Female reproductive systems

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Female reproductive systems

  1. 1. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS
  2. 2. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Components Functions <ul><li>Ovary </li></ul><ul><li>Oviduct </li></ul><ul><li>Uterus </li></ul><ul><li>Vagina </li></ul><ul><li>External genitalia </li></ul><ul><li>Breasts </li></ul>
  3. 3. Components Functions Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast <ul><li>Produce oocyte (female gamete) </li></ul><ul><li>Hold a fertilized oocyte during its complete development through embryonic and fetal stages until birth </li></ul><ul><li>Produce hormones that control organs of the reproductive system and have influences on other organs of the body </li></ul>
  4. 4. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Oogenesis Ovarian follicles Ovulation Corpus luteum & interstitial cells <ul><li>Surface covered by simple squamous or cuboidal cells – germinal epithelium (GE) </li></ul><ul><li>Under GE – layer of dense connective tissue – tunica albuginea (TA) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Oogenesis Ovarian follicles Ovulation Corpus luteum & interstitial cells <ul><li>Under TA – cortex – follicles containing oocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Follicles embedded in stroma composed of characteristic spindle-shaped fibroblasts </li></ul><ul><li>Most internal part – medulla – rich vascular bed within a loose connective tissue </li></ul>
  6. 6. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Oogenesis Ovarian follicles Ovulation Corpus luteum & interstitial cells
  7. 7. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Oogenesis Ovarian follicles Ovulation Corpus luteum & interstitial cells <ul><li>1 st month of embryonic life – migration of primordial germ cells from yolk sac to ovary </li></ul><ul><li>Divide and transform into oogonia </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd month – oogonia enter prophase of 1 st meiosis but stop at the diplotene stage as primary oocytes – become surrounded by flattened follicular cells </li></ul>
  8. 8. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Oogenesis Ovarian follicles Ovulation Corpus luteum & interstitial cells <ul><li>Consists of an oocyte surrounded by one or more layers of follicular cells or granulosa cells </li></ul><ul><li>Different stages of maturation of follicles are </li></ul><ul><li>Primordial </li></ul><ul><li>Unilaminar primary </li></ul><ul><li>Multilaminar primary </li></ul><ul><li>Antral </li></ul><ul><li>Mature (Graafian) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Oogenesis Ovarian follicles Ovulation Corpus luteum & interstitial cells <ul><li>Consists of an oocyte surrounded by one or more layers of follicular cells or granulosa cells </li></ul><ul><li>Different stages of maturation of follicles are </li></ul><ul><li>Primordial </li></ul><ul><li>Unilaminar primary </li></ul><ul><li>Multilaminar primary </li></ul><ul><li>Antral </li></ul><ul><li>Mature (Graafian) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Oogenesis Ovarian follicles Ovulation Corpus luteum & interstitial cells <ul><li>Primordial follicle </li></ul><ul><li>Formed during fetal life </li></ul><ul><li>Found in superficial cortex </li></ul><ul><li>A primary oocyte (spherical) with large nucleus and prominent nucleolus </li></ul><ul><li>Enveloped by a single layer of flattened follicular cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cells are in the first prophase of meiosis </li></ul>
  11. 11. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Oogenesis Ovarian follicles Ovulation Corpus luteum & interstitial cells Primary follicle Unilaminar Multilaminar (preantral) Single layer Stratified of follicular cuboidal epithelium Zona pellucida ( a thick amorphous layer of glycoprotein covering the oocyte)
  12. 12. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Oogenesis Ovarian follicles Ovulation Corpus luteum & interstitial cells
  13. 13. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Oogenesis Ovarian follicles Ovulation Corpus luteum & interstitial cells <ul><li>Secondary follicle </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in size and number of granulosa cells </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid (liquor folliculi) begins to accumulate between follicular cells </li></ul>
  14. 14. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Oogenesis Ovarian follicles Ovulation Corpus luteum & interstitial cells <ul><li>Secondary follicle </li></ul><ul><li>Granulosa cells reorganize themselves to form a larger cavity – the antrum </li></ul>
  15. 15. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Oogenesis Ovarian follicles Ovulation Corpus luteum & interstitial cells <ul><li>Secondary follicle </li></ul><ul><li>Some cells concentrate at a certain point on the follicular wall – cumulus oophorus </li></ul>
  16. 16. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Oogenesis Ovarian follicles Ovulation Corpus luteum & interstitial cells Secondary follicle 5. A group of cells concentrate around the oocyte and form the corona radiata
