The golden ages of islamic civilization
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  • Harminder S. Dua, Ahmad Muneer Otri, Arun D. Singh (2008), "Abu Bakr Razi", British Journal of Ophthalmology (BMJ Group) 92: 1324 <br /> David W. Tschanz, PhD (2003), "Arab Roots of European Medicine", Heart Views 4 (2). <br /> <br />
  • http://sunnah.com/bukhari/76/1
  • <br /> CONTRIBUTION OF MUSLIM SCIENTISTS TO THE WORLD: <br /> AN OVERVIEW OF SOME SELECTED FIELDS <br /> <br /> By <br /> Dr. Muhammad Adil Afridi <br /> Assistant Professor, Department of General Studies, KIRKHS <br /> International Islamic University Malaysia
  • [1] http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/highlights/tour/diamond.html
  • [2] http://www.muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?articleID=329 <br />

The golden ages of islamic civilization The golden ages of islamic civilization Presentation Transcript

  • Golden Ages of Islamic civilization WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • ? No great empire ever attempted to take the Arabian peninsula !! ? Arabs were not part of history ? They were Bedouins, farmers, traders,... ? Mecca was the most important trade center WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • What changed Arabian peninsula?? The final Revelation from God to Humanity The Glorious Quran... WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • “My choice of Muhammad to lead the list of the world’s most influential persons may surprise some readers and may be questioned by others, but he was the only man in history who was supremely successful in both religiousand secular levels.” - Micheal H Hart,` “The 100” ... and Life of Prophet Muhammed (saw) WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Many people considers the Quran to be the greatest work of Muslim literature, but we must understand that Holy Qur’an is not a book written by Prophet Muhammed (pbuh) or his followers. Instead it is the REVELATION from THE ALMIGHTY GOD. WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • People without the knowledge of their past history, origin and culture is like a tree without roots. WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Read, in the name of your Lord; Who created. Created man from a clot of congealed blood. Read, and your Lord is Most Generous, Who taught knowledge by the pen. Taught man what he did not know. The first revealed verses in Holy Quran were WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • “The Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h) said: “God, His angels and all those in Heavens and on Earth, even ants in their hills and fish in the water, call down blessings on those who instruct others in beneficial knowledge.” (Al-Tirmidhi) WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • “We (Allah) will show you (mankind) our signs/patterns in the horizons/universe and in yourselves until you are convinced that the revelation is the truth.” [Qur’an, 14:53] WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • History of science and civilization ( 600 CE – 1600 CE ) WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Factors behind the knowledge explosion Inspiration of Glorious Quran and prophetic teachings Uplifted social background Greek and Roman books were translated to Arabic Caliphs promoted learning and seeking knowledge Universities were established WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Education  First known universities were in Damascus, Cordoba, Tunisia and Morocco.  Oldest university – University of Al-karouine, Morocco,859 CE  2nd oldest – Al Azhar university, Cairo, Egypt, 975 CE WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Education  Daar al-Hikmah – House of Wisdom – Cairo – 18,000 ancient books  Bayt al-Hikmah – House of Wisdom – Baghdad (Tartars destroyed books)  Al-Hakam – Spain - 400,000 books  Bani Ammaar – Tripoli – Libya - 1 million books WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Contributions to mathematics WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  •  Fore-father of Modern Algebra and Algorithm  Used algebraic laws to formulate the rules of inheritance as linear equations, which would allow calculation of inheritance shares • The word “algorithm” is derived from his name Al-Khawarizmi (780 CE) WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  •  Best work: Al jabar wa al mukaabila, used as a reference text today also!!  