukosa, asetil KoA, Asam amino) CO2 dan Energi (ATP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CO2 : sirkulasi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ATP : dibebaskan setelah elektron ditransfer ke O2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glikolisis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glikogenolisis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oksidasi asam lemak </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Amphibolic <ul><li>Anabolisme dan Katabolisme: terjadi dalam satu proses metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Siklus Kreb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biosintesis heme, glukosa, asam lemak </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Katabolisme: sitrat, ketoglutarat </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Energi <ul><li>Oxidation of fuels to generate ATP is called respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Electrons lost from the fuels during oxidative reactions : transferred to O 2 by a series of proteins in the electron transport chain </li></ul><ul><li>Energy of electron transfer : used to convert ADP and P i to ATP by a process known as oxidative phosphorylation </li></ul><ul><li>Satuan Energi : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calori </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kilocalorie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kilojoules (kJ) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The ATP-ADP cycle
  11. 11. Generation of ATP
  12. 12. approximate order in which the processes occur. TG = triacylglycerols; FA = fatty acid; AA = amino acid; RBC = red blood cell; VLDL = very low density lipoprotein; I= insulin; % = stimulated by.
  13. 13. Metabolisme KH, Fat AA TAG = triacylglycerol
  14. 14. Overview Metabolisme KH
  15. 15. Overview of fatty acid metabolism
  16. 16. Overview of amino acid metabolism
  17. 17. Transport and fate of major carbohydrate and amino acid substrates and metabolites
  18. 18. Transport and fate of major lipid substrates and metabolites FFA, free fatty acids; LPL, lipoprotein lipase; MG, monoacylglycerol; TG, triacylglycerol; VLDL, very low density lipoprotein.
  19. 19. Intracellular location and overview of major metabolic pathways

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