  17. 17. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Oogenesis Ovarian follicles Ovulation Corpus luteum & interstitial cells Secondary follicle Fibroblasts of the stroma differentiate to form theca folliculi (TF) Theca Theca Interna Externa Androste- Fibroblasts nedione Aromatase (GC) Estrogen
  18. 18. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Oogenesis Ovarian follicles Ovulation Corpus luteum & interstitial cells <ul><li>Mature follicle </li></ul><ul><li>During each cycle one follicle matures more than others </li></ul><ul><li>Protrudes from surface of ovary and can be detected by USG </li></ul><ul><li>Follicular cavity increases in size and oocyte adheres to the wall of the follicle </li></ul>
  19. 19. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Oogenesis Ovarian follicles Ovulation Corpus luteum & interstitial cells <ul><li>Rupture of part of wall of mature follicle and liberation of oocyte </li></ul><ul><li>Takes place around the 14 th day of menstrual cycle </li></ul><ul><li>In human, usually 1 oocyte liberated by ovary during each cycle </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus for ovulation is a surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) secreted by anterior pituitary </li></ul><ul><li>The 1 st meiotic division is completed just before ovulation – one of the secondary oocytes retain most of the cytoplasm – the other becomes the 1 st polar body </li></ul><ul><li>The oocyte and the 1 st polar body, enclosed by zona pellucida, the corona radiata enter the oviduct (uterine tube) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Oogenesis Ovarian follicles Ovulation Corpus luteum & interstitial cells LH surge Blood flow through ovary Plasma protein leakage Edema Local release of prostaglandins , histamine , vasopressin and collagenase Pressure Collagen degradation of of follicular tunica albuginea fluid Ischemia & death of cells Rupture of outer follicular wall and ovulation
  21. 21. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Oogenesis Ovarian follicles Ovulation Corpus luteum & interstitial cells <ul><li>After ovulation, granulosa cells and cells of theca interna form a temporary endocrine gland </li></ul><ul><li>GC cells increase in size </li></ul><ul><li>granulosa lutein cells </li></ul><ul><li>Cells of theca interna </li></ul><ul><li>theca lutein cells </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded within the cortex </li></ul>
  22. 22. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Oogenesis Ovarian follicles Ovulation Corpus luteum & interstitial cells <ul><li>Release of follicular fluid </li></ul><ul><li>collapse of follicular wall </li></ul><ul><li>folded walls </li></ul><ul><li>Blood flows into cavity and clots </li></ul><ul><li>Connective tissue invades cavity </li></ul><ul><li>Blood capillaries and lymphatics form a rich vascular network </li></ul>
  23. 23. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Oogenesis Ovarian follicles Ovulation Corpus luteum & interstitial cells <ul><li>Reorganization results from stimulus by LH released before ovulation </li></ul><ul><li>Secrete progesterone and estrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Programmed to secrete for 12-14 days </li></ul>
  24. 24. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Oogenesis Ovarian follicles Ovulation Corpus luteum & interstitial cells <ul><li>If no pregnancy, cells degenerate by apoptosis , phagocytosed by macrophages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibroblasts invade produce a scar of dense connective tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>corpus albicans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If pregnancy – HCG maintains the CL – persists for 4-5 months - degenerates – corpus albicans </li></ul>
  25. 25. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Oogenesis Ovarian follicles Ovulation Corpus luteum & interstitial cells Pituitary hormones control most ovarian functions
  26. 26. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Oogenesis Ovarian follicles Ovulation Corpus luteum & interstitial cells <ul><li>Follicular atresia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cessation of mitosis of GC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detachment of GC from basal lamina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death of oocyte </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phagocytosis of the debris by macrophages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interstitial cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Persistent theca interna cells following atresia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present from childhood through menopause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active steroid secreting cells, stimulated by LH </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Oogenesis Ovarian follicles Ovulation Corpus luteum & interstitial cells Follicular atresia
