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French revolution

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  • 1. Do Now • Please get out your Revolution Comparison Chart and something to write with.
  • 2. The French Revolution (1789) What was the government before the revolution? • The government in France had long been an absolute monarchy. • King Louis XVI ruled France with his young queen, Marie Antoinette.
  • 3. French Revolution What was the problem? 1. King Louis XVI ruled with divine right and absolute power 2. Enlightenment ideas were spreading and the people wanted change! 3. Unequal taxation of three estates (1st and 2nd paid NO taxes, 3rd estate paid ALL taxes) 4. France was DEEP in debt: a. The cost of wars (Seven Years War, American Rev.) was expensive b. King Louis XVI and his court lived in luxury and spent LOTS of money! (Just like his grandpa King Louis XIV) 5. French people were starving because of bad harvests throughout the country
  • 4. The Three Estates 1st ESTATE ______________________ 2nd ESTATE _______________________________ 3rd ESTATE 1 – Bourgeoisie: wealthy merchants and skilled workers (4%) 2 –Workers: poorly-paid servants, cooks and personal attendants (8%) 3 – Peasants (85%) EVERYONE ELSE! 97% of the population. Paid all the taxes. Nobility. 2% of the population. Paid no taxes Roman Catholic clergy. 1% of the population. Paid no taxes.
  • 5. French Revolution So what happened? • To solve the debt problem, King Louis XVI wanted to tax the previously untaxed 2nd Estate. • The struggle to pass taxes was unsuccessful. So King Louis decided to call a meeting of the Estates-General in May 1789 to resolve the issue. (It was the first meeting of the Estates General in 175 years!)
  • 6. French Revolution Other dramatic events? • Tennis Court Oath • Storming of the Bastille • Women’s march on Versailles • Reign of Terror
  • 7. French Revolution What new governments were formed? 1. constitutional monarchy created by National Assembly (FAILED) 2. (radical) republic created by Robespierre (FAILED) 3. Directory created by moderates (overthrown by Napoleon) 4. Napoleon created the Consulate 5. After Napoleon’s fall the constitutional monarchy was restored under King Louis XVIII
  • 8. French Revolution Documents created? • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen • Constitution of 1791 (by National Assembly), Constitution 1795 (by Directory)
  • 9. French Revolution Influence on individual liberty and self government? • Men are equal before the law. • All men born free have equal rights. • Protection of liberty, property and security. • Government exists to protect rights. • Equal rights to holders of public office