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Quran and YOU

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  • 1. 3 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬-
  • 2. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 44 sN-dn-b-ap-≠w- A-_v-Zp¬- l-ao-Zv- aZn Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- NICHE PUBLICATIONS P.B No: 832, Poothole, Thrissur - 4. ≥◊G ÖdÉ£d ¿BGô≤dG
  • 3. 5 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- Malayalam | Study | Qur'an Oru Sathianyeshyude Mumbil Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- Author: Cheriyamundam Abdulhameed Madani | Second Edition: July 2013 Price: $$$$$. 20.00 Publishers | Distribution: Niche Publications | P.B. No:832 | Poothole | Thrissur-4 | Kerala | India www.nicheoftruth.org | Email: dawa@nicheoftruth.org Cover: Niche Graphics | Layout: Safeer Rahman Printing: Ebenezer Printers, Thrissur
  • 4. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 66 Cu- tem-IØn-sm-cp- {kjv-Sm-hp-≠v ˛ Po-h≥- ¬-In- hmbp-hpw- sh≈hpw- ku-Icy-s∏Sp-Øn- `q-an- sb Po-hnX-tbmKy-am-°n-b ]caIm-cp-Wn-Im-b {kjv- Sm-hv- ˛ mw- Chn--sS Fßs Po-hn-°Wsa∂pw- Cu- Po-hn-XØn-s‚ ]cae-£yw- Fs¥∂pw- Zq-X∑m¿- ap- tJ {kjv-Sm-hv- sΩ ]Tn∏n--®p.- Ωp-sS Po-hn-XØn- s‚ IW°v- acW-tijw- mw- {kjv-Sm-hn-s‚ ap-ºn¬- t_m-[n-∏n-t°≠n-hcpw.- A∂v- ]p-Wyw- sNbv-Xhv- kz¿Khpw- ]m-]w- sNbv-Xhv- c-Ihpw- {]Xn-^ew- In- ´pw.- AXn-m¬- {kjv-Sm-hv- Xs‚ Zq-Xcn-eq-sS ¬-In-b n¿-tZiapkcn-®v- Po-hn-°p-Ibm-Wv- ap-jy-s‚ c£m- am¿-Kw.- Ωp-sS tem-I {kjv-Sm-hv- ¬-In-b n¿-tZi kw- ln-XbmWv- Izp¿-B≥.- ap-lΩZv- _nbn-eq-sS Ah≥- B ktμiw- ap-jy¿-s°Øn-®p-sIm-Sp-Øp.- CXdn- ™-hcpw- Adn-bm-Øhcpw- ap-°n-Sbn¬- D≠v.- tem- Isc ap-gp-h≥- {kjv-Sm-hn-s‚ ktμiadn-bn-°¬- AXdn- ™hcp-sS _m-[y-Xbm-Wv.- AXnm-bn- cq-]o-Ir-Xam- b Hcp- {]kv-Ym-am-Wv- n-®v- Hm-^v- {SqØv. A√m-lpth,- ns‚ kXyaX ktμi {]N-c- W-Ønp th≠n-bp≈ Cu Ffnb {iaw Rß-fn¬ n∂v kzoI-cn-t°-W-ta, Zp¿_-e-amb RßfpsS Ic- ߃°v o i‡n ]I-tc-W-ta.... (Bao≥). amt-P¿
  • 5. 7 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬-
  • 6. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 88 hnip≤ Izp¿Bns∏‰n hmbn°pItbm tIƒ-°pI- tbm sN-øm-Øh¿ hfsc Npcpßpw. hninjym, AXns Ap-Iq-en®pw {]XnIqen®pw [mcmfw {]kwK߃ S- °p-∂, teJ-ßfpw {KŸßfpw {]kn≤oI-cn°-s∏- Sp∂ Cu ImeL´-Øn¬. hnip≤ Izp¿Bns‚ khn- ti-jXIƒ hniZambn {Kln-°m≥, AXns‚ {]am-Wn- IXsb]‰n ]q¿Wambn a n-em-°m≥ _rlZv{KŸ- ß-fpsS klmbw thWw. Ayqambn, APøambn, bpK∏I¿®Iƒ°v hg- ßm-sX apjyaxkm£nsb sXm´p-W¿-Øn-s°m-≠v ne-n¬°p∂ GIssZhnI{KŸsa∂ nebn¬ apkvenw PtImSnIƒ AXns hnizkn®mZcn°p∂p. PohnX{]amWambn AwKo-I-cn-°p∂p. apkvenw-If-√m- Ø ]e {]K¬` ]WvUnX∑mcpw hnip≤- Izp¿B≥ ]Thnt[bam°pIbpw hnh¿Øßfpw hymJym- ß-fpw cNn°pIbpw sNbvXn´p≠v. Kmv[nPnbpw hn- tm-_bpw a‰pw Zm¿inIaqeyap≈ alm{KŸsa∂ ne-bn¬ hnip≤ Izp¿B ns‚ ]Zhn AwKoIcn®- hcn¬-s]-Sp∂p. AtIw Hmdnb‚ enkv‰pIƒ hnhn[ bq-tdm]y≥ `mjIfnte°v hnip≤Izp¿B≥ `mjm-¥c- s∏Sp-Ønbn´p≠v. Nne¿ Izp¿Bsbpw Ckveman-s- Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬-
  • 7. 9 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- bpw ]‰n Is∏´ IrXnIƒ cNn®n´pap≠v. ]t£, AapkvenwIfn¬ _lp`qcn`mKhpw hnip≤- Izp¿B-ns Hcp apkvenw]pcmW{KŸw F∂ ne- bn-¬ am{Xw tm°n °mWp∂hcmWv. Hmtcm PXbv°pw kz¥ambn sF-Xn-ly-ßfpw ]pcmWßfpw D≈Xpt]mse apkvenwIƒ°pw H∂p≠v. AXh¿ ]qPn- ®v Bcm[n®psIm≈s´, ap°Xn¬ Imcysam∂p an√ F∂ n wKXm]q¿Wamb ne]mSmWv ]ecpw sh®p]pe¿Øp∂Xv. P߃ k¶pNnXamb kmapZm- bnIXzØns‚ sh≈w IS°mØ AdIfn¬ H‰s∏´pIgnbp∂ taJeIfn¬ Cu n wKXbpw DZmko-`mhhpw hfcp∂p. Nnet∏mgXv AhKWbpw Ah⁄-bpw-hsc FØp∂p. F∂m¬ ]IzaXnIfpw kXymtzjnIfpamb Hcp yq-]£w k¶pNnX ho£WßfpsS apJmhcWw o°n {]hnimeamb taJeIfnte°v kXyw tXSn ]pds∏Smdp≠v. ]t£, Ckvemans]‰n Atzjn°p∂ klrZbcpsS Iøn¬ Nnet∏mƒ am{Xta kXyk-v[- amb {KŸßƒ FØns∏Smdp≈q. ]et∏mgpw B[nImcnI⁄man√mØ apkvenw FgpØpIm¿ IpØn-°q´nb A_≤kwlnXItfm Zpjv{]NmcIcmb FXncmfnIfpsS Zpcp]ZnjvSIrXnItfm Bbncn°pw Ah¿°v hmbn°m≥ In´p∂Xv. CXv Ahcn¬ Ckvem- antmSv hnapJX hf¿Øp∂psh¶n¬ Ahsc ]gn®n- ´pImcyan√. Ckvemans]‰n a nem°m≥ B{Kln°p∂
  • 8. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 1010 aebmfnIƒ°v hnip≤Izp¿Bns]‰n {lkzsa- ¶nepw ka{Kamb Hcp hnhcWw ¬IpI F∂Xs{X Cu eLpIrXnbpsS e£yw. hnip≤ Izp¿B≥ Ncn{XØn¬ KXImekw`hßfpsS km[pX Xocpamn°p- ∂Xn¬ Ncn{XØnv henb ]¶mWv n¿hln°m- p≈Xv. thZ{K-Ÿ-ßsf Ncn{XZrjvSym ]cntim[n°p- tºmƒ Ahbn¬ JWvUn-Xamb Ncn{XtcJIfpsS ]n≥_eap≈Xv hnip≤-Izp¿-B-n∂v am{XamsW∂v ImWmhp∂XmWv. Imew AhyIvX-XbpsS Icnng¬ hogvØnb ImcWØm¬ ]e aXmNmcy-∑mcpsS PohnXØnepw Ncn{XtcJIfpsS ]n≥_eans√∂v h∂ncn°p∂p. DZmlcWambn tamsi, tbip, {ioIrjvW≥ XpSßnbhsc FSp°mw. blqZ¿ hnizkn°p∂p, tamsi-bmWv temIw I≠ amXrIm- tbmKymb BNmcys∂v. ss{I-kvXh¿ hnizkn- °p∂p, Hmtcm apjypw BZn]m]-Øn-¬n∂v tam- Nw e`n°p∂Xv tbip{InkvXphns‚ Ipcnip- acWØneqsSbmsW∂v. F√m ∑bpsSbpw iIvXn- bpsSbpw t{kmX mbn sslμh¿ {ioIrjvWs ImWp∂p. F∂m¬ tamsitbm, tbipthm IrjvW- tm Pohn ®nt´ Cs√∂pw Chscms° BcpsStbm `mhbn¬ cq]w ]q≠ CXnlmkIYm]m{X߃ am{Xam-sW∂pw Ncn{XØns‚ t]cn¬ hmZn°p∂ bpIvXnhmZnIsf tcnSm≥ B[nImcnI Ncn{X-tcJ- Ifn-√msX IpgßpIbmWv C∂-v blqZcpw ss{IkvX-