  28. 28. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Parts Structure Function <ul><li>4 parts </li></ul><ul><li>Infundibulum </li></ul><ul><li>Ampulla </li></ul><ul><li>Isthmus </li></ul><ul><li>Pars uterina tubae (intramural part) </li></ul><ul><li>2 ostia </li></ul><ul><li>Uterine ostium </li></ul><ul><li>Pelvic or abdominal ostium (Fimbriae) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Parts Structure Function <ul><li>Layers </li></ul><ul><li>Mucosa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longitudinal folds most numerous in ampulla </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple columnar epithelium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 types of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ciliated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secretory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intercalary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lamina propria composed of loose connective tissue </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Parts Structure Function
  31. 31. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Parts Structure Function <ul><li>Layers </li></ul><ul><li>Thick muscularis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outer longitudinal and inner circular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intramural part, innermost longitudinal layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circular muscle abundant at isthmus – anatomical sphincter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Serosa (visceral peritoneum) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Parts Structure Function <ul><li>At ovulation, oviduct exhibits active movement . </li></ul><ul><li>The funnel-shaped extremity (fringed with numerous fimbriae ) comes very close to surface of ovary. </li></ul><ul><li>This favors the transport of oocyte into the tube. </li></ul><ul><li>Promoted by muscle contraction and activity of ciliated cells , oocyte traverses the tube. </li></ul><ul><li>Secretion of the epithelium has nutrient and protective functions for the oocyte . </li></ul><ul><li>The secretion also promotes capacitation of the spermatozoa. </li></ul><ul><li>Fertilization usually occurs at ampulla. </li></ul>
  33. 33. BREAK
  34. 34. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Myometrium Endometrium Cycle Proliferative phase Secretory phase Menstrual phase Cervix <ul><li>Parts </li></ul><ul><li>Fundus </li></ul><ul><li>Body </li></ul><ul><li>Cervix </li></ul><ul><li>Layers of the wall </li></ul><ul><li>Perimetrium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serosa (mesothelium) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adventitia (connective tissue) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Myometrium </li></ul><ul><li>Endometrium </li></ul>
  35. 35. Structure Myometrium Endometrium Cycle Proliferative phase Secretory phase Menstrual phase Cervix Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast <ul><li>Bundles of smooth muscles </li></ul><ul><li>4 layers </li></ul><ul><li>1 st and 4 th layers – longitudinal </li></ul><ul><li>Middle layers – circular – stratum vasculare </li></ul><ul><li>Endometrial vessels pass through inner layer – stops uterine bleeding on contraction – living ligature of uterus </li></ul><ul><li>During puberty, growth of the myometrium is stimulated by estrogen </li></ul><ul><li>During pregnancy, hypertrophy ( increase in cell size – placental estrogen ) and hyperplasia ( increase in cell number – mitosis of undifferentiated mesenchymal cells ) of myometrium </li></ul>
  36. 36. Structure Myometrium Endometrium Cycle Proliferative phase Secretory phase Menstrual phase Cervix Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast <ul><li>Epithelium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple columnar cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ciliated mostly before reproductive age group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lamina propria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple tubular glands lined with simple columnar epithelium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connective tissue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fibroblasts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collagen type III fibres </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abundant ground substance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Structure Myometrium Endometrium Cycle Proliferative phase Secretory phase Menstrual phase Cervix Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast <ul><li>Zona basalis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deepest one adjacent to myometrium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains lamina propria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginning of uterine glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplied by straight arteries (branch from arcuate arteries) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Zona functionalis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remaining of the lamina propria and glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface epithelium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplied by spiral arteries (branch from arcuate arteries) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undergoes profound changes and shed during menstrual cycles </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Structure Myometrium Endometrium Cycle Proliferative phase Secretory phase Menstrual phase Cervix Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast <ul><li>Menstrual cycle – cyclic structural modifications of the endometrium influenced by ovarian hormones under the stimulus of anterior pituitary gland after puberty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration – 28 days (average) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Menstruation – monthly discharge per vagina consisting of degenerated endothelium mixed with blood from ruptures vessels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration – 3-4 days (average) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Menarche – initiation of menstruation (age 12-15 years) </li></ul><ul><li>Menopause – cessation of menstruation (age 45-50 years) </li></ul>
