Assigment 1

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Assigment 1

  1. 1. 1 CONFESSION PAGE ―I admit this coursework is my own works accept a few of the information and material from sources that I found‖ Signature : ……………………………………………………….. Name : MOHD FAKHREE HAZREEN BIN AZMI Date : Signature : ……………………………………………………….. Name : AHMAD ASYRAF BIN M. SHAIPULAH Date : Signature : ……………………………………………………….. Name : FAHMI BIN MOHD YASIN Date :
  2. 2. 2 APPRECIATION First of all, may we wish a very thank you to my God, Allah The Almighty because of Him I could done my task successfully without any trouble and problem. We hope our work that we had done on time will be accept by our lecturer. Next, we would like to thank our lecturer, Mr. Hazram Bin Ismail had taught and shows me how to complete this task correctly. He also likes to help his student when he saw his student like blur and confuse. Next, we also want to thank my lovely parent. Because of them, we can buy our item and equipments to finish this task with creatively. They also help me and give a moral support to done this task without any problem and tension. Not to be forgetting is our friends and especially to my partners group who has helped me to give their ideas and information that I don‘t know. They all give me support too when we cannot find this task solution how to done it. We hope anyone who read my task will always be happy and understand what we want to carried out in this task. Finally, we hope this task reader will enjoy reading it. Thank you.
  3. 3. 3 CONTENTS CONFESSION PAGE APRECIATION CONTENT TASK 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 MODE 1.2 MEAN 1.3 MEDIAN 1.4 STANDARD DEVIATION 2.0 INTRODUCTION OF TASK 3.0 OBJECTIVE OF RESEARCH 4.0 RESEARCH METHOLOGY 5.0 ANALYZED DATA 5.1 TABLE OF DATA 5.2 THE CHART OF DATA 5.2.1 DATA UNIT PPISMP RBT 1 5.2.2 DATA UNIT PPISMP RBT2 6.0 INTERPRETATION REFLECTIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY
  4. 4. 4 TASK In group of two or three, you have suppose to: i. Write a proposal for your research. Your research proposal should include three items listed below: a) Introduction b) Objectives of research c) Research Methodology The main objective of your research is to make a comparison between two groups regarding realistic issues such as subject preferences, television programmers‘ preferences, spending habit etc. Be sure that your data can be analyzed using measure of central tendency and measure of dispersion. ii. Conduct your research as planned in your proposal after getting some guidance from your lecturer. iii. Analyze the data collected using measure of central tendency and measure of dispersion. iv. Represent your analyzed data using suitable visual representations. v. Write the interpretation of your data based on (3 and 4). vi. Present your research findings in class. vii. Write full report of your accomplished research. Your report should include another three items listed below: a) Data analysis. b) interpretation of the data. c) Reflection on the importance of this coursework for you as a teacher-to-be. Reflection must be written individually.
  5. 5. 5 1.0 INTRODUCTION Statistics is a mathematical science pertaining to the collection, analysis, interpretation or explanation, and presentation of data. Statisticians improve the quality of data with the design of experiments and survey sampling. Statistics also provides tools for prediction and forecasting using data and statistical models. Statistics is applicable to a wide variety of academic disciplines, including natural and social sciences, government, and business. Statistical methods can be used to summarize or describe a collection of data; this is called descriptive statistics. This is useful in research, when communicating the results of experiments. In addition, patterns in the data may be modeled in a way that accounts for randomness and uncertainty in the observations, and are then used to draw inferences about the process or population being studied; this is called inferential statistics. Inference is a vital element of scientific advance, since it provides a prediction (based in data) for where a theory logically leads. To further prove the guiding theory, these predictions are tested as well, as part of the scientific method. If the inference holds true, then the descriptive statistics of the new data increase the soundness of that hypothesis. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (a.k.a., predictive statistics) together comprise applied statistics. There is also a discipline called mathematical statistics, which is concerned with the theoretical basis of the subject. The word statistics can either be singular or plural. In its singular form, statistics refers to the mathematical science discussed in this article. In its plural form, statistics is the plural of the word statistic, which refers to a quantity (such as a mean) calculated from a set of data.
