Neurotransmitters

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  • 1. Neurotransmitters
  • 2. NeurotransmittersFour general neurotransmitter systems explain human behaviour:• Monoamines: - Catecholamine (Dopamine & Norepinephrine, Epinephrine) - Indolamines (Serotonin [5 hydroxy tryptamine; 5-HT] )• Acetylcholine• Aminoacids (Glutamate, Aspartate, Glycine, GABA)• Neuro-Peptides (Endorphines, Chole-cystokinine, Neurotensin)• Soluble gases (Nitric oxide, Carbon Monoxide)NEUROMODULATION
  • 3. channels
  • 4. Neurotransmitter Example of Disorder Involving It Neurotransmitter Example of Disorder Involving ItAcetylcholine is a very widely distributed Alzheimer’s disease is associated with a lackexcitatory neurotransmitter that triggers of acetylcholine in certain regions of themuscle contraction and stimulates the brain.excretion of certain hormones. In the centralnervous system, it is involved inwakefulness, attentiveness, anger, aggression, sexuality, and thirst, among other things.Dopamine is a neurotransmitter involved in The loss of dopamine in certain parts of thecontrolling movement and posture. It also brain causes the muscle rigidity typical ofmodulates mood and plays a central role Parkinson’s disease.inpositive reinforcement anddependency.
  • 5. GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) is an Some drugs that increase the level ofinhibitory neurotransmitter that is very GABA in the brain are used to treatwidely distributed in the neurons of the epilepsy and to calm the trembling ofcortex. GABA contributes to motor people suffering from Huntington’scontrol, vision, and many other cortical disease.functions. It also regulates anxiety.Glutamate is a major excitatory It is also thought to be associated withneurotransmitter that is associated Alzheimer’s disease, whose firstwith learning and memory. symptoms include memory malfunctions.Norepinephrine is a neurotransmitter Norepinephrine plays a role in moodthat is important for attentiveness, disorders such as manic depression.emotions, sleeping, dreaming, andlearning. Norepinephrine is also releasedas a hormone into the blood, where itcauses blood vessels to contract andheart rate to increase.Serotonin contributes to various Depression, suicide, impulsive behaviour,functions, such as regulating body and agressiveness all appear to involvetemperature, sleep, mood, appetite, and certain imbalances in serotonin.pain.