  39. 39. Structure Myometrium Endometrium Cycle Proliferative phase Secretory phase Menstrual phase Cervix Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast <ul><li>Menstrual cycle – begins on the day when menstrual bleeding appears (Day 1) </li></ul><ul><li>Phases of the cycle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proliferative phase ( variable duration, approximately 10 days) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretory phase (begins at ovulation and lasts about 14 days) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Menstrual phase (duration 3-4 days on average) </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Structure Myometrium Endometrium Cycle Proliferative phase Secretory phase Menstrual phase Cervix Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast <ul><li>FSH stimulates rapid growth of ovarian follicles </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant follicles reach preovulatory stage </li></ul><ul><li>Estrogen is the dominant ovarian hormone </li></ul><ul><li>Endometrial changes : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell proliferation (0.5mm-3mm) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covered by simple columnar epithelium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glands are straight tubules with narrow lumens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells accumulate more RER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Golgi complex increase in size </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Structure Myometrium Endometrium Cycle Proliferative phase Secretory phase Menstrual phase Cervix Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast <ul><li>Endometrial changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell proliferation (0.5mm-3mm) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covered by simple columnar epithelium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glands are straight tubules with narrow lumens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cells accumulate more RER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Golgi complex increase in size </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Structure Myometrium Endometrium Cycle Proliferative phase Secretory phase Menstrual phase Cervix Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast <ul><li>Peak of LH </li></ul><ul><li>Ovulation / development of CL / degeneration of CL (in absence of pregnancy) </li></ul><ul><li>Progesterone is the dominant hormone (production ceases in absence of pregnancy) </li></ul><ul><li>Endometrial changes : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum thickness (5 mm) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glands become highly coiled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glandular epithelial cells begin to accumulate glycogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycoprotein secretory products dilate the lumen of the glands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implantation of embryo at this stage </li></ul>
  43. 43. Structure Myometrium Endometrium Cycle Proliferative phase Secretory phase Menstrual phase Cervix Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast <ul><li>Endometrial changes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum thickness (5 mm) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glands become highly coiled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glandular epithelial cells begin to accumulate glycogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycoprotein secretory products dilate the lumen of the glands </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Structure Myometrium Endometrium Cycle Proliferative phase Secretory phase Menstrual phase Cervix Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast In absence of pregnancy, CL ceases to function 10-12 days after ovulation Levels of progesterone and estrogen in blood falls rapidly Several cycles of contraction of spiral arteries , closing off blood flow Ischemic necrosis of vessel walls and functionalis layer of endometrium Rupture of blood vessels and bleeding Endometrium reduced to a thin layer