  6. 6. 6 1.1 MODE The mode in a list of numbers refers to the list of numbers that occur most frequently. A trick to remember this one is to remember that mode starts with the same first two letters that most does. Most frequently - Mode. You'll never forget that one! Examples: Find the mode of: 9, 3, 3, 44, 17 , 17, 44, 15, 15, 15, 27, 40, 8, Put the numbers is order for ease: 3, 3, 8, 9, 15, 15, 15, 17, 17, 27, 40, 44, 44, The Mode is 15 (15 occurs the most at 3 times) 1.2 MEAN A numerical value representing the average worth of a set of data. It is calculated by adding together all the values of a set and dividing the total by the number of values. It is quick and easy to calculate, but the presence of an unusually high or low value distorts the mean from a truly central value. Furthermore, it is unreliable when the data set contains only a few values. The mean of grouped data may be established by multiplying the mid-point of each class by the number of observations in each class, summing these figures, and dividing the sum by the total number of values in the data set. Example: Four tests results: 15, 18, 22, 20 The sum is: 75 Divide 75 by 4: 18.75 The 'Mean' (Average) is 18.75 (Often rounded to 19)
  7. 7. 7 1.3 MEDIAN The Median is the 'middle value' in your list. When the totals of the list are odd, the median is the middle entry in the list after sorting the list into increasing order. When the totals of the list are even, the median is equal to the sum of the two middle (after sorting the list into increasing order) numbers divided by two. Thus, remember to line up your values, the middle number is the median! Be sure to remember the odd and even rule. Examples: Find the Median of: 9, 3, 44, 17, 15 (Odd amount of numbers) Line up your numbers: 3, 9, 15, 17, 44 (smallest to largest) The Median is: 15 (The number in the middle) Find the Median of: 8, 3, 44, 17, 12, 6 (Even amount of numbers) Line up your numbers: 3, 6, 8, 12, 17, 44 Add the 2 middles numbers and divide by 2: 8 12 = 20 ÷ 2 = 10 The Median is 10. 1.4 STANDARD DEVIATION In probability theory and statistics, standard deviation is a measure of the variability or dispersion of a statistical community, a data set, or a probability distribution. A low standard deviation indicates that the data points tend to be very close to the mean, whereas high standard deviation indicates that the data are spread out over a large range of values. For example, the average height for adult men in the United States is about 70 inches (178 cm), with a standard deviation of around 3 in (8 cm). This means that most men (about 68 percent, assuming a normal distribution) have a height within 3 in (8 cm) of the mean (67–73 in (170–185 cm)), whereas almost all men (about 95%) have a height within 6 in (15 cm) of the mean (64–76 in (163–193 cm)). If the standard deviation were zero, then all men would be exactly 70 in (178 cm) high. If the standard deviation were 20 in (51 cm), then men would have much more variable heights, with a typical range of about 50 to 90 in (127 to 229 cm). In addition to expressing the variability of a population, standard deviation is commonly used to measure confidence in statistical conclusions. For example, the margin of error in polling data is determined by calculating the expected standard deviation in the results if the same poll were to be conducted multiple times. The reported margin of error is typically about twice the standard deviation – the radius of a 95% confidence interval. In science, researchers commonly report the standard deviation of experimental data, and only effects that fall far outside the range of standard deviation are considered statistically significant—normal random error or variation in the measurements is in this way distinguished from causal variation. Standard deviation is
  8. 8. 8 also important in finance, where the standard deviation on the rate of return on an investment is a measure of the volatility of the investment. The term standard deviation was first used in writing by Karl Pearson in 1894, following his use of it in lectures. This was as a replacement for earlier alternative names for the same idea: for example Gauss used "mean error". A useful property of standard deviation is that, unlike variance, it is expressed in the same units as the data. When only a sample of data from a population is available, the population standard deviation can be estimated by a modified quantity called the sample standard deviation, The formula of standard deviation.
  9. 9. 9 2.0 INTRODUCTION OF TASK Based on the task had given about statistic, my group are made a research to students Program Persedian Ijazah Sarjana Muda Semester 3 Design and Technology 1 and 2 about the size of their shoes. We choose this research because this research can make us easily to find central tendency and measure of dispersion. The data, we put in table for make us easily to understand the research and we represent it in visual illustration to make me more understand about the research. 3.0 OBJECTIVES OF RESEARCH To interpret data by using visual illustration. To compare using central tendency. To compare using measure of dispersion. To know the size of shoes students Design and Technology 1 and 2. 4.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Surfing internet. Collecting the data. Refer to revision book. Make the research students.