  • 9. 11 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- hcpw sslμhcpsa√mw. apkvenw-Isf kw_v[n®n- StØmfw tamsi (aqkm _n)-sb∏-‰nbpw tbip (Cukm _n) sh-∏‰nbpw hnip≤- Izp-¿-B-≥ ]Tn∏n°p∂ Imcy߃ Ah¿ hnizkn°p∂p. hnip≤ Izp¿-B≥ Hcp Ncn{XhkvXpXbpw aplΩZv _n Hcp Ncn{X-]pcp-j-pamsW∂ ImcyØn¬ Hcp bpIvXn- hmZnbpw CXphsc X¿°n®n´n√. X¿°n°m≥ ymb- hpan√. ImcWw, Ncn{X-Øn-s‚ KthjWw SØnbn- cp-∂n√. Imhy߃ cNn°pItbm IhnXbn¬ Xm¬]cyw {]I-Sn-∏n-°pItbm sNbvXncp∂n√ At±lw. sNdp∏Øn¬ BSvta-bv-°epw buhØn¬ hym]mchpambncp∂p At±-lØns‚ sXmgn¬. m¬]Xmw hb n¬ At±lØnv GIm¥[ym- Øn¬ Xm¬]cyw tXm∂pIbpw AXnmbn At±lw a°bnse Hcp Kpl sXcs™Sp°pIbpw sNbvXp. AhnsSsh®mWv At±lØnv Pn{_o¬ F∂ amemJ aptJ BZysØ ssZhnI ktμiw e`n®Xv. XnI®pw BIkvanIambmWv Cu Ap`hap≠mbXv. _n°v Xs∂ Aºc∏pw Sp°hpw kr-jvSn® Cu kw`hw At±lØns‚ PohnXØnse am{X-a-√, temI Ncn{XØnse Xs∂ Hcp hgnØncnhmbncp∂p. atm- hn-{`m¥nbpsStbm ambnI{`aßf-psStbm Hcp temI- Øn-te-°√ Cu kw`hw At±lsØ bn®Xv. temIØnmsI Hcp am¿KZ¿iw ¬IpI: {]kwKØn¬ am{Xa√ {]tbmK-Øn-epw ssZhln-X- Ønv km£yw hln°pI F∂ ZuXy-Øn-s‚ hnPbIcamb n¿hlWØnte°v AXv At±l-
  • 10. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 1212 Øns‚ PohnXsØ sXmSpØphn´p. XpS¿∂v Ccp]Ønaq∂v h¿jØnnSbn¬ AtIw XhW At±lØnv ssZhn-I-k-tμiw e`n®psIm≠ncp∂p. hnizmkI¿a-cwKßfnse ssZhnIn¿tZ-i߃ {IampKXambn At±lØnv tIƒ∏n°s∏´p. Hmtcm XhWbpw tIƒ∏n°s∏Sp∂ ktμiw At±lw Pßsf tIƒ∏n®p. Nne¿ hnizkn®p. ]ecpw ntj- [n®p. Hmtcm kμ¿`Ønepw e`n°p∂ ssZhnI ktμ- ißf{Xbpw At±lhpw ApbmbnIfpw Bh¿Øn- ®m-h¿Øn®v ]mcmbWw sNbvXv a nepd∏n®p. ]ecpw AXv tcJs∏SpØnsh°pIbpw sNbvXp. hmKv hnNmcI¿a-ßsf XZSnÿmØn¬ Ah¿ hm¿sØSpØp. _n CltemIhmkw shSnbp∂Xnv apºv Xs∂ A[ymbßfpw hNßfpw C∂v nehnep≈ {IaØn¬ ]mcmbWw sNbvXpsIm≠v hnip≤ {KŸ- Øns‚ t{ImUoIrX cq]hpw IqSn ssZhnI n¿tZ- i{]Imcw temIsØ Adnbn®ncp∂p. ]t£, Izp¿B- ns‚ apgph≥ `mKßfpw H∂n®v H‰ hmeyambn FgpXn tcJs∏Sp-Ønbn´p≠mbncp∂n√. _n ]mcmbWw sNbvXv tIƒ∏n°-p∂ ktμi-ßsf√mw bYm-kabw ]e ApbmbnIfpw FgpXmhp∂ hkvXp-°fnt∑¬ (XpI¬, I√v, F√v apXembh) FgpXnsh- °mdp≠mbncp∂p. IWniambn lrZnÿam°nbhcpsS kwJy hfsc IqSpXep ≠mbncp∂p. _nbpsS hntbmKØnv tijw XmaknbmsX Xs∂ tcJIƒ HØp-tm°nbpw ax]mTam°nbhscs°m≠v ]cntim-
  • 11. 13 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- [n∏n®pw hnip≤ Izp¿B≥ enJnXßfpsS B[nImcn- Iamb t{ImUoIcWw _n bpsS ]n≥Kmanbmb H∂mw Jeo^ A_q_°dns‚ I¬]{]Imcw sskZv _n≥ km_nØv F∂ klm_n {]apJs‚ tXrXzØn¬ S∂p. Aßs hnip≤ Izp¿B≥ C∂v ImWp∂ {IaØnepw cq]Ønepap≈ H‰ hmeyam- bnØo¿∂p. aq∂mw Jeo^ Dkvam≥ AXns‚ ]I¿∏pIƒ FSp∏n®v Ckveman-I-cmjv{SØns‚ {]hniym Xeÿm-ßfn-te-s°-√mw Ab®p- sImSp- Øp. CXns‚ {]XnIƒ C∂pw e`yamWv. C∂v temI- ØpS-ofw ]mcmbWw sNøs∏Sp∂ tImSn°W-°nv hnip≤ Izp¿B≥ tIm∏nIƒ B {]mNo ]I¿∏p-Ifp- ambn Hc£cØnpt]mepw hyXymkan√m-ØXs{X. apkvenwIƒ FgpXnb Ncn{Xw am{Xa√, hnhn[ aX°mcpw aXhncp≤cpw FgpXnb Ncn{X{KŸ-߃ t]mepw _n bpsSbpw hnip≤ Izp¿Bs‚-bpw Ncn{X ]cX AwKoIcn°p∂p≠v. a‰v thZßfpsSbpw ]pcmWßfpsSbpw Ncn{X- ]camb ASnØd ]cntim[n°ptºmƒ Cu hkvXpX IqSp-X-¬ kv]jv SamIpw. ss__nƒ ]pXnb nbaw tbip-{InkvXphns‚ hNßfmsW∂Xnv Ncn{X- tcJIfpsS ]n≥_eans√∂v ss__nƒ Ncn{X-Imc- ∑m¿ Xs∂ kΩXn®n´p≈XmWv. Ncn{X-tcJ-IfpsS ASnÿmØn¬ B[nImcnIX ÿm]n°mhp∂ ]pcmtW Xnlmkßtfm thtZm]nj-Øp-Itfm Cs√∂ hkvXpX C¥ymNcn{XsØ∏‰n kmamy-[mc-
  • 12. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 1414 Wbp-≈h¿s°√mw Adnbmhp∂Xs{X. khntijXIƒ Cn ap°v hnip≤ Izp¿Bns‚ khntijXIƒ Fs¥ms°sb∂v s]mXpsh ]cntim[n°mw. kq£va- hni-I-ew Hcp eLp{KŸØns‚ ]cn[nbn¬ HXpßp- ∂-Xs√-¶nepw Hcp {KŸsØ∏‰n ]Tn°mp≈ icnbmb Hcp am¿Kw AXns a‰v {KŸßfpambn XmcXay-s∏SpØpIbs{X. BZyw Ad_n`mjbnep≈ {KŸ-߃, AhbpsS D≈-S°-hpw ssienbpambn hnip≤ Izp¿Bns‚ D≈S°hpw ssien-bpambn XmcXayw sNømw. aplΩZv _n °v apºp≈ Ad_nkmlnXyw apJyambpw IhnXIfpw tPymXvky∑mcpsS KZyIhnX- Ifpambncp∂p. ss{IkvXhcpsSbpw blqZcpsSbpw aX{KŸßfnepw GXmpw cmPimkIfnepw HXpßn n¬°pIbmbncp∂p A∂sØ KZykm- lnXyw. IhnXIfpsS D≈S°w aZyw, ImapIn, ]S°p- Xnc, H´Iw XpSßnbhsb]‰nbp≈ h¿W-tbm, Ihn- tbm IhnbpsS tKm{Xtam SØnb hoc]cm-{Ia-ßfp- sS Im¬]nIX Ie¿Ønb hnhcWtam Bbncn°pw. ImapInbpsS th¿]mSns ]‰nbp≈ hnem]tØm-sSbm- bncn°pw an° Imhyßf-pw Bcw`n°p∂Xv. A∂sØ {]kwKIcpsS hnjbßfpw hn`n∂ambncp∂n√. ss__nƒ ]gb nbaØns‚ hniZoIcWØn¬ Ihn™ aX-km-ln-Xy-߃ A∂v D≠mbncp∂n√. B kmlNcyØnemWv aplΩZv _n°pw At±-
  • 13. 15 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- lØneqsS apgph≥ temIØnpw A√mlphns‚ hN-߃ tIƒ∏n°s∏Sp∂Xv. ]caImcpWnIpw IcpWmn[nbpamb A√mlp- hns‚ maØn¬ ""krjvSnI¿Ømhmb Xm¶fpsS mYs‚ maØn¬ HmXpI. apjys Ah≥ Hcp {`qWØn¬n∂v krjvSn®p. HmXpI, Xm¶fpsS mY≥ G‰hpw DZmcmIp∂p. t]-sIm-≠v ]Tn∏n®hmb mY≥. apjyv Adn™pIqSmØXv Ah≥ ]Tn∏n®p''(Izp¿- B≥ 96:1˛5). ]caImcpWnImb ssZhØns‚ t]cn¬ Bcw`n°p∂ Hcp kmlnXycq]hpw Atd_yt°m Ad_nIƒt°m ]cnNnXambncp∂n√. IcpØpw A[n- ]pambn hfcp∂ apjys‚ {`qWmh-ÿ-bn¬- n∂p≈ Ffnb XpS°-sØ-∏‰n Nn¥n∏n°p∂ KZy]Zy- ßf-pw Ad_nIƒ tI´n´p≠m-bncp-∂n√. t]bpsS klmbtØmsS S°p∂ teJ-hnZybmWv F√m ssh-⁄m-nI- hnImk߃°pw imkv{X]p-tcmK-Xn- °pw hgnsbmcp°p∂ Ap{Klsa∂v Ad_nItfmSv a‰m-cpw ]d™ncp∂n√. k¿th-m]cn Ad_n`mjbn¬ F°m-eØpw hf¿∂ph∂ F√m kmlnXy-ssienI- fn-¬n∂pw `n∂amb hnip≤ Izp¿Bns‚ `mjm- ssien Ad_nIƒ°v Xo¿Øpw A]cnNnXambncp∂p. AtXm-sSm∏w AXns‚ LSm-sshin-jvSy-hpw cq]- kuIpamcyhpw BibKmw`ocyhpw A∂sØ Ad_n kmlnXykmcYnIsf AXv`pXkvX_v[cm°pIbpw
  • 14. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 1616 sNbvXp. Ad_nIƒ°nSbn¬ hf¿∂ nc£cpw A`ykvX hnZypw kmXznIpamb aplΩZv F∂ hyIvXn m¬]Xmw hb -n¬ XnI®pw Akm[mc-W- amb Hcp kmlnXyIrXn cNn®psh∂pw AXv kz¥- sa∂v AhImis∏SmsX ssZhØn-¶¬-n∂v e`n®Xm- sW∂v I≈w ]d™psh∂pw hmZn-°p-∂Xv bmsXmcp ymbo-IcWhpw A¿ln°p∂n√. ImcWw Xmsg-°nSbn- ep≈ Hcp kmlnXyIrXn cNn°p∂ Bƒ-t]m-epw Xs‚ cNbn¬ A`namw sIm≈pIbmWv sNøpI. bm-sXm- cp almkmlnXyImcpw mfnXphsc kz¥w IrXn as‰mcmƒ FgpXnbXmsW∂v ]d™v Hgn™n´n√. Poh≥ A]ISØnemIpsa∂v `bs∏Sptºmg√msX. F∂m¬ aplΩZv _n°v AØcsamcp kml-Ncy- ap≠mbncp∂n√. Izp¿B≥ kz¥w IrXnbmsW¶n¬ AXv Xpd∂p]d™m¬ Ad_nIƒ At±lsØ _lp- aXnIƒ sIm≠v s]mXn-bp-am-bncp∂p. Hcp tKm{XØn¬ Hcp kmlnXyImc≥ hf¿∂p-h∂m-¬ tKm{XamsI A`n- amw sIm≈p∂ Imeambncp∂p AXv. F∂m-¬ ssZh- Øns‚ hNw B nebn¬ Xs∂ temI-Øn-s‚ apºm-sI sh°phmmbncp∂p At±lw I¬]n-°-s∏- ´ncp-∂Xv. AXns‚ t]cn¬ {Iqcamb ]cnlmkßfpw ]oU-ßfpw At±lØnv tcntS≠nh∂p. AsX√mw AhK-Wn®psIm≠v At±lw ZnhyZuXyw ndth‰n. Ad_v tXm-°ƒ At±lsØ n»-_vZm°m≥ {ian®p. ]cmPbs∏´t∏mƒ Atd_y≥ hnizmk- ]mcºcy߃-°p-cq]-ambn Izp¿Bn¬ t`ZKXnIƒ