Developed trigonometric tables containing sine functions  Developed the calculus of two errors, which led him to the concept of differentiation. WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • His book on algebra “Hisab al-Jabr waal- Muqabalah” (The Calculation of Integration and Equation) was used until the 16th century as the principal textbook of European universities WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Aided to announce arabic numerals, the decimal position system, and the concept of zero (6th century in India). WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Leonardo pissano (fibonacci), an Italian mathematician made a reference to an older text as “algebre et almuchabale” by maumeht (Latin name of Muhammed ibn moosa al khawarizmi) P - 406 WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Ghiyath al-Din al- Kashani (CE 1324) Figured a value of 2pi to sixteen decimal digits of accuracy “Miftah-ul-Hissab” or “The Calculators’ Key”; in it he defined an algorithm for finding the fifth root of any number WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Abu Wafa Muhammad al-Buzanji (CE 940) Solution of geometrical problems with opening of the compass Constructions of parabola by points Geometrical solution of the equations x4 = a and x4+3a = b. WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Penned rich commentaries on Euclid and al-Khwarizmi A substantial part of today’s trigonometry can be copied back to him. WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Al Battani (776 CE) Called as Albategnius in western books Calculated solar years as 365 days, 5 hrs ,46 min, and 24 sec is very close modern estimates First to replace the Greek chords by sine's Introduced concept of cotangents and furnished their tables in degrees WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Contributions to chemistry WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Jabir Ibn Haiyan (721-815 CE)  Father of Chemistry  Called as Geber in western texts  Best works:- Kitaanul kimya, kitaabu ssabeen (Translated to latin: The book of Alchemy) WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Invented 25 + laboratory instruments  Introduced the term ‘Alkali’  Discovered Acids - Sulfuric acid, Hydrochloric acid and Nitric acid  Discovered elements Arsenic, Antimony, Bismuth WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Contributions to Medical Science WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • "There is no disease that Allah has created, exceptthat He also has created its treatment." (Sahih Al-Bukhari) WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Al Zahrawi (11th century CE) Called as Albucasis in western texts Father of modern surgery Invented many surgical instruments Lived in Islamic Spain WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Use of anesthesia in surgery Use of cauterizing of wounds The discovery that epidemics arise from contagion through touch and air WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Al Razi (9th century CE)  Father of Pediatrics First to differentiate smallpox from measles and chickenpox in his Kitab fi al-jadari wa-al-hasbah (The Book of Smallpox and Measles) WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • “His writings on smallpox and measles show originality and accuracy, and his essay on infectious diseases was the first scientific treatise on the subject.“ – The Bulletin of the World Health Organization (May 1970)  Wrote: The Diseases of Children, the first book to deal with pediatrics as an independent field of medicine  Best work: ‘Hawi’ – 9 volumes WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Ibn Seena (980-1037 CE) Called as Aviccenna in western texts Father of medicine and clinical pharmacology The Canon of Medicine (Al-Qānūn fī al- ṭibb) is used by Medical Schools in East and West for 500 years  Mastered the natural sciences, mathematics, philosophy and law. WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • The Canon of Medicine (Al-Qānūn fī al-ṭibb) is the most famous single book in the history of medicine in both East and West. (Encyclopedia Britannica)  Describe the minute and graphic description of different parts of the eye  Discovered cerebellar vermis —which he named "vermis“ and the caudate nucleus  Hospitals starts to have separate wards for patients of contagious diseases WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • ً‫ء‬‫ا‬َ‫ف‬ِ‫ش‬ ُ‫ه‬َ‫ل‬ َ‫ل‬َ‫ز‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫أ‬ ‫ه‬‫ال‬ِ‫إ‬ ً‫ء‬‫َا‬‫د‬ ُ ‫ه‬‫اَّلل‬ َ‫ل‬َ‫ز‬ْ‫ن‬َ‫أ‬ ‫ا‬َ‫م‬ The Prophet (‫)ﷺ‬ said, "There is no disease that Allah has created, except that He also has created its treatment." WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Ibn Rushd (12th century CE)  Known as Averroes genius of encyclopaedic scope  known in the West for being the grand commentator on the philosophy of Aristotle WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Ibn Al Naafis (12th century CE)  Reputed physician and a renowned expert on shafi'i school of jurisprudence  Discover pulmonary blood circulation, which was rediscovered three centuries later WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Ibn Al-Nafis’ Al-Shamil fi al-Tibb was an encyclopedia comprising 300 volumes, but it could not be completed as planned due to his death.  