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    antibiotics antibiotics Presentation Transcript

    • dr shabeel pn antibiotics www.hi-dentfinishingschool.blogspot.com
    • Historical perspective
      • Extracts of plants and herbs used for centuries to treat illnesses – before we understood that infectious illnesses are caused by microorganisms.
      • Some of these traditional treatments now known to contain therapeutic drugs – eg quinine in bark from chinchona tree active against the malaria parasites.
      • 1908 – Paul Ehrlich – salvarsan – arsenic compound –effective treatment of syphilis First systematic approach to find compounds to treat infections
      • Concept of chemotherapy born - finding a specific chemical compound or drug that kills a microorganism without damaging the host (human) tissues .
      • Sulpha drugs – Domagk – 1930s –sulphanilamide – not used very much now.
      • Discovery of antibiotics – 1928 – Alexander Fleming– growth of Staphylococcus aureus on an agar plate inhibited by growth of a common blue-green mould (fungus) – Penicilliumnotatum
      • Florey (Australian) responsible for development of penicillin
    • ANTIBIOTICS
      • A comprehensive Antibiotic database with an emphasis on Bioinformatics has been developed and updated on March,2008 for free online access
      • Many pharmaceutical companies are developing semi synthetic form from natural antibiotic and purely synthetic chemicals with antibiotic activity.
    • NEED FOR SEMI-SYNTHETICS ANTIBIOTICS
      • The reactive beta lactam ring is common to all penicillins and cephalosporin C analogues.
      • This ring opens during acytelation of the bacterial wall-building enzymes, but previous opening of the ring by acid or beta lactamase destroys antibiotic activity.
      • Semi synthetic substitutions may protect the ring by steric hindrance;
    • YellapragadaSubbarao
      • Yellapragada Subbarao ( January 12 , 1895 -August 9, 1948 ) remains in the views of many the most notable medical scientist to emerge from India.
      • He passed the Intermediate Examination from the Presidency College and entered the Madras Medical College
      • He discovered the role of Phosphocreatine and Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) in muscular activity.
      • Under him Benjamin Duggar made his discovery of Aureomycin in 1945, the world's first tetracycline antibiotic
    • PENICILLIN
      • Penicillin
      • Penicillin G acid labile, narrow spectrum(mostly active against gram- positive organisms; susceptible to the action of β -lactam (enzyme which splits the β -lactam ring)
      • Penicillin-V acid stable (a small change in structure gives on
      • important change in properties) can be used orally organism that
      • produce β -lactamases are resistant to Penicillin and Penicillin G
      • Semi-synthetic Penicillin
      • Ampicillin,Oxacillin,Oxacillin,Cloxacillin,Flucloxacillin,Methicillin,Amoxycillin,Carbenicillin broad spectrum of activity – active against Gram-negative organisms as well as Gram-positive organisms.
    • GENOMIC INFORMATION OF PENICILLIN ANTIBIOTIC GENES DATA BASE-LINKS PENICILLIN pcbAB, pcbC and penDE http://www.bifcpresidency.tn.gov.in/penicillin%20main.html Semi synthetic Penicillin Resistant Gene Gene-Links AMPICILLIN (ampr) frame.html CLOXACILLIN bl2d_lcr1,bl2d_moxa bl2d_oxa1,bl2d_oxa10 bl2d_oxa2,bl2d_oxa5 bl2d_oxa9,bl2d_r39 cloxacillinframe.html METHICILLIN mecr1 methicillinframe.html CARBENICILLIN bl2c_bro,bl2c_pse1 bl2c_pse3 carbenicillinframe.html
    • CEPHALOSPORIN
      • CEPHALOSPORIN-MICROBIAL ORIGIN
      • Bactericidal antibiotic. Isolated from culture Cephalosporiumacremonium. β-lactam structure is very similar to penicillin.
      • Treat infections in different parts of the body-the ears, nose, throat, lungs, sinuses, and skin .
      • SEMI-SYNTHETIC CEPHALOSPORIN
      • Cephalothin,Cephaloridine,Cephaloglycin,Cephalexin,Cephapirin,Cephalexin,Cepharoxadine,Cefaclor,Cefixime active against Gram-negative organisms as well as Gram-positive organisms.
