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Physics ch 13

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Ch 13 Notes

Ch 13 Notes

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  • 1. States of Matter - Fluids Ch 13
  • 2. Pressure
    • Force per unit area
    • P = F / A
    • units are N/m 2 = 1 Pascal (Pa)
    • Atmospheric Pressure – pressure exerted by the air above us
    • At sea level the atmosperic pressure =
    • 101300 Pa = 1 atm = 14.7 lb/in 2 = 760 mmHg
  • 3. Pascal’s Principle
    • Pressure applied to a confined fluid increases the pressure throughout by the same amount
    • F 1 /A 1 = F 2 /A 2
    • Example: Hydraulic Jack
  • 4. Density
    • Ratio of mass to volume of a substance
    • ρ =m/v
    • Units are kg/m 3
    • Density of water is 1 g/cm3 (1000 kg/m 3 )
  • 5. Fluid Pressure
    • The pressure exerted by a fluid is the weight density of the fluid times the depth
    • P = ρ g h
  • 6. Bernoulli’s Principle
    • As the velocity of a fluid increases the pressure exerted by the fluid decreases
    • Example: Airplane wing
  • 7. Archimedes’ Principle
    • The buoyant force on a body immersed in a fluid is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by that object.
    • 2 Cases
    • If the object floats (it is less dense than the fluid) then the buoyant force equals the weight of the object; F B = m o g
    • If the object sinks then the buoyant force equals the weight of the fluid displaced; F B = ρ F g V
  • 8. Building Upon Archimedes’ Principle
    • If the weight is greater than the buoyant force the object will sink.
    • The apparent weight in the fluid can be found as follows:
    • W app = W o – F buoyant
    • If the object is floating the percentage submerged below the fluid surface can be found as follows:
    • % Submerged = (  ) object X 100 (  ) fluid

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