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CONFESSION PAGE
―I admit this coursework is my own works accept a few of the information and material
from sources that I found‖
Signature : ………………………………………………………..
Name : MOHD FAKHREE HAZREEN BIN AZMI
Date :
Signature : ………………………………………………………..
Name : AHMAD ASYRAF BIN M. SHAIPULAH
Date :
Signature : ………………………………………………………..
Name : FAHMI BIN MOHD YASIN
Date :
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APPRECIATION
First of all, may we wish a very thank you to my God, Allah The Almighty
because of Him I could done my task successfully without any trouble and problem. We
hope our work that we had done on time will be accept by our lecturer.
Next, we would like to thank our lecturer, Mr. Hazram Bin Ismail had taught and
shows me how to complete this task correctly. He also likes to help his student when he
saw his student like blur and confuse.
Next, we also want to thank my lovely parent. Because of them, we can buy our
item and equipments to finish this task with creatively. They also help me and give a
moral support to done this task without any problem and tension.
Not to be forgetting is our friends and especially to my partners group who has
helped me to give their ideas and information that I don‘t know. They all give me support
too when we cannot find this task solution how to done it.
We hope anyone who read my task will always be happy and understand what
we want to carried out in this task. Finally, we hope this task reader will enjoy reading it.
Thank you.
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CONTENTS
CONFESSION PAGE
APRECIATION
CONTENT
TASK
1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 MODE
1.2 MEAN
1.3 MEDIAN
1.4 STANDARD DEVIATION
2.0 INTRODUCTION OF TASK
3.0 OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH
4.0 RESEARCH METHOLOGY
5.0 ANALYZED DATA
5.1 TABLE OF DATA
5.2 THE CHART OF DATA
5.2.1 DATA UNIT PPISMP RBT 1
5.2.2 DATA UNIT PPISMP RBT2
6.0 INTERPRETATION
REFLECTIONS
BIBLIOGRAPHY
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TASK
In group of two or three, you have suppose to:
i. Write a proposal for your research. Your research proposal should include
three items listed below:
a) Introduction
b) Objectives of research
c) Research Methodology
The main objective of your research is to make a comparison between two
groups regarding realistic issues such as subject preferences, television
programmers‘ preferences, spending habit etc. Be sure that your data can
be analyzed using measure of central tendency and measure of
dispersion.
ii. Conduct your research as planned in your proposal after getting some
guidance from your lecturer.
iii. Analyze the data collected using measure of central tendency and
measure of dispersion.
iv. Represent your analyzed data using suitable visual representations.
v. Write the interpretation of your data based on (3 and 4).
vi. Present your research findings in class.
vii. Write full report of your accomplished research. Your report should include
another three items listed below:
a) Data analysis.
b) interpretation of the data.
c) Reflection on the importance of this coursework for you as a
teacher-to-be. Reflection must be written individually.
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1.0 INTRODUCTION
Statistics is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection, analysis, interpretation
or explanation, and presentation of data. Statisticians improve the quality of data with
the design of experiments and survey sampling. Statistics also provides tools for
prediction and forecasting using data and statistical models. Statistics is applicable to a
wide variety of academic disciplines, including natural and social sciences, government,
and business.
Statistical methods can be used to summarize or describe a collection of data; this is
called descriptive statistics. This is useful in research, when communicating the results
of experiments. In addition, patterns in the data may be modeled in a way that accounts
for randomness and uncertainty in the observations, and are then used to draw
inferences about the process or population being studied; this is called inferential
statistics. Inference is a vital element of scientific advance, since it provides a prediction
(based in data) for where a theory logically leads. To further prove the guiding theory,
these predictions are tested as well, as part of the scientific method. If the inference
holds true, then the descriptive statistics of the new data increase the soundness of that
hypothesis. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (a.k.a., predictive statistics)
together comprise applied statistics.
There is also a discipline called mathematical statistics, which is concerned with the
theoretical basis of the subject.
The word statistics can either be singular or plural. In its singular form, statistics refers
to the mathematical science discussed in this article. In its plural form, statistics is the
plural of the word statistic, which refers to a quantity (such as a mean) calculated from a
set of data.