  45. 45. Structure Myometrium Endometrium Cycle Proliferative phase Secretory phase Menstrual phase Cervix Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast <ul><li>Differs from the rest of the uterus in </li></ul><ul><li>Mucus secreting simple columnar epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Extensively branched glands </li></ul><ul><li>Mucosa does not undergo remarkable changes during the menstrual cycle and does not desquamate during menstruation </li></ul><ul><li>External aspect that bulges into lumen of vagina is covered with stratified squamous epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly (85%) dense connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer smooth muscle cells </li></ul>
  46. 46. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure <ul><li>Mucosa </li></ul><ul><li>Devoid of glands </li></ul><ul><li>Stratified squamous epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>Cells may contain a small amount of keratohyalin </li></ul><ul><li>Intense keratinization does not occur </li></ul>
  47. 47. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure <ul><li>Mucosa </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesizes and accumulates a large amount of glycogen , under estrogen stimulation </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria metabolize glycogen to form lactic acid – low pH </li></ul>
  48. 48. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure <ul><li>Lamina propria </li></ul><ul><li>Loose connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Rich in elastic fibres </li></ul><ul><li>Lymphocytes and neutrophils in large quantities </li></ul><ul><li>Devoid of sensory nerve endings , few pain receptors </li></ul>
  49. 49. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure <ul><li>Muscle layer </li></ul><ul><li>Longitudinal bundles </li></ul><ul><li>Some circular bundles (inner) </li></ul><ul><li>Adventitia </li></ul><ul><li>Dense connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Rich in elastic fibres </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive venous plexus, nerve bundles </li></ul>
  50. 50. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Development Pregnancy & Lactation Post-lactational regression <ul><li>15-25 lobes of compound alveolar type of gland </li></ul><ul><li>Each lobe separated from others by dense connective tissue and much adipose tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Each lobe drained by one lactiferous duct </li></ul><ul><li>Each lactiferous duct emerge independently in the nipple </li></ul>
  51. 51. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Development Pregnancy & Lactation Post-lactational regression Before puberty : lactiferous sinus and lactiferous ducts In girls during puberty – breasts enlarge – accumulation of adipose tissue and connective tissue , increased growth and branching of lactiferous ducts (estrogenic)
  52. 52. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Development Pregnancy & Lactation Post-lactational regression Adult women – lobes develop at the tips of the smallest ducts embedded in loose connective tissue A lobe consists of several ducts that empty into one terminal duct
  53. 53. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Development Pregnancy & Lactation Post-lactational regression Near the opening of nipple, the lactiferous ducts dilate to form lactiferous sinuses lined by stratified squamous epithelium at their external openings that changes to stratified columnar or cuboidal proximally . Lining of lactiferous ducts and terminal ducts is formed of simple cuboidal epithelium with closely packed myoepithelial cells .
  54. 54. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Development Pregnancy & Lactation Post-lactational regression Connective tissue surrounding alveoli contains many lymphocytes and plasma cells (increase at end of pregnancy – secrete IgA ) Nipple – externally covered by keratinized stratified squamous epithelium Abundant sensory nerve endings Areola – skin around the nipple – darkens during pregnancy
  55. 55. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Development Pregnancy & Lactation Post-lactational regression <ul><li>Pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>Undergo intense growth under influence of estrogen, progesterone, prolactin and HPL </li></ul><ul><li>Proliferation of alveoli at the ends of terminal ducts </li></ul><ul><li>Fat droplets and secretory vacuoles (containing milk protein) seen in cytoplasm of alveolar cells </li></ul><ul><li>Stellate myoepithelial cells found </li></ul>
  56. 56. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Development Pregnancy & Lactation Post-lactational regression <ul><li>Lactation </li></ul><ul><li>Milk is produced by epithelial cells of alveoli </li></ul><ul><li>Accumulate in their lumen and ducts </li></ul><ul><li>Secretory cells become low cuboidal </li></ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm contains spherical triglyceride droplets </li></ul><ul><li>Large number of membrane-bound vacuoles containing milk proteins (casein, α- lactalbumin, IgA) </li></ul>
  57. 57. Overview Ovary Oviduct Uterus Vagina Breast Structure Development Pregnancy & Lactation Post-lactational regression Weaning (cessation of breast-feeding) Alveoli undergo degeneration through apoptosis Sloughing of whole cells Autophagy of cellular components Dead cells and debris removed by macrophages
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