  • 15. 17 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- hcp-Øm≥ At±ltØmSv Bhiys∏´p. AXnv ssZhnIamb {]XnIcWw C{]Im-cam-bncp∂p. ""ΩpsS kv]jvSamb ZrjvSm¥ßƒ ]mcmbWw sNbvXv tIƒ∏n°s∏´t∏mƒ mapambp≈ kamKaw B{Kln°m-Ø-h¿ ]d™p: o thsdmcp Izp¿B≥ sIm≠-phcq As√¶n¬ CXn-¬ t`ZKXnIƒ hcpØq F∂v. Xm¶ƒ ]dbq: Fn°v kz-¥w hIbmbn CXn¬ am‰w hcpØm-sm-°p-Ibn√. Fn-°v ¬Is∏Sp∂ ktμisØ Ap[mhw sNøpI am{Xam-Wv Rm≥ sNøp∂Xv. Xo¿®bmbpw Rm≥ `bs∏Sp∂p; F-s‚ mYs. Rm≥ [n°cn°pI-bmsW¶n¬ `b¶camb Hcp ZnhksØ in£ Rm≥ Ap`hnt°-≠n-hcp- sa∂v. Xm¶ƒ ]dbq: A√mlp-hns‚ lnXw adn®m- bncps∂¶n¬ RmnXv nßsf hmbn®v tIƒ∏n- °n√mbncp∂p. Ah≥ nß-sf CXv Adnbn-°p-Ibp- an√mbncp∂p. Rm≥ n߃°nSbn¬ CXn-v apºv AtI-h¿jw {]hmNIXzw hmZn°msX, ssZ-hn-I ktμiw tIƒ∏n-°m-sX Ign®pIq´nbn´p≠t√m. nß- sf-¥m Nn¥n°m ØXv? ssZhØns‚ t]cn¬ I≈w sI´n-®-a°pItbm, ssZhn IZr-j-vS-m¥ßsf X≈n∏dbpItbm sNb-vX-hs°mƒ henb A{Ia- Imcn Bcp≠v? Ip‰hmfnIƒ hnPbw {]m]n°pIbn√, Xo¿®''(Izp¿-B≥ 10:15˛17). Atd_y≥ PohnXsØbmsI Iogvta¬adn® Izp¿- BnI PohnXZ¿iw Izp¿Bns‚ AampjnIX sIm-≠pw AXn-s‚ ktμihmlImb aplΩZv _nbpsS hyIvXn-Xz Øns‚ AXpeyX sIm≠pw
  • 16. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 1818 am{XamWv kmh[m-Øn-se¶nepw ]IzaXnIfmb ]escbpw BI¿jn®Xv. A_q-_-°¿ At±lam-bncp- ∂p aplΩZob {]hmNIXzhpw Izp¿B-ns‚ ssZhnI- Xbpw AwKoIcn® BZysØ ]pcpj≥˛ ho´p-ap‰ Øncp- ∂v Izp¿B≥ ]mcmbWw sNøptºmƒ AXv tIƒ-°m- ≥ AtIw t]¿ k∂nlnXcmIpambncp∂p. Ahcn¬ ]e-cpw Izp¿Bn¬ BIrjvScmbn CkvemwaXam- t«jn®p. CXv A_q_°dntmSv Ad_n {]amWnam- ¿°v ISpØ Cu¿-jy tXm∂m≥ ImcWambn. F∂m¬ ]pØ≥aXØns‚ _≤sshcnIfmbncp∂ Atd-_y≥ bmYmÿnXnI∑m¿°v t]mepw hnip≤-Izp¿- B-n-s‚ amkvacnI{]`mhw I≠ns√∂v Sn°m≥ Ign™n√. heoZp_vpapKod F∂ Jpssdin{]am- WnbpsS Imcyw CXnv sXfnhmWv. Abmƒ Hcn°¬ _n bpsS ASpØpsN∂p. _n Abmsf GXmpw Izp¿B≥ hN߃ tIƒ∏n®p. Abmƒ°Xv lrZyambn Ap`hs∏´t]mse tXm∂n. Cu hnhcw as‰mcp {]amWnbmb A_qPl¬ tI´p. Abmƒ°Xv ckn-®n√. A_qPl¬ heoZns‚ ASpØpsN∂n´v ]d™p: ""Fs‚ ]nXrhym, Xm¶ƒ aplΩZns‚ ASpØp-sN∂v AbmfpsS hm°pIƒ°v hiwhZm- ImsX Ign°msa¶n¬ Xm¶fpsS m´pIm¿ Xm¶ƒ°v ]Ww tiJcn®pXcm≥t]mepw Xb-mdmWv''. heoZv {]XnhNn®p: ""Jpssdiv tKm{XØndn-bm--at√m RmmWv Ahcn¬ G‰hpw kº∂s∂v''.- A_q-P- l¬ ]d™p: ""AXp sIm≠mbn√. Xm¶ƒ Hcp {]kvXmh S-ØWw. aplΩZns Xm¶ƒ
  • 17. 19 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- shdp°p∂psh∂v AXn-¬-n∂v hyIvXamhWw''. heo- Zns‚ {]XnIcWw Cßsbm-bn-cp∂p ""Rms¥mWv ]dbpI? ssZhsØbmWv! IhnX-bpsS Ahm¥c hn`mKßsf∏‰n Fs∂°mƒ Adnbmhp∂ B-cpw nßfpsS Iq´Ønen√. ssZhsØbmWv! aplΩZv ]dbp∂Xv Cu Iq´Ønsem∂pw s]´X√. ssZh sØbmWv! Aho ]dbp∂ hm°nv a[pcnabp≠v. tamSnbp≠v. AXv ASn apX¬ apSnhsc kp-^eamWv. kar≤amWv. AXv Dbcpw. AXns adnIS°mmhn√. AXnv Xmsgbp≈Xnssbms° AXv X´nØ- I¿°pw''. A_qPl¬ ]d™p: ""aplΩZns hna¿- in®p-sIm≠v {]kvXmh SØmsX m´pIm¿°v Xm¶sf-∏‰n Xr]vXnhcpIbn√''. heoZv BtemNn°m≥ A¬]w kabw tNmZn®p. A¥cw Abmƒ {]Jym- ]w SØn: ""CsXmcp PmehnZyam{XamIp∂p''. heoZn- s‚ Cu Ahkc hmZw hnip≤ Izp¿B≥ 74˛mw A[ymbØn¬ sXmenbpcn®p ImWn®n´p≠v. Jeo^ Da¿ Ckvemw aXw Bt«jn® kw`hw Ncn{X {]kn≤amWv. _n sb h[n°phm≥ th≠n hmfp-ta¥n ]pds∏´ Dadnv hgnat[y hnip≤ Izp¿B- ns‚ GXmpw `mK߃ tIƒ°mnSbmbtXmsS amkm¥cap≠m-IpI-bm-Wv sNbvXXv. aplΩZv _nbpsSbpw ApNc∑mcpsSbpw PohnX--Øn-s‚ hnhn[ apJßtfmSpw kapNnXambn kwhZn-°p∂ Xm-bncp∂p Hmtcm kμ¿`Ønepw ssZhØn¶¬n∂v AhX-cn∏n-°s∏´ hN߃. {]Xnkv[nbpsS Hmtcm L´Ønepw ssZ-hnI ktμiw
  • 18. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 2020 Ahsc ]cnlmcØnte°v bn®p. kwib-Øn-s‚ thfIfn¬ AXh¿°v kpnivNnX [mcWIƒ ¬- In. AKvn]co£Iƒ°v apºn¬ AXh¿°v BXvahocyw ]I-¿-∂p. AhcpsS PohnX ho£WØnv AXv A¿Y-hpw {]kIvXnbpw ssIhcpØn. mKcn- IXIfpsS Db¿®-XmgvN-Isf ]‰nbp≈ ]mTßfneqsS AXh¿°v km¿hImenI km¿h-euInI [mcW ¬In. tkzNvOm[n]XnIfpsS ]X-Øn-s‚bpw kmXznI∑mcpsS sFXnlmknI hnPb-ßfp-sSbpw ZrjvSm¥ßfneqsS AXhcn¬ BXvat_m[hpw DXvI¿-tjNvObpw hf¿Øn. Izp¿B≥ krjvSn® AXv`pXw Izp¿Bn∂v apºpw Izp¿Bn∂v ]nºpap≈ Atd_y≥ PXsb∏‰n hkvXpnjvTamb Hcp nco£Ww SØnbm¬ Ncn{XØn¬ XpeyXbn√mØ ]cnh¿ØamWv Izp¿B≥ Dfhm°nbXv F∂v ap°v t_m[ys∏Spw. hnip≤Izp¿B≥ AhXcn®v XpSßptºmƒ AYhm Izp¿Bnse BZyhNw hmbn®v tIƒ∏n°s∏Sptºmƒ Ad_nIfpsS ne AXy¥w timNobambncp∂p. kmºØnIambn H´pw `{Zambncp∂n√ AhcpsS ne. IsÆØmØ aW¬∏c∏nnS°v A]q¿h-ambn Xg®pn¬°p∂ acp∏®Iƒ sIm®ptKm{X-߃°p-t]mepw kmºØnI kzbw]cym]vXX ¬Ipambncp∂n√. hym]mcku- Icy߃ AwKpeo]cnanXamb ]´Wßfnep-≈-h¿°v am{Xsa kpÿnXn ¬Inbncp∂p≈q. Imem-hÿ-
  • 19. 21 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- bpsS {]mXnIqeyw nanØw ÿnchmktam nbXamb Irjnk{ºZmbtam {]mIrXAd_nIƒ°v hn[n°s∏´- Xmbncp-∂n√. hnZym`ymkw, NnInXvk, kmt¶XnI- hnZyIƒ XpSßnb cwKßfnsems° ]qPyw Un{Knbn¬ Xs∂-bmbn-cp∂p Ah¿. cmjv{Sobamtbm ssknI- amtbm Ah¿ kwL-Sn-Xcmbncp∂n√. Hmtcm tKm{X- tØbpw kmaqlyambn DtØ-Pn∏n®ncp∂ iIvXn Xß- fpsS ]nXm°fpw {]]nXm°fpw SØnb hoc]cm- {IaßfpsS tImcnØcn∏n°p∂ IYIfmbncp∂p. B IYIƒ tI´v hf¿∂ ]pXnb Xeapdbv°v i{XptKm{Xßfpambn G‰pap´phm≥ ]dbØ-°-Im- cWsam∂pw thWsa∂n√mbncp∂p. AhcpsS aX߃ A_≤PSneamb Av[hnizmkßfnepw BXvamhv jvSs∏´ BNmcßfnepw HXpßnn∂p. B Ahÿ i{Xp°ƒ ∂mbn NqjWw sNbvXp. FtXym]ybpw t]¿jybpw tdma°mcpsa√mw hnhn[ Ad_v- taJeIfpsS ta¬ {]Xy£amtbm ]tcm£amtbm B[n]Xyw Dd∏n®ncp∂p. Cn Cu ImeL´Øn¬ a‰v tZißfpsSbpw cmjv{S- ßfp-sSbpw ÿnXn tm°mw. imkv{Xw, Z¿iw, Ncn{Xw XpSßnb hnjbßfn¬ temI-Ønv Xs∂ tXrXzw ¬Im≥ am{Xw hf¿∂- hcm-bncp∂p A∂-sØ {Ko°pIm¿. A∂sØ AeIvkm≥{Unb (Cu-Pn-]vXv) Gjym{^n°≥- taJebnse G‰hpw henb kmw-kv°m-cnItI{μ-ambn- cp∂p. q‰m≠pIfpsS cmjv{So-b-mbIXzw am{Xa√ A∂-sØ tdma≥ km{am-Py-Øn-p≠mbncp∂Xv.