    • GENOMIC INFORMATION ON CEPHALOSPORIN ANTIBIOTICS GENES DATA BASE-LINKS CEPHALOSPORIN cefEF-cefG http://www.bifcpresidency.tn.gov.in/cephalosporin%20%20frame%20.html Semi-Synthetic Cephalosporin Resistant Gene Database-Links Cephapirin bl2b_tem1, bl2b_tem2, cephapirinframe.html Cefaclor bl2b_tem1, bl2be_ctxm cefaclorframe.html cefixime bl2be_ctxm cefiximeframe.html
    • TETERACYCLIN
      • TETERACYCLIN-MICROBIAL ORIGIN
      • Is a broad-spectrum polyketide antibiotic used against many bacterial infections. Commonly used to treat acne.
      • It was released by the organism Streptomycesaureofaciens Used to produce several semi-synthetic derivatives.
      • Known as the tetracycline antibiotic group.
      • The general chemical formula is C 22 H 24 N 2 O 8 . The molecular weight is 444.44 g.
      • SEMI-SYNTHETIC TETERACYCLIN
      • Methacycline, Doxycycline,Rolitetracyclin
      • The semi-synthetic, second-generation antibiotic doxycycline became available in 1967.
      • A number of other naturally occurring and semi-synthetic types of tetracycline are also available.
      • Each varies somewhat in the organisms it is effective against and in how long a dose remains effective.
    • GENOMIC INFORMATION ON TETRACYCLIN ANTIBIOTICS Resistant Gene DATA BASE-LINKS Tetracyclin mexa, mexb, oprm, Otra, otrb tetraresi.html
    • BIOLOGICAL DATABASE-WHY
      • A biological database is a large, organized body of persistent data, usually associated with computerized software
      • Designed to update, query, and retrieve components of the data stored within the system.
      • A simple database might be a single file containing many records, each of which includes the same set of information.
      • A record associated with a nucleotide sequence database typically contains information such as contact name
      • The input sequence with a description of the type of molecule
      • The scientific name of the source organism from which it was isolated
    • APPLICATION OF BIOINFORMATICS IN ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE
      • Scientists examined the genome of Enterococcusfaecalis -a leading cause of bacterial infection among hospital patients.
      • They have discovered a virulence region made up of a number of antibiotic-resistant genes that contribute to the bacterium's transformation from a harmless gut bacteria to a menacing invader.
      • The discovery of the region, known as a pathogenicity , which provide useful markers for detecting pathogenic strains and help to establish controls to prevent the spread of infection inwards.
    • SUCCESS OF HUMAN GENOME PROJECT
      • The Human Genome Project provide researchers with powerful tools to understand the genetic factors in human diseases.
      • Paving the way for new strategies for their diagnosis, treatment and prevention.
      • The Human Genome project spurred a revolution in biotechnology innovation around the world.
      • It has already fueled the discovery of genes for more than 1,800 diseases
      • Pharmacogenomics holds the promise that drugs might one day be tailor-made for individuals and suited to each person’s genome
      • Environment, diet, age, lifestyle, and state of health can influence a person's response to, but understanding an individual is thought to be the key to create personalized medicine with highest efficacy and safety.
      • Serious bacterial infections can lead to death in the absence of antibiotic therapy
      • Fungal infection is quite common among poor sections of society due to their occupational conduct in soil: the geriatric population; immunosuppressed patients namely, in organ recipients and in AIDS.
      • Hence the antibiotics remain a necessary weapon in the clinician’s arsenal for ensuring diseases
    • REVIEW OF LITERATURE
      • Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database
      • Received August 14, 2008. Revised September 15,
      • 2008. Accepted September 16, 2008.
      • ARDB can help user to identify mutational resistance for 12
      • antibiotic target genes by BLAST
      • ARDB contains resistance information for 13293 genes, 377 types, 257 antibiotics, 3369 species and 124 genera.
      • Sorted by:
              • Resistance Type
              • Resistance Gene
              • Antibiotic
              • Resistance Gene(Non RD)
              • Resistance Gene(ALL)
              • Resistance Species
              • Resistance Genus
    • REVIEW OF LITERATURE
      • NOVEL ANTIBIOTIC DATABASE
      • This Data Base includes 5,430 novel substances published in the Journal of Antibiotics Vol.1-56, in 1947-2003.
