Audience Theory
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Audience Theory Audience Theory Document Transcript

  • Audience Theory
  • Burton, Hartley and Fiske TheoryFollowing Burton’s theory, for socially grouped audiences, my music magazine audience will be divided depending on gender, age, ethnicity and education. I am planning to aim it at older teenagers and young adults (17- 21) and be targeted at both genders. It will not be directed at a particular ethnicity and although I will not be aiming at an educated audience, the use of formal words and lack of ‘slang’ may possibly present this. Burton’s theory also suggests that an audience is not only socially grouped but media grouped. For media grouped, my target audience will be people that are interested in music of all genres.By using Hartley’s developed idea of how an audience is divided I am planning to follow the following concepts:Self: The aspirations of my audience include being a ‘music-lover’ and interested in upcoming music events and new artists.Gender: My audience will be both male and female.Age group: I want to appeal to old teenagers and young adults therefore my magazine should include features which attract this audience.Fiske adds a further 5 factors which should be considered when identifying an audience such as; education, religion, political, allegiance, region and urban vs rural. For example, when designing a magazine, I could consider what factors might appeal to urban or rural region. Rural regions may prefer to see well known, rich idols featured to inspire towards.
  • Dyer Theory Richard Dyer states that people will respond to a message if it offers them compensation for their inadequacies in their own lives. My target audience could have the inadequacy of feeling isolated and turn to music as part of a way of ‘comforting’ themselves. Therefore my music magazine could offer advice, company and sympathy through the contents. By using an interview or biography on the double page spread, an artist that has experienced situations which the audience may have experience, could offer company and provide advice.This is his ‘Utopian Solutions’ theory:If we tired to fit an anti-smoking campaign to this, there would be clear motives we could offer, based on theory, e.g. gain money, understand the facts, gain energy, join a quit club. Inadequacy Poverty Confusion Exhaustion Isolation Solution Abundance Clarity Energy Community
  • Herbert BlumerWays to describe an audience:• Age• Gender• Culture• Education• Class• RegionHerbert Blumer described “mass audience” in 1950.The mass is very loosely organised and is not able to act with the unity of a crowd.In the second world war, Hitler in Germany and Stalin in Russia attempted to use media as propaganda (through films, radio and poster art), they attempted to persuade mass audiences.A lower and poorer audience may not have enough money for a computer or television so they have to use other media forms such as print and radio but they could access other media forms through public house such as library or pub. It also depends on the reader as they chose what media form they want to use such as an older man may not want to use a computer and a younger girl may not want to read a broadsheet newspaper.Most of my experiences are on my own so I may not be influence until after I received the information.I talk to people after I have received the text so I may be influenced by them and if the same information comes up I would have already been influenced by other people.
  • Generic Conventions and Audience TheoriesWays to describe an audience:• Age• Gender• Culture• Education• Class• RegionHerbert Blumer described “mass audience” in 1950.The mass is very loosely organised and is not able to act with the unity of a crowd.In the second world war, Hitler in Germany and Stalin in Russia attempted to use media as propaganda (through films, radio and poster art), they attempted to persuade mass audiences.A lower and poorer audience may not have enough money for a computer or television so they have to use other media forms such as print and radio but they could access other media forms through public house such as library or pub. It also depends on the reader as they chose what media form they want to use such as an older man may not want to use a computer and a younger girl may not want to read a broadsheet newspaper.
  • Most of my experiences are on my own so I may not be influenceuntil after I received the information.I talk to people after I have received the text so I may be influencedby them and if the same information comes up I would have alreadybeen influenced by other people.Following Burton’s theory, for socially grouped audiences, my musicmagazine audience will be divided depending on gender, age,ethnicity and education. I am creating an urban (Grime, Rap, DnB)magazine so the stereotypical audience would be adolescent (13-20)black males from a lower background and education but other peoplefrom different ethnicity, age, gender and class may listen to this musicand therefore read this magazine.The stereotypical representation of the grime genre would typically bean audience of lower class with interest in rap music similar to acrime culture, this could come from their role models and idols beingfootballers or rap ‘gangsta’ without having a family father figure tolook up to.Generic conventions of the grime genre mise-en-scene would bedifferent depending on the artist and how would like to be portrayed tothe audience. Their clothes would generically be dark, negativecoloured hoodies and baggy jeans with matching trainers, usuallywearing gold chains and sun glasses to show their wealth. The use offormal words and lack of ‘slang’ may possibly present this. Burton’stheory also suggests that an audience is not only socially grouped butmedia grouped. For media grouped, my target audience will bepeople that are interested in music of all genres. The media types Ican use could be the internet, magazines, television and mayberadio. The internet would be my main media type as it is accessiblewherever and whenever where as radio can be used mainly within ina car. I could use television to advertise my magazine with adverts.Through product research the main colours or an urban magazinewould be black, red and parts of white. The main artist on the frontcover will have medium/close up shot of their face to show facialemotion; also the artist will take up most of the page and have otherfeatures round the side.
  • By using Hartley’s developed idea of how an audience is divided I amplanning to follow the following concepts: Self: The aspirations of my audience include being a ‘music-lover’and interested in upcoming music events and new artists. Gender: My audience will be male.Age group: I want to appeal to old teenagers and young adults(adolescent) therefore my magazine should include features whichattract this audience. Richard Dyer states that people will respond to a message if it offersthem compensation for their inadequacies in their own lives. My targetaudience could have the inadequacy of feeling isolated and turn tomusic as part of a way of ‘comforting’ themselves. Therefore mymusic magazine could offer advice, company and sympathy throughthe contents. By using an interview or biography on the double pagespread, an artist that has experienced situations which the audiencemay have experience, could offer company and provide advice.Fiske adds a further 5 factors which should be considered whenidentifying an audience such as; education, religion, political,allegiance, region and urban vs. rural. For example, when designinga magazine, I could consider what factors might appeal to urbanregion. Rural regions may prefer to see well known, rich idols featuredto inspire towards.
  • They used Dyer’s Utopian Solutions Theory to motivate andengage their audience, offering their target audience ways ofsaving moneyThey also applied Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, butthreatened their audience’s need of ‘safety’ by using anunfamiliar environment in the setting that our main characterwould explore. This should engage their media literateaudience, using their foreknowledge and understanding of thegenre to establish meaning.They used photographic techniques to encode messagesabout the characters; the use of low angled shots on ourprotagonist for example, as well as the use of subjectivephotography to engage their audience actively with the maincharacters.Levi-Strauss’ Binary Oppositions theory helped them toconsider the characters they wanted to create as ChrisBrown’s character represents powerfulness, dominant andauthoritative.