  • 20. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 2222 imkv{X kmt¶XnI cwKßfnepw tdma°m¿ AXnIm- b∑m¿ Xs∂bmbncp∂p. Zm¿inI∑mcpsSbpw aXm- Nmcy-∑mcpsSbpw mSmbn cp∂ t]¿jy cmjv{SobcwKØv tdman∂v kaio¿jambncp∂p. A∂- sØ C¥y°m¿ KWnXimkv{X, X¿°imkv{X cwKßfnepw, aXZm¿inI taJeIfnepw Hu∂Xyw {]m]n®hcmbncp∂p. F∂n´v Izp¿B≥ F¥mWv sNbvXXv? hv[yhpw Dujchpamb acp`qanbpsS a°sf kwkv°mcßsf sh√p∂ Hcp ]pXnb kwkvImcØns‚ hmlI∑m- cm°n. tKm{X-Ie-l-ßfn¬ XΩn¬ X√nXI¿∂ncp∂ Hcp PXsb GIssZhØns‚ GI a p≈ Zmk∑mcm°n am‰n-sb-Sp-Øp. `qXt{]XmZnIsf am{X a√, {]amWnIsfbpw t]m°ncnIsfbpw t]mepw `b∂pNqfp hm≥ hn[n°s∏´ Hcp ]oVnXh¿KsØ km{amPyßsf {]I ºw sIm≈n°p∂ tPXm°fmbn Db¿Øn. Nn´bpw N´ßfpan√mØ Ad_v Pohn-XØnv bpKm¥c߃°n∏pdhpw i_fna jvS-s∏-Sm-Ø Hcp nbahyhÿ ¬In. ]m]˛]pWyßsf ]‰ntbm [¿a- ˛A[¿a-ßsf∏‰ntbm [mcWbn√mØ PohnXm kIvXnbm¬ am{Xw bn°s∏´ncp∂ Hcp PXsb AXv Xmfw sX‰msX [¿a-njvTamb PohnX]mXbn- te°v bn®p. GI ssZh hnizmkØn¬ A[njvTnX- amb Izp¿B-n-I-PohnXZ¿iØnv Hcp PXsb alXzØns‚ F{X am{Xw D∂Xamb inJcßfnte°v bn°m≥ Ignbpsa∂v temIw A∂v I≠p. {]mIrXmhÿbn¬n∂v hnip≤ Izp¿B≥
  • 21. 23 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- hf¿ØnsbSpØ Atd_y≥ aWemcWyØns‚ DujcXbn¬n∂v aplΩZv _n hm¿sØSpØ ssZh-Øm¬ Iq´nbnW°s∏´ B Phn`mKØns‚ B¿Phhpw BXvahocyhpw I≠v Aºc∂v n¬°mt tdma≥ bh t]¿jy-≥ `mcXob mKcnIXIfpsS mbI∑m¿°v A∂v Ign-™p≈q. hnip≤ Izp¿B- ns‚ ssZhnIX AwKoIcn-°m-≥ aSnbp≈ Ncn{X- Imc∑m¿t]mepw Ggmw q‰m≠n¬ kmwkvI-mcnI- kmaqly cmjv{Sob cwKßfn emsI hnkvabm-hlhpw sFXnlmknIhpamb apt∂‰w SØnb Ad_n-IfpsS ap-∂n¬ angn®pn∂n´p≠v. aplΩZv _n sb ]‰n ]pe-`yw ]dbm≥ aSn°mØ F®v.Pn. sh¬kv F∂ Ncn{XImc-≥-t]mepw Izp¿Bns‚ ApbmbnIƒ A∂v S-Ønb Ncn{XØn¬ XpeyXbn√mØ ssP{Xbm{Xsb∏‰n hnkvab-]q¿h-w ]cma¿in°m≥ n¿_v[Xn-mbn´p≠v. Izp¿B≥ F¥psIm≠v AXpeyw? ssh⁄mnI hnkvt^mSw F∂v hnfn°s∏Sp∂ {]Xn`mkw temIØv AXv`pX߃ hncnbn®psIm≠n- cn-°p∂ Cu ImeØv Ggmw q‰m≠nse Hcp Ad_n {KŸØns‚ AXpeyXsb∏‰n ]dbp∂Xv Nne¿°v ]cnlmkyambn tXm∂ntb°mw. smt_¬ kΩmw tSnb kmlnXyIrXn-IfpsSbpw imkv{Xkn≤m- ¥ßfp-sSbpw apºn¬ Hcp aX-{KŸ--Øns‚ {]kIvXn ]mtS ntj[n°p∂-hcp≠m-tb-°mw. F∂m¬ e£WbpIvXamb Hcp {KŸ-sØ∏-‰n-
  • 22. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 2424 bp≈ ssZhn Ihn`mhbpsS ASnÿmØn¬ hnip≤ Izp¿Bns‚ AbeØv n¬°m≥ tbmKyamb Hcp IrXnt]mepw B[pnI bpKØn¬ shfn®w I≠n- ´ns√∂v kq£va hniIeØn¬ hyIvXamIpw. Hcp {KŸw e£WbpIvXamIm≥ F¥v thWw? ""B {KŸw, AXn¬ kwiban√. [¿a-njvT¿°v AXv am¿K Z¿iIas{X'' (Izp¿-B≥ 2:1) PohnXØns‚ t¿°v c≠pXcw ho£mKXnIƒ sh®p ]pe¿Øp∂hcp≠v. H∂v, P¥pklPamb hy{KXtbmsS PohnX kpJ߃ hmcn°q´phm≥ {ian°p∂h¿. G‰hpw BkzmZyamb Blmc ]mobßfpw {ihy˛Zriy atmlmcnXIfpw ssewKnI tNjvSIfpambncn°pw AhcpsS PohnX ho£W- Øn¬ anI®p n¬°p∂Xv. kz¥w Xm¬]cy- ØnpXIp∂Xmbn tXm∂p∂ sX√mw Ah¿°v bp-IvX- ambncn°pw. c≠v, AXncpw FXncpan√m Ø Pohn- XXrjvW A]ISØntet° bn°pIbp≈qsh∂pw PohnXw [m¿anIXbpsS N´°q´n¬ {IaoIcns®¶nte alXzw ssIhcn°mmIq F∂pw a nem°nbh¿. H∂masØ hn`mKsØ bn°p∂Xv £WnI hnImc- ßfpw Xm¬°menI em`Nn¥bpamsW¶n¬ c≠mw hn`m-K-sØ bn°p∂Xv hnthIhpw Zo¿LZr-jvSnbp- ambncn°pw. hnthIimenIfmb Cu hn`mKw Ft∏mgpw [¿a- Øns‚ shfn®w tXSp∂hcmbncn°pw. Ccp´n¬n∂v shfn®Øn-te-°v F∂Xmbncn°pw AhcpsS ap{ZmhmIyw. CØc°m¿°v hgn Im´m≥ km[n°p∂Xv
  • 23. 25 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- F∂v n tμlw AhImi-s∏-Sp∂ {KŸw GXp≠v? CXmWv {]ivw. hnip≤ Izp¿B≥ AhImis∏Sp∂p: apjycpsS hmKvhnNmcI¿a-߃ A[¿a-Ønte°v hyXnNen°ptºmƒ Ahsc hos≠SpØv [¿aØns‚ shfn®Ønte°v Bbn°m≥ AXnv km[n°psa∂vv.- thsd GXv {KŸØnv Cßs AhImis∏Smm- Ipw? aX Zm¿inIhnjbßfnepw imkv{X kmln- Xyhn`mK-ßfn-ep-ambn tImSmptImSn {KŸßƒ hnhn[ `mjIfnembn temIØps≠∂Xv icnbmWv. Ahsbms° BfpIƒ°v Adnhpw Ap`qXnIfpw ]I¿∂psImSp°p∂pap≠v. F∂m¬ Adnhnt°mfpw Ap`qXntb°mfpw D∂Xamb k∑m¿K- Nn¥ ¬Ip∂Xn¬ Ahbv°v F{Xam{Xw ka{KXbpw kºq¿WXbpw AhImis∏SmmIpw? ss__nfpw KoXbpw sk¥v AshkvXbpw a‰pw aX {KŸßsf∂ nebn¬ Cu cwKØv NnesXms° sNøp∂p≠v. F∂m¬ ssZhnI-Zo]vXnbpambn apjya ns kZm _v[n∏n®psIm≠v PohnXsØ Baqem{Kw kwkvIcn°phmp≈ ka{Kamb nban¿tZ-i߃ Ah Dƒs°m≈p∂ns√∂v kcfamb XmcXayw sIm≠pXs∂ kv]jvSamIpw. Izp¿B≥ tIhew Nne ]qPm{Iaßfpw {]m¿Y-m k¶o¿Ø ßfpw ASßp∂ {KŸa√. apjy PohnX- sØ {Kkn°mhp ∂ F√m Xn∑Isf∏‰nbpw hyIvX- amb Xm°oXv AXn¬ ASßnbn´p≠v. Ip‰hmfnIsf ImØncn°p∂ ssZhnI in£bpw, Ip‰ IrXy߃°v `cWIqSw ¬tI≠ `uXnI in£bpw hnip≤
  • 24. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 2626 Izp¿B≥ hnhcn°p∂p. CS]mSpIƒ hnizkvXXtbmsS SØphmp≈ [m¿anI am¿KZ¿ihpw ]WanS- ]mSpIfn¬ I£nIƒ XΩn¬ X¿°ßƒ DXv`hn- °mXncn°p∂Xnpth≠ {]mtbmKnI n¿tZ-ißfpw Hcpt]mse Izp¿B≥ Dƒs°m≈p∂p. hnhmlw kpZr- -Vamb Icm¿ F∂ nebn¬ ImØpkq£n °mp≈ [m¿antIm¬t_m[hpw IpSpw_hg°pIƒ cayambn ]d™pXo¿°p∂Xnp≈ {]mtbmKnI S]Sn- {Iaßfpw Izp¿Bn¬ ImWmw. Bcm[m{Iaßsf bm{¥n-Iamb ApjvTmßfmbn´√ hnip≤ Izp¿B≥ AhXcn-∏n°p∂Xv. PohnXsØ kzNvOhpw n¿aehpw Ah{I-hpambn nen¿Øm≥ klm-bn-°p- ∂ [m¿anI {]tNmZtm-]m[nIsf∂ ne-bnemWv a- kv-Imcw ({]m¿Y-) k°mXv (n¿-_v[ Zmw), {hXw, lPvPv (a°bnte°p≈ Xo¿-YmSw) F∂o Imcyßsf Izp¿B≥ AhXcn∏n°p∂Xv. hnImc-hnNmcßsf ip≤am°mØ, kzm¿Y-w o°mØ, tkhaÿnXn hf¿ØmØ bm{¥nIamb akvI-mcw ({]m-¿Y-) mi- Øn-t DXIq F∂v Izp¿B≥ Xm°oXv ¬-Ip∂p. ssewKnI AcmPIXz-ØnsXncn¬ am{Xa√, A]-hmZ- {]NmcWØn-sXncnepw kz`mhlXys°Xncnepw IqSn kacw {]Jym-]n®p-sIm≠v D≈pw ]pdhpw Hcpt]mse- ip≤amb kaqlØns‚ krjvSn°v Bhiyamb D]m[nIƒ Izp¿B≥ hc®pIm´p∂p. `uXnIhpw A`uXnIhpw `uXnI{]]©Øn¬ apjy≥ Is≠Øp∂ P¥p°ƒ-t°m kky߃t°m n¿÷-oh ]Zm¿Y-