      • The size of this data base is so large (ca.1,900KB) that it is divided into 5 parts.
      • Sorted by:
              • Substance Name
              • Organism Name
              • Activity Index
              • Affiliation
    • MULTIFUNCTIONAL ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDE DATABASE
      • It contains detailedinformation for 525 peptides (498 antibacterial, 155 antifungal,28 antiviral and 18 antitumor)
      • It also provides statisticaldata for a select group of or all the peptides in the database .
      • Peptide information can be searched using keywords such as peptidename, ID, length, net charge, hydrophobic percentage, key residue,unique sequence motif, structure and activity.
      • APD ( Antimicrobial Peptide Database ) is a usefultool for studying the structure–function relationshipof antimicrobial peptides.
    • ANTIBIOTIC DATABASE LAUNCHED
      • Doctors may access the latest information on antibiotics and their proper use from a free, peer reviewed database provided on the internet by Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions
      • It offers diagnostic criteria and drug options and is continually updated to reflect the best available information. Emergency alerts, such as drug recalls, will be available immediately
      • Information on more than 160 drugs and more than 140 diseases treated by both specialists and primary care physicians is featured.
    • ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE GENES ONLINE (ARGO)
      • A Database on vancomycin and β­lactam resistance genes
      • A database containing gene sequences conferring resistance to these two classes of antibiotics.
      • It is designed as a resource to enhance research on the prevalence and spread of antibiotic resistance genes.
      • ARGO is the first attempt to compile the resistance gene sequence data with state specific information.
      • None of the already available database have information on bioinformatics of antibiotics.
      • Namely the genomic component of antibiotic or the genomic component of target molecules also.
      • Hence there is a need for some database of a comprehensive, lucid data on antibiotic with specific information of on genome level.
    • Antibiotic Resistance Genes Online (ARGO):
      • Received  February 14, 2005; revised March 14, 2005; accepted  March 15, 2005; published online March 17, 2005
      • Availability : http://www.argodb.org/
      • A database containing gene sequences conferring resistance to these two classes of antibiotics.
      • It is designed as a resource to enhance research on the prevalence and spread of antibiotic resistance genes.
      • ARGO is the first attempt to compile the resistance gene sequence data with state specific information .
    • LANGUAGES USED
      • HTML(Hyper Text Markup Language)
          • Written by Tim Berners-Lee
          • I s the predominant markup language for Web pages
          • It provides a means to describe the structure of text-based information in a document by denoting certain text as links,
          • headings, paragraphs, lists.
          • HTML is written in the form of tags, surrounded by angle
          • brackets.
    • CSS(CASCADING STYLE SHEET ) Written by HåkonWium Lie and Bert Bos Released by Microsoft's Internet Explorer 3 ,1999 A new emerging technology. Is a simple mechanism for adding style (e.g. fonts, colors, spacing) to Web documents
    • DATABASE CONSTRUCTION
      • This antibiotic database was built on the windows
      • Vista operating system
      • In addition to reference books, for specific informations.
      • Antibiotics of microbial origin were collected from the pub - med search using keywords such as,
            • Discoverer,
            • Antibiotic producing organisms,
            • Chemical structure., Dosage,
            • Susceptible organism,
            • Genomic information ,
            • Gene responsible ,
            • Patent and Industrial production.
    • DATABASE DESCRIPTION Themain page of the database contains information about
      • Introduction,
      • Effectiveness,
      • Table information and links
      • providing detailed information of all the antibiotics of microbial origin.
    • APPLICATION
      • An user- friendly database on antibiotics of semisynthetic has been developed and made available on online in the website
      • semi-synthetic semihome.html
      • This database is the first of its kind on antibiotics of semisynthetic origin on website, a comprehensive one with the main thrust on bioinformatics
      • This database has been made available for free access by all interested individuals on antibiotics
    • AVAILABILITY
      • This Database on microbial origin has been created, and will be uploaded into the website on 9 th September 2009.
      • This is maintained and upgraded by the BIFC center, Presidency College
      • The database will be periodically updated
    • WHO BE WILL BENIFITED
      • Scientists
      • Research Scholars
      • Students
    • Thank you. We invite you to our website www.hi-dentfinishingschool.blogspot.com