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Acquired immunity
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Acquired immunity

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  • We will focus on adaptive responses. All these feature of an adaptive response require very specific interactions of molecules. Will describe B and T cells and their roles. Immunological memory - vaccination
  • The important difference between B and T cells is how they can recognize antigens.
  • • Antibody producing, have membrane bound antibodies, proliferation......., memory – plasma, point out the molecular interactions.
  • • Has a T-cell receptor – only recognition of antigens together with MHC molecules. Explain how this work and the difference between class I and class II molecules. Point out the importance of molecular interaction. Explain how Th cells can help B cells - drawing
  • Draw the pictures!!!!
  • Transcript

    • 1. Acquired Immunity
    • 2. The immune system Immune system
      • Anatomic barriers (Skin, mucous membranes)
      • Physological barriers (temperature, pH)
      • Phagocytic Barriers (cells that eat invaders)
      • Inflammatory barriers (redness, swelling, heat and pain)
      • Antigen specificity
      • Diversity
      • Immunological memory
      • Self/nonself recognition
      Innate (non-specific) immunity Adaptive (specific) immunity
    • 3. Humoral and cellular immunity (antibody mediated or cellular)
    • 4. B cells B-cell Surface bound antibody Antigen Antibody secreting B cell Soluble antibodies, circculate in the body
    • 5. Plasma cell Virus killed B-cell
    • 6. T cells
      • Two types:
        • Helper T cells (Th): activates other cells
        • Cytotoxic T cells (Tc): can kill other cells
      • T cells can only recognize antigens associated with certain molecules (MHC)
    • 7. Presentation of antigens to T cells
      • Proteins (peptides) from inside the cell are presented by MHC I molecules to Tc cells.
      • Proteins (peptides) from the outside of cells are presented by MHC II molecules to Th cells.
      • MHC I on almost all cells
      • MHC II on specialized antigen-presenting cells
    • 8. ACQUIRED IMMUNITY
      • The resistance that an individual acquires during life
      • Two types :
      • 1. Active Immunity
      • 2. Passive Immunity
      • Active Immunity : Resistance developed as a result of antigenic stimulus
      • Passive Immunity : Resistance transmitted passively in ready made form
    • 9.
      • Active Immunity
      • - Adaptive immunity : Adaptive response of host to specific pathogen or antigen
      • - Active functioning of the host’s immune apparatus, synthesis antibodies and immunologically active cells
      • - Latent period
      • - Negative phase
      • - Long lasting
      • - Secondary response is faster
      • - Immunological memory
      • - More effective and gives better protection
    • 10.
      • Passive Immunity
      • Ready made form of immunity
      • Recipients immune system plays no active role
      • No antigenic stimulus
      • No latent period, protection effective immediately
      • No negative phase
      • Transient , lasting for few weeks to days
      • No secondary response, diminishes with repetition
      • Less effective and Inferior o active immunity
      • Acts immediately and ‘Instant form of Immunity’
    • 11.
      • Active Immunity
      • Natural Active Immunity :
      • - Results from a clinical or inapparent infection by microbe
      • - Measles and Poliomyelitis
      • - Life long following many viral infection
      • - Immunity following bacterial infection is less permanent than viral infections
      • - Premunition : Immunity to re infection lasts till the original infection remain active. Eg: Syphilis
      • - In Chancroid : no effective immunity against re infection even during active infection
      Natural Active Immunity Artificial Active immunity
    • 12.
      • Artificial Active Immunity
      • - Resistance induced by Vaccines – live or killed microorganisms or their products
      • - Live vaccines : Parallels natural infection
      • - Gives protection for a long period
      • - requires booster doses
      • - Killed vaccines : Less immunogenic
      • - Protection lasts for a short period
      • - Repeated doses required
      • - Parenteral administration required to initiate humoral antibody response
    • 13.
      • Passive Immunity
      • Natural passive immunity :
      • - Mother to baby : Maternal antibodies, Colostrum
      • - Immunological independence at 3-6 months
      • - Active immunization of mothers during pregnancy improves the passive immunity in infants
      • - Tetanus toxoid in tetanus prone communities
      Natural Passive Immunity Artificial Passive Immunity
    • 14.
      • Artificial Passive Immunity :
      • Administration of antibodies
      • - Hyper immune sera
      • - Hyper immune globulin
      • - Convalescent sera
      • - Pooled Human gamma globulin
      • Treatment of infections in non immune persons
      • Confers immediate and Temporary protection
      • Suppression of active immunity in Erythroblastosis fetalis
    • 15. Passive Immunity
      • Antibodies are obtained from someone else
        • Conferred naturally from a mother to her foetus
        • Conferred artificially from immune serum or gamma globulin
      • Immunological memory does not occur
      • Protection provided by “borrowed antibodies” is temporary.
    • 16. Active and Passive Immunity/Vaccines Slide 12.34
      • B cells encounter antigens and produce antibodies
      • Active immunity can be naturally or artificially acquired
    • 17.
      • Combined Immunization :
      • Active & Passive
      • Adoptive immunity : Injection of immunologically competent lymphocytes (Transfer factor)
      • Measurement of immunity
      • - Antibody titers by
      • - Agglutination & Precipitation
      • - CFT, HI
      • - NT & ELISA
      • Local Immunity
      • Herd Immunity

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