  • 25. 27 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- ߃t°m sX‰v sNøm-≥ Ignbn√. h©n°mmhn√. I≈w ]dbm≥ km[n-°n√. A[¿aw {]h¿Øn°m≥ Ahbvs°m∂pw kzmX-{¥y-an√. Hmtcm∂pw AhbpsS [¿a-w bYmhn[n n¿h-ln°p∂p. ap-jy≥ CXn¬ ns∂√mw hyXykvXs{X! kzX{¥amb Nn¥, kzX{¥amb hm°v, kzX{¥amb {]h¿Øw: AXs{X Ah-s‚ khntijX. `uXnItemIØv apjyv am{Xw e`n-® Cu kzmX{¥y sØ∏‰n Ah≥ icnbmw- hÆw Nn¥n-®m-¬ Ahs‚ AkvXnXz]camb _m[yX- Iƒ Ahv Is≠ØmmIpw. {]IrXym A[¿a-w {]h¿Øn°m≥ kzmX-{¥y-an√mØ krjvSnIƒ°v {]tXyI am¿KZ¿iØns‚ Bh-iy-an√. AYhm AhbpsS {]IrXntbmsSm∏w AhbpsS am¿Khpw n¿Wbn°s∏´ncn°p∂p. A[¿a-w {]h¿Øn°m≥ kzmX{¥yap≈ apjyv am¿KZ¿iw thWw. `uXnI- ⁄mw t¿hgn ImWn°m≥ ]cym]vXamhn√. hnhml-amtWm hy`nNmcamtWm apjy [¿asa∂v `uXnIimkv{Xw ]Tn∏n°p∂n√. oXntbm Ao- Xntbm, kXytam AkXytam, Imcp-Wy-tam {IqcXtbm GXmWv [¿asa∂v `uXnIambn sXfnbn-°pI km[ya√. `uXnI {]]©sØ∏‰n ]Tn°m≥ ssZhw apjyv ¬Inb IgnhpIƒ Izp¿B≥ Nnt¥m±o- ]Iamw-hn[w Nq≠n°m´p∂p≠v. aw, hN-w, teJw F∂o amhnI IgnhpIsf ssZhØns‚ Aaqey-amb Ap-{K-lßsf∂ nebn¬ Izp¿B≥ AhXcn∏n°pIbpw B IgnhpIƒ Zmw sNbvXXnv {kjvSmhntmSv μn {]ISn∏n°m≥ Blzmw sNøp-
  • 26. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 2828 Ibpw sNøp∂p. F∂m¬ kXyhpw AkXyhpw hnthNn®dntb≠ n¿Wmb IcwKßfn¬ A`uXnI tI{μßfn¬n∂v, {]]©mYn¬ n∂v am¿KZ¿iw e`ns®¶ne√msX apjyv t¿hgn Is≠Ømmhn√. ImemIme-ß- fn¬ hnhn[ tZißfn¬ nbpIvXcmb {]hmNI- ∑mcneqsS A√mlp apjy¿°v A`uXnI-amb am¿KZ¿iw ¬In. B am¿KZ¿iw kzoIcn®h¿°v AhcpsS PohnXsØ hnip≤ambn ImØpkq£n°m≥ km[n®p. kz¥w Adnhn¬ Al¶cn®h¿°v A[¿- aßfneqsS A[x]Xn°mmbncp∂p hn[n. [mcmfw Ncn{X-kw`hßfpsSbpw PohnXZrjvSm-¥ßfp-sSbpw shfn®Øn¬ Izp¿B≥ Cu hkvXpX ka¿Y-n°p∂p. am¿KZ¿iw {]tbmPs∏SWsa¶n¬ Izp¿B≥ Nq≠n°mWn°p∂ Anhmcy D]m[n apjy≥ ssK_n¬- (A`uXnI kXyßfn¬) hnizkn-°W- sa∂p≈XmWv. ap-jyv kz¥w ⁄mØn¬ aXn∏p- ≠mIWsa∂v Xs∂-bmWv Izp¿B≥ ]Tn∏n-°p-∂Xv. AtXmsSm∏w k¿h-⁄-m-b ssZhØns‚ BXy-¥n- I⁄mØns‚ k¿thm∂X-ÿm-hpw apjy≥ AwKoIcn°Ww. {XnIme⁄mnbmb ssZhØnv am{Xsa sX‰v]‰mØ am¿K-n¿tZ-iw ¬-Im≥ A¿lXbpw AhImihpw D≈qsh∂XmWv Izp¿-B- n-s‚ ne]mSvv. ""BZanv Ah≥ "t]cp'Isf√mw ]Tn∏n®p'' (Izp¿- B≥ 2:31).-
  • 27. 29 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- ""apjys Ah≥ krjvSn®p. Ah∂v Bib- {]Imiw ]Tn∏n®p'' (Izp¿-B≥ 55:3,4). ""t] sIm≠v ]Tn∏n®h≥, apjyv Adn™p- IqSmØXv Ah≥ ]Tn∏n®p'' (Izp¿-B≥ 96:4,5).- ""n߃ Hcp Imcyw shdptØ°mw. bYm¿Y-Øn¬ AXv n߃°v KpWIcambncn°pw. n߃ Hcp Imcyw CjvSs∏ t´°mw. bYm¿Y-Øn¬ AXv n߃- °v tZmjIcamtb°mw. A√mlp Adnbp∂p. n߃ Adnbp∂n√'' (Izp¿-B≥ 2:216).- ""Xm¶ƒ ]dbq, BXvamhv Fs‚ mYs‚ ImcyØn- ¬-s]-´-XmIp∂p. ⁄mØn¬ n∂v A¬]w am{Xsa n-ß-ƒ°v ¬I-s∏´n´p≈q'' (Izp¿-B≥ 17:85). ""n߃°v Fs‚ am¿KZ¿iw hs∂Øptºmƒ B am¿-K-Z¿iw ]n¥pScp∂Xmtcm Ah¿°v bmsXm- cp `bhp-an√. Ah¿ ZpxJnt°≠nhcnIbpan√'' (Izp¿- B≥ 2:38).- C∂v temIØnv tcn´ G‰hpw henb Zpc¥w `u- XnI ⁄m-Ønv am{Xw AwKoImcw ¬IpIbpw ap-jys t¿--hgnbnte°v bn°p∂ ssZhnI-ktμi- sØ AK-Wy-tImSn-bn¬ X≈pIbpw sNbvXXmsW∂v h¿ØamIme kw`h߃ kq£vaambn nco£n- °p∂h¿°v hyIvXamIpw. Ncn{Xw Izp¿Bn¬ hnip≤ Izp¿B≥ Hcp Ncn{X{KŸa√. F∂m¬ ap- jy cminsb Ccp´pIfn¬n∂v shfn®Ønte°v sIm-
  • 28. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 3030 ≠phcm≥ th≠n AhXcn∏n°s∏´ Hcp {KŸØnv `qX-Ime-Ncn{X-sØ AhKWn®psIm≠v `mhnsb∏‰n ]dbmmhn√. ]q¿h-Ime-{]hmNI∑mcpsS {]t_m- [Øns‚bpw {]hmNI-∑m-cpsS {]XntbmKnIfpsS {]XnIcWßfpsSbpw Ncn{X-Øn-¬-n∂v ]mTapƒ-s°m- ≈m≥ klmbn°pIsb∂XmWv Izp¿B-nse Ncn{XIYØns‚ e£yw. Izp¿B≥ AhXcn∏n°s∏-S-p∂ ImesØ Ncn{X- sa∂m¬ kXy-sØ°mƒ AkXyØnv ap≥Xq°ap≈ CXnlm-kß-fmbncp∂p. Ad_n°YItfmfans√¶nepw AanXh¿W--Ifp-sSbpw AXnitbmIvXnIfpsSbpw Ie¿∏v [mcmfw tN¿∂Xv Xs∂bmbncp∂p ss__nƒ IYIfpw. F∂m¬ hnip≤ Izp¿-Bns‚ Ncn{X- hnhcWw CXn¬n∂pw XnI®pw hyXykvX-amWv. AXn¬ B[pnI-Ncn{Xho£Ww sh®ptm°nbm¬ sX‰msW∂v sXfnbn°mhp∂ Imcyßsfm∂pw Xs∂bn√. {]]t©m¬]Ønsb ]‰nbpw aptjym- ¬]Ønsb]‰nbpw ss__nƒ ]gb nbaØnep≈ Ahnizkobamb ]cma¿-i-ßsfm∂pw hnip≤ Izp¿Bn¬ Cs√∂Imcyw {]kvXm-hyamIp∂p. ss__nfpw X¬aqZpw a‰pw ]mcmbWw sNbvXn´v AXn-s‚ shfn®Øn¬ aplΩZv _n kz¥ambn hncNn®-XmWv hnip≤ Izp¿B≥ F∂ hna¿iIcpsS hmZØnv iIvXamb adp]Sn IqSnbmWv Izp¿B- nsebpw ss__nfnsebpw Ncn{X-]camb ]cma¿- i߃ XΩnep≈ auenIamb A¥cw. D-Zm-l-c-W-am-bn,- Rm-b¿- ap-X¬- sh-≈n-Iq-Sn-b- B-dv-
  • 29. 31 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- Zn-h-k-ß-fn-em-bn- ssZ-hw- {]-]-©-kr-jv-Sn- -S-Øn-b- ti- jw- G-gmw- Znhkw- tPm-en-bn¬-n-∂v- n-hr-Øm-bn- hn{i- an-®p-sh-∂pw- A∂m-Wv- i-∫-Øv- F-∂p-am-Wv- D¬-]-Øn- ]p-kv-X-I-Øn¬- (ss_-_nƒ- ]-g-b- n-b-aw) -tc-J-s∏-Sp- Øn-bn-´p-≈-Xv.- F-∂m¬- hn-ip-≤- Izp¿B-n¬- {]-]-©- sØ- B-dv- "bu-ap'-I-fn-em-°n- krjv-Sn-®p-sh-∂v- am{X-sa- ]-d-™n-´p-≈q- (Izp¿B≥- 7:-54,- 10:-3,- 11:-7,-25:-59,- 32:-4,- 50:- 38,- 57:-4)- "buw'- F-∂m¬- B-gv-N-bn-se- H-cp- Zn-h-k-a-√,- A-Xn-Zo¿-L-am-b- Hcp- Im-e-b-f-hm-sW-∂pw- Izp¿B≥- hy- Iv-X-am-°n-bn-´p-≠v.- {]-]©-sØ- kr-jv-Sn-®n-´v- ssZ-hw- £o- Wn-°p-∂- {]-iv--ta-bn-s√-∂pw- (AXp-sIm-≠p-X-s∂- hn- {i-a-Øn-s‚ {]-iv--hp-an-√)- Izp¿B≥- kv-]-jvS-am-°n-bn- ´p-≠v (Izp¿B≥- 46:-33).- {]-hm-N-I-m-b- eq-Øn- (tem-Øv)-s-∏-‰n- ss_-_nƒ- ]-cm-a-¿in-°p-∂-Xv- H-cp-{]-hm-N-I-s‚ a-l-Xz-Øn-tm- km- [m-c-W-°m-c-s‚- k-`y-X-bv-t°m- n-c-°m-Ø- hn-[-Øn-em- Wv.- Izp¿B≥- A-t±-l-sØ- hn-ti-jn-∏n-°p-∂-Xv- ssew- Kn-Ik-Zm-Nm-c-Øn-s‚ {]-t_m-[-I-m-bn-´m-Wv.- b-Av-Iq-_v- -_n- (bm-t°m-_v-)-sb- ss_-_nƒ- Nn-{Xo-Icn-°p-∂- Xv- ssZ-h-hp-am-bn- Kp-kv-Xn- -S-Øn-b- ho-c-]-cm-{I-an-bm-bn- ´m-Wv.- Izp¿B≥- A-t±-l-sØ-∏-‰n- hn-h-cn-°p-∂-Xv- A-Xy- ¥w- Xmgv-a-tbm-sS- I-c-™v- I-e-ßn-b- I-Æp-I-fp-am-bn- ssZ- h-tØm-Sv- {]m¿-Y-n-°p-∂- H-cp- hn-o-XZm-k-m-bn-´m-Wv.- {]-]-t©m¬-]-Øn- kw-_-‘n-®pw- a-p-tjym¬-]-Øn- kw-_-‘n-®pw- ss_-_nfn¬-- ]-c-∂p-In-S-°p-∂- hn-Nn-{X- am-b- hn-h-c-W-ß-fpw- I-W-°p-I-fpw- hn-ip-≤- Izp¿Bn- en-s√-∂v- am-{X-a-√,- B[p-n-I- im-kv-{X-Pv-R-∑m-sc- t]m-