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1.1 MODE
The mode in a list of numbers refers to the list of numbers that occur most frequently. A
trick to remember this one is to remember that mode starts with the same first two
letters that most does. Most frequently - Mode. You'll never forget that one!
Examples:
Find the mode of:
9, 3, 3, 44, 17 , 17, 44, 15, 15, 15, 27, 40, 8,
Put the numbers is order for ease:
3, 3, 8, 9, 15, 15, 15, 17, 17, 27, 40, 44, 44,
The Mode is 15 (15 occurs the most at 3 times)
1.2 MEAN
A numerical value representing the average worth of a set of data. It is calculated by
adding together all the values of a set and dividing the total by the number of values. It
is quick and easy to calculate, but the presence of an unusually high or low value
distorts the mean from a truly central value. Furthermore, it is unreliable when the data
set contains only a few values. The mean of grouped data may be established by
multiplying the mid-point of each class by the number of observations in each class,
summing these figures, and dividing the sum by the total number of values in the data
set.
Example:
Four tests results: 15, 18, 22, 20
The sum is: 75
Divide 75 by 4: 18.75
The 'Mean' (Average) is 18.75
(Often rounded to 19)
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1.3 MEDIAN
The Median is the 'middle value' in your list. When the totals of the list are odd, the
median is the middle entry in the list after sorting the list into increasing order. When the
totals of the list are even, the median is equal to the sum of the two middle (after sorting
the list into increasing order) numbers divided by two. Thus, remember to line up your
values, the middle number is the median! Be sure to remember the odd and even rule.
Examples:
Find the Median of: 9, 3, 44, 17, 15 (Odd amount of numbers)
Line up your numbers: 3, 9, 15, 17, 44 (smallest to largest)
The Median is: 15 (The number in the middle)
Find the Median of: 8, 3, 44, 17, 12, 6 (Even amount of numbers)
Line up your numbers: 3, 6, 8, 12, 17, 44
Add the 2 middles numbers and divide by 2: 8 12 = 20 ÷ 2 = 10
The Median is 10.
1.4 STANDARD DEVIATION
In probability theory and statistics, standard deviation is a measure of the variability or
dispersion of a statistical community, a data set, or a probability distribution. A low
standard deviation indicates that the data points tend to be very close to the mean,
whereas high standard deviation indicates that the data are spread out over a large
range of values.
For example, the average height for adult men in the United States is about 70 inches
(178 cm), with a standard deviation of around 3 in (8 cm). This means that most men
(about 68 percent, assuming a normal distribution) have a height within 3 in (8 cm) of
the mean (67–73 in (170–185 cm)), whereas almost all men (about 95%) have a height
within 6 in (15 cm) of the mean (64–76 in (163–193 cm)). If the standard deviation were
zero, then all men would be exactly 70 in (178 cm) high. If the standard deviation were
20 in (51 cm), then men would have much more variable heights, with a typical range of
about 50 to 90 in (127 to 229 cm).
In addition to expressing the variability of a population, standard deviation is commonly
used to measure confidence in statistical conclusions. For example, the margin of error
in polling data is determined by calculating the expected standard deviation in the
results if the same poll were to be conducted multiple times. The reported margin of
error is typically about twice the standard deviation – the radius of a 95% confidence
interval. In science, researchers commonly report the standard deviation of
experimental data, and only effects that fall far outside the range of standard deviation
are considered statistically significant—normal random error or variation in the
measurements is in this way distinguished from causal variation. Standard deviation is
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also important in finance, where the standard deviation on the rate of return on an
investment is a measure of the volatility of the investment.
The term standard deviation was first used in writing by Karl Pearson in 1894, following
his use of it in lectures. This was as a replacement for earlier alternative names for the
same idea: for example Gauss used "mean error". A useful property of standard
deviation is that, unlike variance, it is expressed in the same units as the data.
When only a sample of data from a population is available, the population standard
deviation can be estimated by a modified quantity called the sample standard deviation,
The formula of standard deviation.
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2.0 INTRODUCTION OF TASK
Based on the task had given about statistic, my group are made a research to students
Program Persedian Ijazah Sarjana Muda Semester 3 Design and Technology 1 and 2
about the size of their shoes. We choose this research because this research can
make us easily to find central tendency and measure of dispersion. The data, we put in
table for make us easily to understand the research and we represent it in visual
illustration to make me more understand about the research.