First to describe the constitution of lungs, bronchi, and the coronary arteries  Elaborated the function of the coronary arteries as feeding the cardiac muscle WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Contributions to Geology and history WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Al Idrisi (1100 CE)  Expert in geology  Plotted maps ‘The compilation of Al-Idrisi marks an era in the history of science… (Idrisis’s) descriptions of many parts of the earth are still authoritative. For three centuries geographers copied his maps without alteration. The relative position of the lakes which form the Nile, as delineated in his work, does not differ greatly from that established by Baker and Stanley more than seven hundred years afterwards…’ [S. P. Scott (1904), History of the Moorish Empire, pp. 461-2] WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Ibn Battuta(1304-1369 CE)  Covered over seventy five thousand miles.  Turkey, Bulgaria, Russia, Persia, central Asia,...  Rihla (journey), is filled with information on the politics, social conditions, and economics of the places he visited. WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406 CE)  Father of Modern Sociology  Did his work in Economy, Anthropology and Political Science  Al-Muqaddamah - An Introduction to History WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Contributions to Physics WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Sinan ibn Thabit Mathematician, astronomer, physician and historian WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Al-Jazari Laid basis of automated devices and mechanics Father of Robotics work : Al-Jâmi‘ Bayna'l-Ilm va'l-‘Amali An-nâfi fî Sinâ'ati 'l-Hiyal (The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices) WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Automat arbiter for dispensing liquids for drinking Steam engines and internal combustion engines, paving the way for automatic control and other modern machinery. WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Elephant water ClockPump WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Ibn al-Haytham (965-1039 CE)  Founder of Optics  Wrote - Book of Optics  Explained rainbow scientifically WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Excellent studeies on reflection and refraction of light  World’s First Scientist!!  Formulated modern scientific method • Observation • Statement of problem • Hypothesis • Testing, Analysis, Interpretation • conclusion, Publication of findings WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • “Scientific method and scientific skepticism as the most influential idea of the second millennium! “(1000 CE – 1999 CE) - Powers, Richard (April 18, 1999), "Best Idea; Eyes Wide Open” [New York Times] WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • • We can say the idea behind camera is from Ibn al-Haytham WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Abual-Rihan Al-Beruni Determined the specific density of 18 types of precious stones He established the rule which stated that the specific density of a body suits the volume of the water which makes it move He also interpreted the exit of water from geysers and artesian wells in light of the theory of communicating vessels Shadow observations for the solution of various astronomical problems WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • al-Khazini 1. Theory of Obliquity and Inclination 2. Theory of Impulse Developed two theories in kinetics Developed a device to determine the specific gravity of liquids WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Al-Khazini pointed out that air had weight and power to boost things like air, adding that the weight of the object in the air weighs less than its actual weight and its condensed weight depends on the density of air. It is worth of note that these studies concreted the way for the inventions of the barometer (pressure measurement), air vacuums and pumps among others. WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • DISCOVERING THE LAWS OF MOTION This fact acknowledged in the whole world and in all scientific references till the beginning of the twentieth century when a group of contemporary physicists, most prominent Professors of Mathematics examined these laws. They checked the accessible body of Islamic manuscripts in this field and came up with the fact that Muslim scientists were the first to discover these laws. Is Isaac Newton laid laws of motion ??? WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • All what Newton did was to collect what had been written on these laws and formulated them in a mathematical form. Setting bias and mere theoretical speech aside, the efforts of Muslim scientists are crystal clear. They are recognized in their manuscripts which had been written seven centuries before the birth of Newton. WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • THE FIRST LAW OF MOTION Avicenna in his book “Insinuations and Notices” (Isharat wa Tanbihat) identified the same law in his own words “You know if the object is left unaffected by