  • 30. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 3232 epw- A-º-cn-∏n-°p-∂- A-yq--X-tbm-Sp-Iq-Sn- hn-ip-≤- Izp¿B≥- {]m-]-©n-I- {]-Xn-`m-k-ß-fn-te-°v- shfn-®w- h- o-ip-∂p-≠v F-∂-Xpw- hn-ip-≤- Izp¿B-n-s‚ A-am-p-jn- I-X-°v- D-Ø-a-Zr-jv-Sm-¥-a-s{X.- Izp¿B-n-I- Zr-jv-Sm-¥-߃- hn-ip-≤- Izp¿-B≥- a-p-jy-a-- n-tm-Sv- kw-km-cn-°p- ∂-Xv- A¤p-X-߃-sIm-≠v- A-`ym-kw- Im-Wn-°p-∂- C- Xn-lm-kI-Ym-]m-{Xß-sf- Nq-≠n-°m-Wn-®p-sIm-≠-√.- `q- X-˛t{]-Xm-Zn-I-sf-]-‰n-tbm- cm£-km-Im-cw- ]p-≠- Zp-jv-S- i-Iv-Xn-I-sf-∏-‰n-tbm- C-ºm-®n- ]-d-™p-sIm-≠p-a-√.- G- sXm-cp- Nn-¥m-io-e-s-bpw- hn-kv-a-bn-∏n-°p-∂,- I-Æpw- Im- Xpw- a-- pw Xp-d-∂p-sh-°m≥- k-∑-- p-≈- G-sXm-cp- Pn-⁄m-kp-hn-∂pw- Iu-Xp-I-ap-f-hm-°p-∂- {]m-]-©n-I- {]- Xn-`m-k-ß-sf- Nq≠n-°m-Wn-®p-sIm-≠v- hnip-≤- Izp¿B≥- tNm-Zn-°p-∂p-;- C-sXm-s°- bm-Zr-Nv-On-I-am-bn- kw-`-hn-®- Xm-tWm,- A-e-£y-am-bpw- A-hyh-ÿn-X-am-bpw- H-Øp-Iq- Sn-b-Xm-tWm- F-∂v.- {]m-No-A-td-_y-bn-se- bp-Iv-Xn-hm- Zn-I-sf- am-{X-a-√ B-[p-n-I- bp-Iv-Xn-hm-Zn-I-sf-bpw- D-Ø- cw- ap-´n-°p-∂-X-t{X- Izp¿B≥- D-b¿-Øn-°m-´p-∂- Zr-jv- Sm-¥ß-ƒ-.- ssZ-h-Øn-s‚ A-kv-Xn-Xz-Øn-pw- A-Xp-ey-am- b- I-gn-hp-Iƒ°pw- Izp¿B≥- sX-fn-hv- n-c-Øp-∂- co-Xn- A-Xy-¥w- e-fn-X-hpw- lr-Zbm-h¿-P-I-hp-a-s{X.- G-Xm-pw- D-Zm-l-c-W-߃- Xm-sg- sIm-Sp-°p-∂p:- ""A-h-s‚ Zr-jv-Sm-¥-ß-fn¬-s]-´-Xm-Wv-:- A-h≥- n-ß- sf- aÆn ¬-n-∂v- kr-jv-Sn-®p- F-∂-Xv.- F-∂n-´m-Wv- n-߃- Cu- ]-c-∂p-In-S-°p-∂- a-p-jy-h¿-K-a-{X-bp-ap-≠m-b-Xv.-
  • 31. 33 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- A-h-s‚ Zr-jv-Sm-¥-ßfn¬-s]-´-Xm-Wv- n-߃-°p-th- ≠n- Ah≥- n-ß-fn¬-n-∂v- X-s∂- C-W-I-sf- kr-jv-Sn- ®p-sh-∂-Xv.- n߃- A-h-tcm-sSm-Øv- im-¥n-tbm-sS- h- kn-®n-Sp-hm≥-th-≠n,- n߃-°n-S-bn¬- A-h≥- kv-t-l- hpw- Im-cp-Wy-hpw- D-f-hm-°p-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xp.- Xo¿-®-bm- bpw- A-Xn¬- Nn-¥n-°p-∂- B-fp-Iƒ-°v- sX-fn-hp-I-fp-≠v.- D-]-cn-tem-I-ßf-p-sS-bpw- `q-an-bp-sS-bpw- kr-jv-Sn-∏pw- n- ß-fpsS- `m-j-I-fp-sS-bpw- h¿-W-ß-fp-sS-bpw- ssh-hn-[y- hpw- A-h-s‚ Zrjv-Sm-¥-ß-fn¬- s]-´-X-s{X.- A-dn-hp-≈- h¿-°v- A-Xn¬- sX-fn-hp-I-fp≠v,- Xo¿-®.- cm-hn-epw- ]-I-en-ep-ap-≈- n-ß-fp-sS- n-{Z-bpw- A-h- s‚ A-p{K-l-ß-fn¬-n-∂v- n-߃- D-]-Po-h-w- tX-Sp- ∂-Xpw- A-h-s‚ Zr-jvSm-¥-ßfn¬-s]-´-X-s{X.- {i-≤n-®p- tIƒ-°p-∂- B-fp-Iƒ-°v- A-Xn¬- sX-fn-hp-I-fp-≠v,- Xo¿- ®.- `-b-hpw- tam-l-hp-ap-W¿-Øn-s°m-≠v- A-h≥- n-߃- °v- an-∂¬∏n-W¿- Im-Wn-®p-X-cp-∂-Xpw- A-h-s‚ Zr-jv-Sm- ¥-ß-fn¬ -s]-´-X-s{X.- D-]-cn-`m-K-Øp-n-∂v- sh-≈w -sNm- cn-™p-X-cn-I-bpw- n¿-Pohm-h-ÿ-bv-°p-ti-jw- `q-an-°v- Po-h≥- ¬-Ip-I-bpw- sN-øp-∂p.- Xo¿®-bm-bpw- A-Xn¬- Nn-¥n-°p-∂- B-fp-Iƒ-°-v- sX-fn-hp-I-fp-≠v.- A-h-s‚ Zr-jv-Sm-¥-ßfn¬-s]-´-X-s{X,- B-Im-i-hpw- `q- an-bpw- A-h-s‚ im-k--b-p-k-cn-®v- n-e-n¬-°p-∂p-sh- ∂-Xv.- ]n-∂o-Sv- n-ß-sf- `q-an-bn¬-n-∂v- (a-c-Wm--¥-cw)- A-h≥- H-cp- hn-fn-b-ßv- hn-fn-°p-tºmƒ- n-ß-f-Xm- A-h- ¶-te-°v- ]p-d-s∏-Sp-∂p.-
  • 32. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 3434 D-]-cntem-I-ß-fn-epw- `q-an-bn-epw- D-≈-h-sb--√mw- A-h- s‚XmIp-∂p.- F-√m-h-cpw- A-h-∂v- Io-g-S-ßp-∂-h-c-s{X.- A-h≥- X-s∂-bm-Ip-∂p- kr-jv-Sn-I¿a-w- Xp-S-ßp-∂-Xv.- ]n-∂oSv- A-h--Xv- B-h¿-Øn-°p-∂p.- B- B-h¿-Ø-w- A-h-v- Iq-Sp-X¬- F-fp-∏-ap-≈-Xm-Ip-∂p.- D-]-cn-tem-I-ß- fn-seb-pw- `qan-bn-se-bpw- AXyp-∂-X-am-b- am-Xr-I- A-h- s‚Xm-Ip-∂p.- A-h≥- {]-X-m-]n-bpw- A-`n-Pv-R-p-a-s{X'' (Izp¿B≥- 30:-20˛27).- ""D-]-cn-tem-I-ß-fp-sS-bpw- `q-an-bp-sS-bpw- kr-jv-Sn-∏n-epw- Zn--cm-{X-ß-fp-sS- am-‰-Øn-epw- P-tm-]-Im-c-{]-Z-am-b- h- kv-Xp-°-fp-am-bn- I-S-en-eq-sS- k-©-cn-°p-∂- I-∏-en-epw,- A-√m-lp- D-]-cn-`m-K-Øp-n∂v- sh-≈w- sNm-cn-™p-X-∂n- ´v- X-Zzm-cm- n¿-÷-o-h-am-bn-°n-S-∂n-cp-∂- `q-an-°v- Po-h≥- ¬-In-b-Xn-epw,- `qan-bn¬- P-¥p-Pm-e-ß-sf- hn-ykn-®- Xn-epw,- Im-‰p-I-fp-sS- K-Xn-hn-]-cy-b-Øn-epw- B-Im-i- `q- an-Iƒ-°n-S-bn-eq-sS- B--bn-°-s∏-Sp-∂- Im¿-ta-L-Øn-epw- Nn-¥n-°p-∂- Bfp-Iƒ-°v- Zr-jv-Sm-¥-ß-fp-≠v,- Xo¿-®''- (Izp¿B≥- 2:-164).- ""k-Xy-n-tj-[n-Iƒ- I-≠n-t√?- D-]-cn-tem-I-ß-fpw- `q- an-bpw- H´n-t®¿-∂-h-bm-bn-cp-∂p.- F-∂n-´v- mw- A-h-sb- th¿-s∏-Sp-Øn.- sh≈-Øn¬-n-∂pw- F-√m- ssP-h-h-kv- Xp-°-sf-bpw- mw- D-≠m-°p-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xp.- F-∂n-´pw- A-h¿- hn-iz-kn-°p-∂n-t√?- `q-an-bn¬- D-d-®pn¬-°p-∂- ]¿-h-X-ß-sf- mw- D-≠m-°n;- A-h-sc-bpw-sIm-≠v- A-Xv- "`qan'- C-f-In-t∏m-Im-Xn-cn-°p-hm≥- th-≠n.- B- ]¿-h-X- ßf-n¬- hn-im-eam-b- ]m-X-I-fpw- mw- D-≠m-°n-;- A-h¿- h-gn- I-s≠-Øp-∂-Xn-p-th≠n.-
  • 33. 35 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- D-]-cn-`m-K-sØ- mw- kp-c-£n-X-am-b- H-cp- ta¬-∏p-c-bm- I-bpw- sNbv-Xp.- F-∂n-´pw- C-h-bn-e-S-ßn-b-sX-fn-hp-Iƒ- {i-≤n-°m-sX- Ah¿- Xn-cn-™p-I-f-bp-I-bmIp-∂p-!- A-h-m-Ip-∂p- Z-n--cm-{X-ßsf-bpw- kq-cy-N-{μ-∑m-sc- bpw- krjv-Sn-®-Xv.- Hm-tcm-∂pw- A-X-Xn-s‚ {`-a-W-]-Y-Øn¬- o-¥n-s°m-≠ncn-°p-∂p''- (Izp¿B≥- 21:-30˛33)-.- ""A-h¿-°p-≈- Zr-jv-S-m-¥w- n¿-Po-h-am-b- `q-an-bm-Ip- ∂p.- m-a-Xn-v- Po-h≥- ¬-Ip-I-bpw- A-Xn¬-n-∂v- [m- yw- D¬-]m-Zn-∏n-°p-Ibpw- sN-bv-Xp.- F-∂n-´v- A-Xn¬- n- ∂-s{X- Ah-¿- `p-Pn-°p-∂-Xv.- A-Xn¬- mw- Cu-¥-∏--tØm-´-ß-fpw- ap-¥n-cn-tØm-´- ß-fpw- D≠m-°n.- A-Xn¬- mw- o-cp-d-h-Iƒ- s]m-´n-s®- Sp-°p-I-bpw- sN-bvXp.- A-Xn-s‚ ^-e-ß-fn¬-n-∂v- A-h¿- `p-Pn-®n-Sp-hm≥.- (b-Ym¿Y-Øn¬-)- A-h-cp-sS- I-c-ß-f-√- A-Xv- D-≠m-°n-b-Xv.- F-∂n-´pw- Ah¿- -μn- Im-Wn-°p-∂n- t√?- `q-an- ap-f-∏n-°p-∂-h,- A-h-cp-sS- kz-¥w- i-co-c-߃,-- Ah¿-°dn-™p-Iq-Sm-Ø- a-‰v- h-kv-Xp-°ƒ- F-√mw- C-W- I-fm-bn- kr-jv-Sn-®- krjv-Sn-I¿-Øm-hv- F-{X-a-l-X-zap-≈- h≥-!''-- (hn.Jp.- 36:-33˛36).- ""P--ß-tf- n-߃-°v- (a-c-Wm--¥-c-ap-≈)- D-b¿-sØ- gp-t∂¬ ∏n¬- kw-i-b-am-sW-¶n¬- ({i-≤n-°p-I).- m-am- Wv- n-ß-sf- a-Æn¬-n-∂v- kr-jv-Sn-®-Xv.- ]ns∂- _o-P-I- W-Øn¬-n-∂v.- ]n-s∂- {`q-W-Øn¬-n-∂v.- ]n-s∂- cq-]w- ]q-≠-Xpw- A-√m-Ø-Xp-am-b- amw-k-]nWv-U-Øn¬-n-∂v.- F- ∂n-´v- mw- Dt±-in-°p-∂- H-cp- n¿-Wn-X- k-a-bw-h-sc- K¿-