3.0 OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH
To interpret data by using visual illustration.
To compare using central tendency.
To compare using measure of dispersion.
To know the size of shoes students Design and Technology 1 and 2.
4.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Surfing internet.
Collecting the data.
Refer to revision book.
Make the research students.
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5.0 ANALYZED DATA
5.1 TABLE OF DATA
THE TABLE OF THE SIZE OF STUDENTS SHOES 3PPISMP JULAI 2008 INTAKE
DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY 1 AND 2
CLASS / SIZE OF SHOES 4 5 6 7 8 9
S
U
B
T
O
T
A
L
Design and Technology 1 4 5 0 4 4 1
Design and Technology 2 3 5 2 3 1 3
TOTAL OF STUDENTS 7 10 2 7 5 4 35
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5.2 THE CHART OF DATA
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
4 5 6 7 8 9
THETOTALOFSTUDENTS
SIZE OF SHOES
THE SIZE OF SHOES 3PPISMP DT 1 AND DT2
JULAI 08 INTAKE
DT 1
DT2
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5.2.1 DATA UNIT PPISMP RBT 1
MODE
In this research, we can conclude that this data is ungroup data. So, we have arranged
the data in increasing data below;
Ungroup data =4,4,4,4,5,5,5,5,5,7,7,7,7,8,8,8,8,9
The size of shoes that occur most often is 5. So, the mode is 5
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MEAN
The sum of the values divided by the number of values--often called the "average."
Mean =
= the mean for size of shoes for RBT 1 ‗s unit is 6.11
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MEDIAN
We can conclude that this data is ungroup data in this research. So, we have arranged
the data in increasing data below;
Ungroup data =4,4,4,4,5,5,5,5,5,7,7,7,7,8,8,8,8,9
Median =
= 6
So,the median for DT1 is 6.
MEDIAN
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5.2.2 UNIT PPISMP RBT 2
MODE
In this research, we can conclude that this data is ungroup data. So, we have arranged
the data in increasing data below;
Ungroup data =4,4,4,5,5,5,5,5,6,6,7,7,7,8,9,9,9
The size of shoes that occur most often is 5. So, the mode is 5
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MEAN
The sum of the values divided by the number of values--often called the "average."
Mean =
= the mean for size of shoe for RBT 2 ‗s unit is 6.18
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MEDIAN
We can conclude that this data is ungroup data in this research. So, we have arranged
the data in increasing data below;
Ungroup data =4,4,4,5,5,5,5,5,6,6,7,7,7,8,9,9,9
The median size of shoes for unit science is 6 because it‘s position is center
MEDIAN
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6.0 INTERPRETATION
Based on the both data, we can conclude that the value of standard deviation is same.
This is because the majority size of both class almost same. Beside that the age among
the students are almost same. So, that the size of shoes not very different at all.
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REFLECTION
( MOHD FAKHREE HAZREEN BIN AZMI )
I so glad after finished this assignment. At beginning, I feel pressure because
need to search this information in internet to find what is statistic. It is because the
internet line is always busy. I also have a problem to find a suitable research to finish
this coursework. I must think carefully with my group for choose the best research for
easily we find the central tendency and measure of dispersion.
Other information about to find to know what is statistic is that I choose is from
mathematics textbook. I had goes to the library for look a suitable book and take a note
from that and got a few of information. They are many books about the statistic.
Beside that, we had doing a discussion with other friends about the coursework.
Many matter that I discussion with my teamwork and my friends about this assignment
especially about central tendency and measure of dispersion. It is because I want finish
my coursework with the correct way that my lecturer want. We also cooperate to settle
this problem and thank to God because finally we had finished this work with
successfully.
When I doing this assignment, I got gain my knowledge and my skills how to get
the information. I think this experience is very important for me to increase my ability of
this career. Besides that, it also helps me to more understand about the statistic.
Thank you…….
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BIBLIOGRAPHY
INTERNET
http://psychology.about.com/od/mindex/g/mean.htm
http://www.answers.com/topic/arithmetic-mean
http://searchdatacenter.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid80_gci1060882,00.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistics
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_deviation
BOOK
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