external influence, it remains as it is”. “In the absence of force, a body either is at rest or moves in a straight line with constant speed”. - Newton WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • THE SECOND LAW OF MOTION “A body experiencing a force F experiences an acceleration a related to F by F = ma, where m is the mass of the body. Alternatively, force is proportional to the time derivative of momentum”. - Newton “The solidest power transfers fast and takes a short time. The stronger power leads to the faster the power and the shorter the time. If the power does not decrease, the speed does not decrease, either”. “The Considered in Wisdom” (Al-Moatabar fil Hikma). - Hebattullah bin Malaka Al-Baghdadi WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • THE THIRD LAW OF MOTION “Every action has a reaction which is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction”. - Newton “In the wrestling arena, everyone has a force practiced against the other. If one of them retreated, this does not mean that his power disappears, but this retreated power still exists, because without it the second one would not need it to influence the first one”. - Hebattullah bin Malaka Al-Baghdadi WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • “The circle pulled by two equal forces until it stops in the middle, it is taken for granted that each forces has practiced an action that obstructs the other”. Imam Fakhr El-Din Al-Razi The Eastern Disciplines in Theology and Natural Sciences (Al-Mabaheth Al-Mashrikayyah fi Illm Al-Illaheyyat wa Al-Tabi’yyat) WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • "The moving object is encountered by an obstruction, and if this forces remains, this moving object retreats in the opposite direction in the same speed practiced by the first object and according to the power of obstruction” Ibn Al-Hayytham, “The Scenes” WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Muslim Printing Before Gutenberg In 15th century Gutenberg devise a printing press, firstly. but printing itself, that is, making multiple copies of a text by transferring it from one raised surface to other portable surfaces (especially paper) is much older. The Chinese were doing it as early as the 4th century, and the oldest dated printed text known to us is from 868: the Diamond Sutra, a Chinese translation of a Buddhist text now preserved in the British Library[1] WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • What is much less well known is that, little more than 100 years later, Arab Muslims were also printing texts, including passages from the Qur'an. They had already embraced the Chinese craft of paper making, developed it and adopted it widely in the Muslim lands [2]. WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Astronomical Clock of Taqi Al-Din Before the 16th century, clocks were considered too inaccurate for measuring celestial movements. Where Ptolemy failed to succeed in, Taqī al-Dīn planned to build an astronomical clock that would measure time with great regularity in fulfillment of the wish of the Sultan at the time. WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Using mathematics, he designed three dials which showed the hours, degrees and minutes. In his clock, he incorporated the use of several escapements, an alarm, the striking trains that sounded at every hour, the visual relationship between the sun and the moon, the different phases of the moon, the devices that indicated the time for prayers and the dials that showed the first day of the Gregorian months. WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Our past was bright Wake up, Start learning Guide the present Do dua Change the Ummah through education WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • ISLAMIZATION OF KNOWLEDGE To create Awareness in the Ummah of the crisis of ideas. This involves enlighten the Ummah about the place and methodologies of the crisis of Islamic thought in the perspective of its cultural and civilizational existence. WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • Islamization of Knowledge is the correct solution for our problem. It seems Islamization of Knowledge is very much essential to be established because it will dirt free the contemporary corrupted knowledge which is believed as the main reasons of Muslims’ fall. WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • ْ‫ل‬ِ‫ع‬ َ‫ك‬ُ‫ل‬َ‫ـ‬‫ئ‬‫ـ‬ْ‫َس‬‫أ‬ ِِ‫ّن‬ِ‫إ‬ َّ‫م‬ُ‫ه‬َّ‫ل‬‫َل‬‫أ‬ً‫ا‬‫ع‬ِ‫اف‬َ‫ن‬ ً‫ا‬‫م‬، ‫ا‬ً‫ق‬ْ‫ز‬ِ‫ر‬َ‫و‬َ‫ق‬َ‫ـ‬‫ت‬ُ‫م‬ ً‫ال‬َ‫م‬َ‫ع‬َ‫و‬ ،ً‫ا‬‫ب‬ِِ‫ي‬َ‫ط‬ً‫ال‬َّ‫ب‬ O Allah, I ask You for beneficial knowledge, goodly provision and acceptable deeds (Sunan Ibn Majah, English reference : Vol. 1, Book 5, Hadith 925) After subah prayer WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION
  • WISD MGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION Together.. Towards.. Peace... WISD M www.wisdomislam.org | facebook.com/wisdomislamicmissionGLOBAL ISLAMIC MISSION