  • 34. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 3636 `m-i-b-Øn¬- Xm-ßm≥-hn-Sp-∂p.- n-ß-sf- mw- ssi-ihm- h-ÿ-bn¬- ]p-d-Øp-sIm-≠p-h-cp-∂p.- ]n-s∂- n-߃- ]- cn-]-Iz-{]m-b-Øn-se-Øp-∂p.- n-߃- Nn-e¿- (C-S-{]m-b- Øn¬)- N-c-aw- {]m-]n°-p-∂p.- Nn-e¿- A-h-ihm¿-≤-Iy-Øn- te-°v- -bn-°-s∏-Sp-∂p.- AsX,- ]-e-Xpw- A-dn-bp-am-bn-cp- ∂-Xn-p-ti-jw- H-∂p-w- A-dn-bm-Ø- A-h-ÿ-bn-te-°v''- (Izp¿B≥- 22:-5).- ""A-h≥- n-ß-sf- H-scm-‰- k-Ø-bn¬-n-∂v- kr-jv-Sn- ®p.- ]n-s∂- A-Xn¬-n-∂v- X-s∂- A-Xn-s‚ C-W-sb-bpw- D-≠m-°n.- n-߃-°p-th-≠n- Im-en-I-fn¬-n-∂v- F-´v- C- W-I-tf-bpw- A-h≥- H-cp-°n-Ø-∂p.- n-ß-fp-sS- am-Xm-°- fp-sS- DZ-c-ß-fn¬- H-∂n-p-]p-d-sI- H∂m-bn- kr-jv-Sn-∏n- s‚ ]-e- L-´-ß-fn-em-bn- n-ß-sf-b-h≥- kr-jv-Sn-°p-∂p.- aq-∂v- C-cp-´p-Iƒ-°p-≈n¬.- A-h-m-Ip-∂p- n-ß-fp-sS- mY≥.- A-h-∂m-Ip-∂p- B-[n-]-Xyw-.- A-h--√m-sX- H-cm- cm-[y-p-an-√.- F-∂n-´v- n-ß-sf-ß-s- hy-Xn-N-en-°-s∏-Sp- ∂p?''- (Izp¿B≥- 39:-6)-.- ""A-√m-lp- n-ß-sf- n-ß-fp-sS- am-Xm-°-fp-sS- D-Z-c-ß- fn¬-n∂v- ]p-d-Øp-sIm-≠p-h-∂-Xv- n-߃-°v- H-∂pw- A- dn-™p-Iq-Sm-Ø- Ah-ÿ-bn-em-Wv.- A-h-m-Wv- n-߃- °v- Im-Xpw- I-Æpw-a-- p-sa√mw- ¬-In-b-Xv.- n-߃- - μn-bp-≈-h-cm-sb-¶n¬-!''- (Izp¿B≥- 16:-78)-.- ""ssZ-hw- n-ß-sf- a-Æn¬-n-∂pw- Xp-S¿-∂v- _o-P-I-W- Øn¬-n∂pw- kr-jv-Sn-®p.- F-∂n-´v- n-ß-sf- A-h≥- C- W-I-fm-°n.- A-hs‚ A-dn-thm-sS-b-√m-sX- H-cp- kv-{Xo-bpw- K¿-`w- [-cn-°p-∂n-√.- {]-k-hn-°p-∂p-an-√.- tc-J-bn-ep-≈-X-
  • 35. 37 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- p-k-cn-®-√m-sX- H-cmƒ-°pw- Zo¿Lm-bp- v- ¬-I-s∏-Sp- I-tbm- A¬-]m-bp- m-°-s∏-Sp-I-tbm- C-√.- Xo¿-®-bm-bpw- A-Xv- ssZ-h-Øn-v- F-fp-∏-am-Ip-∂p.- c-≠v- P-em-i-b-߃- Xp-ey-am-hp-I-bn-√.- H-∂v- ip-≤-hpw- kz-Nv-Ohpw- kp-J-Z-hpw.- a-s‰m-∂v- D-∏v- c-k-hpw- Zp- -zm-Zp- ap-≈-Xv.- F-∂m¬- c-≠n¬-n-∂pw- am¿-Z-h-ap-≈- ]p-Ø≥- amw-kw- n-߃-°v- `-£n°m≥- In-´p-∂p.- n-߃-°v- B- `-c-W-am-bn- A-Wn-bm-p-≈-Xv- ]p-d-sØ-Sp-°m-pw- I-gn-bp- ∂p.- I-∏¬- A-Xn-eq-sS- P-tem-]-cn-X-ew- Io-dn-ap-dn®v- o- ßp-∂-Xv- Im-Wmw.- n-߃- A-h-s‚ A-p-{K-l-Øn¬-n- ∂pw- tX-Sp-hm≥- th-≠n-bpw- n-߃- -μn-bp-≈-h-cm-bn- cn-°m≥- th≠nbpw.- A-h≥- cm-{Xn-sb- ]-I-en¬- hn-e-bn-∏n-°p-∂p.- ]-I-en- s- cm-{Xnbn-epw.- A-h≥- kq-cy-s-bpw- N-{μ-s-bpw- Io- gv-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-cn-°p-∂p.- Hm-tcm-∂pw- n-iv-Nn-X- ]-cn-[n-bn- te-°v- k-©-cn-°p-∂p.- A-h--s{X- n-ß-fp-sS- m-Y-m- b- ssZ-hw.- A-h-∂m-Ip-∂p- B-[n-]-Xyw.- Ahv- ]p-d-sa- n-߃- {]m¿-Yn-°p-∂-h-cm-cpw- H-cp- Cu-Ø--∏--°p-cp-hn- s‚ ]m-S-t]m-epw- A-[o--s∏-Sp-Øp-∂n-√''- (Izp¿B≥- 35:- 11˛13)- ""`q-an-sb- mw- hn-im-e-am-°p-I-bpw- A-Xn¬- D-d-®p-n¬- °p-∂- ]¿-Δ-X-߃- ÿm-]n-°p-I-bpw,- F-√mw- k-¥p-en- X-am-bn-s°m-≠v- A-Xn¬- ap-f∏n-°p-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xn-cn-°p- ∂p.- n-߃-°pw- n-߃- B-lm-cw- ¬-In- h-f¿-Øp-∂- X-√m-Ø- Po-hn-Iƒ-°pw- th-≠n- mw- A-Xn¬- D-]-Po-h--
  • 36. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 3838 am¿-K-߃- H-cp-°nbn-cn-°p-∂p.- G-sXm-cp- h-kv-Xp-hn-s‚bpw- J-P-m-hp-Iƒ- -Ωp-sS- ]-°¬- am-{X-am-Ip-∂p.- n-iv-Nn-X- A-f-h-p-k-cn-®v- am-{X- sa- m-a-Xv- ¬IpIbp-≈q.- mw- ta-L-߃-°v- _o-P-Zm-w- sN-øp-∂- Im-‰p-I-sf- n-tbmKn-®p.- Xp-S¿-∂v- D-]-cn-`m-K-Øv- n-∂v- mw- sh-≈w- sNm-cn-bp-I-bpw- AXv- n-߃-°v- Ip-Sn-°p-am-dm-°p-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xp.- n-߃-°-Xv- (h-‰n-t∏m-Im-Ø-h-Æw)- kq-£n- ®p-sh-°m≥- I-gn-bp-am-bn-cp-∂n-√''- (Izp¿B≥- 15:-19˛22)-.- ""A-h≥- tm-°p-∂n-t√- H-´-Iw- F-ß-s-bm-Wv- kr-jv- Sn-°-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂-sX-∂v?- B-Im-iw- F-ß-s- D-b¿-Ø- s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p-sh-∂pw.- ]¿-h-X-߃- F-ß-s- ÿm-]n- °-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p-sh-∂pw,- `qan- F-ß-s- n-c-∏p-≈-Xm- °-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p-sh-∂pw''- (Izp¿B≥- 88:-17˛20).- ""n-ß-sf- Zp¿-_-em-h-ÿ-bn¬- n-∂v- k-r-jv-Sn-®-h-m- Ip-∂p- A√m-lp.- Xp-S¿-∂v- Zu¿-_ey-Øn-v- ti-jw- A- h≥- I-cp-Øp-≠m-°n-Ø-∂p.- I-cp-Øn-p-ti-jw- ho-≠pw- _-e-lo--X-bpw- -c-bpw- h-cp-Øn.- A-h≥- D-t±-in-°p-∂- Xv- kr-jv-Sn-°p-∂p.- A-h≥- k¿h-Pv-R-p-a-s{X''- (Izp¿B≥- 30:-54).- ""A-h¿- I-≠n-t√,- -Ωp-sS- I-c-߃- cq-]w- ¬-In-b- Im-en-Isf- mw- A-h¿-°v- th-≠n-bm-Wv- kr-jv-Sn-®-sX- ∂v.- A-ß-s- A-h¿- A-h-sb- A-[o--s∏-Sp-Øn-s°m-≠n- cn-°p-∂p.- A-h-sb- mw- A-h¿-°v- Io-sgm-Xp-°n-sIm-Sp-°p-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xp.- A-h-bn¬- Nn-e-Xv- hm-l--am-Ip-∂p.- Nn-e-Xn-s-
