Upcoming SlideShare
×

# Physics chapter 12

1,397

Published on

Thermal Energy Notes

0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
• Full Name
Comment goes here.

Are you sure you want to Yes No
• Be the first to comment

• Be the first to like this

Views
Total Views
1,397
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
15
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

### Physics chapter 12

1. 1. Chapter 12 Thermal Energy
2. 2. Thermal Energy <ul><li>The thermal energy of an object is the sum of K.E. and P.E. of the internal motion of the particles that make up an object; it is dependent on mass </li></ul><ul><li>The temperature of an object is the measure of how hot something is on a defined scale; this is the kinetic energy per molecule of an object; not dependent on mass </li></ul>
3. 3. Thermal Energy <ul><li>When a cold object meets a hot object, the cold molecules speed up and the hot molecules slow down until they reach thermal equilibrium. (Zero’th Law of Thermodynamics) </li></ul>
4. 4. Temperature Conversions <ul><li>F = 1.8C + 32 </li></ul><ul><li>C = 5/9 (F-32) </li></ul><ul><li>K = C + 273.15 </li></ul><ul><li>Farenheit Celcius Kelvin </li></ul>
5. 5. Physical States of Matter
6. 6. 6 States of Matter <ul><li>0. Einstein-Bose – no motion (no heat) </li></ul><ul><li>1. Solid – definite shape and volume </li></ul><ul><li>2. Liquid – definite volume and indefinite shape </li></ul><ul><li>3. Gas – indefinite shape and volume </li></ul><ul><li>4. Plasma – gaseous mixture of positively and negatively charged particles </li></ul><ul><li>5. Filament – non thermal motion in only one direction </li></ul>
7. 7. Heat <ul><li>The energy that flows as a result of a temperature difference: heat always flows from warmer regions to cooler regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Specific Heat – amount of energy needed to raise or lower the temperature of a 1kg mass 1 degree Celsius </li></ul><ul><li>Q = mC ∆T </li></ul>
8. 8. Heat – Filter paper with and with out water
9. 9. 3 Types of Heat Transfer <ul><li>Conduction ( requires contact ) – transfer of K.E. when particles of an object collide </li></ul><ul><li>Convection ( requires mass flow ) – transfer of heat through movement of fluids with different densities at different temperatures. </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation ( fastest ) – transfer of heat through space by electromagnetic waves </li></ul>
10. 10. 3 Types of Heat Transfer
11. 11. Heat of Fusion <ul><li>The amount of energy needed to melt or freeze 1kg of a substance. (The phase changes, but the temperature does not) </li></ul><ul><li>Q = mH f </li></ul>
12. 12. Heat of Vaporization <ul><li>The amount of energy needed to vaporize or condense 1 kg of a substance (The phase changes but the temperature does not) </li></ul><ul><li>Q = mH v </li></ul>
13. 13. Heating and Cooling <ul><li>Vaporization – cooling process because the faster moving molecules are escaping and leaving the cooler, slower molecules behind. </li></ul><ul><li>Condensation – warming process because as the molecules condense more collisions occur, causing the object to gain heat. </li></ul>
14. 14. Thermal Expansion <ul><li>In general, most things will expand when heated and contract when cooled. </li></ul><ul><li>Linear Expansion </li></ul><ul><li>L = L i + ∆L </li></ul><ul><li>∆ L = α L i ∆T </li></ul><ul><li>Volume Expansion </li></ul><ul><li>V = V i + ∆V </li></ul><ul><li>∆ V = β V i ∆T </li></ul>
15. 15. Natural Resources <ul><li>Sunlight (Solar-power) <1% </li></ul><ul><li>Wind (Wind-power) 1% </li></ul><ul><li>Rain (Hydro-power) 6% </li></ul><ul><li>Tides (Tidal-power, ocean currents) <1% </li></ul><ul><li>Wave (Wave-power, surface waves) <1% </li></ul><ul><li>Geothermal Heat (Geothermal-power)<1% </li></ul>
16. 16. Solar & Wind & Tidal & Wave Power
17. 17. Other Natural Resources <ul><li>Fossil fuels / Biomass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Non-renewable - Coal & Petroleum 86%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Non-renewable - Nuclear 6%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Somewhat renewable - Wood) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bio-fuel (Renewable plants used as fuel) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. E-10 gasoline </li></ul></ul>
18. 18. Non-renewable energy sources <ul><li>Natural gas (Methane) – CH 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Propane – C 3 H 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Coal </li></ul><ul><li>Oil, petroleum </li></ul><ul><li>Uranium – Nuclear </li></ul>
19. 19. Solar & Wind & Tidal & Wave Power <ul><li>Advantages – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very low emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tidal and Wave - Cost of harnessing & building system (1 st slated for 2012?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar & Wind not continuous (Cost of storing) </li></ul></ul>
20. 20. Hydro Power <ul><li>Advantages – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological effect on rivers and streams </li></ul></ul>
21. 21. Natural Gas & Propane & Coal & Petroleum & Nuclear <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Readily available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively low cost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal & Petroleum & Natural gas & propane (Emissions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear (Storage or disposal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of nuclear waste) </li></ul></ul>
22. 22. Wood & Plant Fuels <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Somewhat easy to replenish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethanol (plant) fuels have to be replenished adequately, otherwise this drives up cost of foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wood has to be re-grown and harvested wisely, otherwise this drives up costs of wood </li></ul></ul>
1. #### A particular slide catching your eye?

Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.