  10. 10. 10 5.0 ANALYZED DATA 5.1 TABLE OF DATA THE TABLE OF THE SIZE OF STUDENTS SHOES 3PPISMP JULAI 2008 INTAKE DESIGN AND TECHNOLOGY 1 AND 2 CLASS / SIZE OF SHOES 4 5 6 7 8 9 S U B T O T A L Design and Technology 1 4 5 0 4 4 1 Design and Technology 2 3 5 2 3 1 3 TOTAL OF STUDENTS 7 10 2 7 5 4 35
  11. 11. 11 5.2 THE CHART OF DATA 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 4 5 6 7 8 9 THETOTALOFSTUDENTS SIZE OF SHOES THE SIZE OF SHOES 3PPISMP DT 1 AND DT2 JULAI 08 INTAKE DT 1 DT2
  12. 12. 12 5.2.1 DATA UNIT PPISMP RBT 1 MODE In this research, we can conclude that this data is ungroup data. So, we have arranged the data in increasing data below; Ungroup data =4,4,4,4,5,5,5,5,5,7,7,7,7,8,8,8,8,9 The size of shoes that occur most often is 5. So, the mode is 5
  13. 13. 13 MEAN The sum of the values divided by the number of values--often called the "average." Mean = = the mean for size of shoes for RBT 1 ‗s unit is 6.11
  14. 14. 14 MEDIAN We can conclude that this data is ungroup data in this research. So, we have arranged the data in increasing data below; Ungroup data =4,4,4,4,5,5,5,5,5,7,7,7,7,8,8,8,8,9 Median = = 6 So,the median for DT1 is 6. MEDIAN
  15. 15. 15 STANDARD DEVIATION: Mean=6.11 As example: x=4 2 4 4.4521 4 4.4521 4 4.4521 4 4.4521 5 1.2321 5 1.2321 5 1.2321 5 1.2321 5 1.2321 7 0.7921 7 0.7921 7 0.7921 7 0.7921 8 3.5721 8 3.5721 8 3.5721 8 3.5721 9 8.3521 ∑ 2 49.7778
  16. 16. 16
  17. 17. 17 5.2.2 UNIT PPISMP RBT 2 MODE In this research, we can conclude that this data is ungroup data. So, we have arranged the data in increasing data below; Ungroup data =4,4,4,5,5,5,5,5,6,6,7,7,7,8,9,9,9 The size of shoes that occur most often is 5. So, the mode is 5
  18. 18. 18 MEAN The sum of the values divided by the number of values--often called the "average." Mean = = the mean for size of shoe for RBT 2 ‗s unit is 6.18
  19. 19. 19 MEDIAN We can conclude that this data is ungroup data in this research. So, we have arranged the data in increasing data below; Ungroup data =4,4,4,5,5,5,5,5,6,6,7,7,7,8,9,9,9 The median size of shoes for unit science is 6 because it‘s position is center MEDIAN
  20. 20. 20 STANDARD DEVIATION: Mean=6.18 As example: x=4 2 4 4.7524 4 4.7524 4 4.7524 5 1.3924 5 1.3924 5 1.3924 5 1.3924 5 1.3924 6 0.0324 6 0.0324 7 0.6724 7 0.6724 7 0.6724 8 3.3124 9 7.9524 9 7.9524 9 7.9524 ∑ 2 50.4708
  21. 21. 21
  22. 22. 22 6.0 INTERPRETATION Based on the both data, we can conclude that the value of standard deviation is same. This is because the majority size of both class almost same. Beside that the age among the students are almost same. So, that the size of shoes not very different at all.
  23. 23. 23 REFLECTION ( MOHD FAKHREE HAZREEN BIN AZMI ) I so glad after finished this assignment. At beginning, I feel pressure because need to search this information in internet to find what is statistic. It is because the internet line is always busy. I also have a problem to find a suitable research to finish this coursework. I must think carefully with my group for choose the best research for easily we find the central tendency and measure of dispersion. Other information about to find to know what is statistic is that I choose is from mathematics textbook. I had goes to the library for look a suitable book and take a note from that and got a few of information. They are many books about the statistic. Beside that, we had doing a discussion with other friends about the coursework. Many matter that I discussion with my teamwork and my friends about this assignment especially about central tendency and measure of dispersion. It is because I want finish my coursework with the correct way that my lecturer want. We also cooperate to settle this problem and thank to God because finally we had finished this work with successfully. When I doing this assignment, I got gain my knowledge and my skills how to get the information. I think this experience is very important for me to increase my ability of this career. Besides that, it also helps me to more understand about the statistic. Thank you…….
  24. 24. 24 REFLECTION (AHMAD ASYRAF BIN M. SHAIPULAH)
  25. 25. 25 REFLECTION (FAHMI BIN MOHD YASIN)
  26. 26. 26 BIBLIOGRAPHY INTERNET http://psychology.about.com/od/mindex/g/mean.htm http://www.answers.com/topic/arithmetic-mean http://searchdatacenter.techtarget.com/sDefinition/0,,sid80_gci1060882,00.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Statistics http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_deviation BOOK

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