  • 37. 39 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- A-h¿- `p-Pn-°pIbpw- sN-øp-∂p.- A-h¿-°v- A-h-bn¬- ]-e- {]-tbm-P--ß-fp-ap-≠v.- Ip-Sn- °p-hm-p-≈- ]m-epw.- F-∂n-´pw- A-h-sc-¥m- -μn-Im-Wn- °m-Ø-Xv''- (Izp¿B≥- 36:-71˛73)-.- ""a-p-jy≥- I-≠n-t√-;- A-h-s- mw- H-cp- _o-P-I-W- Øn¬-n∂m-Wv- kr-jv-Sn-®-sX-∂v.- F-∂n-´v- A-h--Xm- hy- Iv-X-am-b- F-Xn¿-∏p-Imc-m-bn- am-dn-bn-cn-°p-∂p.- -ap-°- h≥- D-]-a-bp-≠m-°p-I-bpw,- kz¥w- kr-jv-Sn-∏n-s]-‰n- hn- kv-a-cn-°p-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xn-cn-°p-∂p.- A-h≥- tNmZn-®p-;- "{Z- hn-®p-t]m-b- Cu- A-ÿn-i-I-e-߃-°v- Po-h≥- ¬Im≥- B¿-°m-Wv- I-gn-bp-I-sb-∂v.- ]-d-bq-:- B-Zy-X-h-W- A-h-sb- kr-jv-Sn-®-h≥- X-s∂- A-h-bv-°v- Po-h≥- ¬-Ipw.- A-h≥ F-√m-X-cw- kr-jv-Sn- ∏n-s-]-‰n-bpw- -∂mbn- A-dn-bp-∂-h--s{X.- n-ß-ƒ°p-th-≠n- ]-®-a-c-Øn¬-n-∂v- Xo- D-≠m-°n- X-∂-h-s{X- A-h≥.- F-∂n-´v- A-Xn¬-n-∂v- n-ß-f-Xm- I-Øn-°p-∂p.- D]-cn-tem-I-ß-sf-bpw- `q-an-sb-bpw- kr-jv-Sn-®-h≥- A- h-sc- t]mep-≈-h-sc- kr-j-v-Sn-°m≥- I-gn-hp-≈-h--s√- t∂m?- kw-i-b-ta-Xp-an-√.- A-h≥- X-s∂-bm-Ip-∂p- k¿-h- Pv-R-m-b- kr-jv-Sn-I¿-Øm-hv.- A-h-s‚ Im-cyw,- A-h≥- H-cp- Im-cyw- D-t±-in-®m¬- "D- ≠m-Iq'- F-∂- B-Pv-R- am-{X-am-Ip-∂p.- A-t∏m-g-Xm- A-Xv- D-≠m-Ip-∂p.- F-√m- Im-cy-ß-fp-sS-bpw- A-[o-im-[n-Im-cw- ssI-h-i- ap-≈-h≥- F-{X- a-l-Xz-ap-≈-h≥-!- A-h-n-te-°v- X-s∂-
  • 38. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 4040 bm-bn-cn-°pw- n-߃- Xn-cn-®p-hn-fn-°-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv''- (Izp¿B≥- 36:-77˛83).- ""m-am-Wv- n-ß-sf- kr-jv-Sn-®-Xv.- n-߃-s°-¥m- hn- izm-k-am-Ip-∂n-t√?- n-߃- _o-Pw- {k-hn-°p-∂-Xn-s-∏-‰n- n-߃- Nn-¥n- ®p-thm?- n-ß-fm-tWm- A-Xv- kr-jv-Sn-°p-∂-Xv?- A-tXm- m-am- tWm- krjv-Sn-I¿-Øm-hv?- mw- n-߃-°n-S-bn¬- a-c-Ww- hn-[n-®n-cn-°p-∂p.- - sΩ- B¿°pw- tXm¬-]n-°m-m-hn-√.- n-ß-sf-t]m-ep-≈-h-sc- am-‰p-hm-pw- n-߃-°v- A- dn-™p-IqSm-Ø- hn-[-Øn¬- n-ß-sf- ]p-x-kr-jvSn-°m- pw- th-≠n.- B-Zy-sØ- kr-jv-Sn-cq]-sØ-∏-‰n- n-߃- a-- n-em-°n- b-t√m.- F-∂n-´pw- n-ß-sf-¥m- t_m-[-hm-∑m-cm-Im-Ø-Xv?- n-߃- Ir-jn-bn-d-°p-∂-Xn-s-∏-‰n- n-߃- Nn-¥n-®-p- thm?- n-ß-fm-tWm- A-Xv- ap-f-∏n-®v- h-f¿-Øp-∂-Xv?- A-X-√- -Ω-tfm?- mw- hn-Nm-cn-®n-cp-s∂-¶n¬- A-Xm-sI- [q-fn-I-fm-°n- am- ‰p-am-bncp-∂p.- A-t∏mƒ- n-߃- A-¤p-X-kv-X-_v-[-cm-bn- t∏m-Ipw.- R-ß-fn-Xm- I-S-_m-[y-X-bn¬- A-I-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p- (F- ∂v- n߃- ap-d-hn-fn- Iq-´-≠n-h-cpw).- A-√.- R-߃- F-√mw- -jv-S-s∏-´-h-cm-bn-cn-°p-∂p- F-
  • 39. 41 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- ∂v.- n߃- Ip-Sn-°p-∂- sh-≈-sØ-∏-‰n- Nn-¥n-®n-´p-t≠m?- n-ß-fm-tWm- ta-L-Øn¬-n-∂v- A-Xv- Xm-sg-s°m-≠p-h- cp-∂-Xv?- A-X√- m-tam? mw- hn-Nm-cn-®n-cp-s∂-¶n¬- -ap-°-Xv- D-∏p-c-k-ap-≈-Xm- °m≥ Ign-bp-am-bn-cp-∂p.- F-∂n-´pw- n-ß-sf-¥m- -μn- I-m-Wn-°m-Ø-Xv?- n-߃- Xo- I-Øn-s®-Sp-°p-∂-Xn-s-∏-‰n- Nn-¥n-®n-´p- t≠m?- ""A-Xv- I-Øm-p-≈- a-cw- n-ß-fm-tWm- D-≠m-°n-b-Xv?- A-X-√-m-tam?''- (Izp¿B≥- 56:-57˛72)-.- ""a-p-jy≥- hn-Nm-cn-°p-∂p-t≠m- A-h-s‚ A-ÿn-i- I-e-ß-sf- ]p-x-kw-tbm-Pn-∏n-°m≥- -ap-°v- I-gn-bn-s√- ∂v?- kw-i-bw- th-≠,- A-h-s‚ hn-c¬-Xp-ºp-t]m-epw- i-cn- bm-bn- kwhn-[m-n-°m≥- -ap-°v- I-gn-hp-≠v''- (Izp¿B≥- 75:-3,-4)-.- n-Xy-q-X-w- a-pjy-s‚ Nn-¥-sb-bpw- t_m-[-sØ-bpw- X-´n-bp-W¿- Ø-Ø°-h-Æw- hn-ip-≤- Izp¿B-n-ep-S-o-fw- ]-c-∂p-In- S-°p-∂- ssZ-hn-I- Zrjv-Sm-¥-ß-fp-sS- G-Xm-pw- D-Zm-l-c- W-ß-fm-Wv- ap-I-fn¬- sIm-Sp-ØXv.- 1400 sIm-√w-ap-ºp-≈- A-d-_n-I-sf- kw-_-‘n-®n-S-tØm-fw- C-Xv- F-{X-am-{Xw- {]- k-Iv-X-am-tWm- A-{X-tØm-fw- {]-k-Iv-Xn- B-[p-nIk-aq- l-ß-fp-sS- Im-cy-Øn-e-pw- A-Xn-p-≠v.- Ime-hpw- tIm-e- hpsa-√mw- am-dn-bm-epw- Cu- Zr-jv-Sm-¥-ß-fn-sem-∂n-p-t]m-
  • 40. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 4242 epw- Im-e-l-cWw- kw-`-hn-®n-´n-√.- kz-bw- kw-km-cn-°p- ∂- Cu- kq-Iv-X-ß-sf- Pohn-X-Øn-s‚ G-Xv- Xp-d-bn-ep-≈- ]-Iz-a-Xn-Iƒ-°pw- X-≈n-∏-d-bm-m-hn-√.- ]-g-b- A-td-_y≥- k-aq-l-Øn-se- {]m-Ir-X-cpw,- m-K-cn-I-cpw,- km-ln-Xy-Im- c-∑m-cpw- n-c-£-c-cpw- A-Sn-a-I-fpw,- D-S-a-I-fpw- H-cp-t]mse- Cu- kq-Iv-X-ß-fp-sS- A-am-p-jn-I- {]-`m-hw- Aw-Ko-I-cn- ®ncp-∂p.- C-∂pw- Cu- n-e-bn¬- am-‰-sam-∂pw- h-∂n-´n-√.- Nn-e¿- sX-‰n-≤cn-®-t]m-se- H-cp-]n-Sn- ]-g-©-∑m-sc- am-{X-a-√- hn- ip-≤- Izp¿B≥- BI¿-jn-°p-∂-Xv.- tem-I-{]-i-k-v-X-cm- b- K-th-j-I-cpw- Nn-¥-I-∑m-cpw- C∂v- hn-ip-≤- Izp¿B-n- s- `m-jm-]-c-am-bpw- B-i-b-]-c-am-b-pw- A-]-{K-Yn-®p-sIm- ≠n-cn-°p-I-bm-Wv.- Iw-]yq-´¿- D-]tbm-Kn-®p-≈- A-Xn-kq£v- a-am-b- ]-T--Øn-pt]m-epw- hn-ip-≤-Izp¿B≥- hn-t[-b- am-bn-´p-≠v.- F-√m- hn-th-I-im-en-I-fm-b- A-tz-j-I-sc-bpw- A-º-c-∏n-®p-sIm-≠v- A-Xn-s‚ km¿-hm-Xn-im-bn-X- C-∂pw- n-e-n¬-°p-∂p.- {]-_p-≤sc-∂v- {]-tLm-jn-°-s∏-Sm-d-p-≈- tI-c-f-Øn¬-t]m-epw- P--e-£-߃- hn-ip-≤- Izp¿B-n- s- Ku-c-h-_p-≤ym- ]-T--hn-t[-b-am-°n-s°m-≠n-cn-°p-∂p.- tUm-Iv-S¿-am-cpw- F-©n-o-b¿am-cpw- s{]m-^-k¿-am-cp-a-S- ßp-∂- _p-≤n-Po-hn-Iƒ- C-hn-sS-bpw- Izp¿B≥- hym-Jym- n-°p-I-bpw- A-]-{K-Yn-°p-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xp-sIm-≠n-cn-°p- ∂p.- `u-Xn-I-hmZ-Øn-s‚ A-Xn-{]-k-c-Øn¬-s]-´v- a-X-ß- tfm-Sv- ap≥-hn-[n- sh-®p-]-p-e¿-Øp-∂-h-cpw- km-ap-Zm-bn-I- Xz-Øn-s‚ kzm-[o--Øn¬-s]-´v- Ckv-emw- hn-tcm-[w- ]p- e¿-Øp-∂-h-cp-a-√m-Ø- n-jv-]-£-a-Xn-Iƒ- F√m-Im-e- Øpw- hn-ip-≤- Izp¿B-n-s‚ kw-th-Z--£-a-X- Aw-Ko-I-
  • 41. 43 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- cn-®n-´p-≠v.- H-cp-Im-e-Øv- hn-ip-≤- Izp¿B-n-s‚ _-≤-ssh- cn-I-fm-bn-cp-∂- tI-c-f-Øn-se- Nn-e- _p-≤n-Po-hn-Iƒ- ]n¬- °m-e-Øv- Izp¿B-p-am-bn- hn-´p-]n-cn-bm-m-Im-Ø- B-Xv- a-_-‘-ap-≈-h-cm-bn- amdn-b- Im-cyw- Cu- k-μ¿-`-Øn¬- kv-a-c-Wo-b-am-Wv.- 1400 h¿-j-߃-°-Iw- im-kv-{X- km-ln-Xy- I-em-cw-K- ß-fn¬- hen-b- am-‰-ß-fp-≠m-bn-´p-≠v.- `q-an-bm-Wv- {]-]- ©-Øn-s‚ tI-{μsa-∂v- hn-iz-kn-°-s∏-´- Im-e-ap-≠m-bn- cp-∂p.- kq-cy-m-Wv- {]-]-©-Øns‚ tI-{μ-sa-∂pw- {K-l- ߃- kq-cy-s‚ B-I¿-j-W-h-e-b-Øn¬- {`-a-Ww- sN-bv- Xp-sIm-≠n-cn-°-bm-sW-∂pw- ]n-∂o-Sv- sX-fn-bn-°-s∏´p.- a- g-sb-bpw- Im-em-h-ÿ-sb-bpw- ]-‰n- a-p-jy-cp-sS- [m-c-W- bn¬- nc-¥-cw- am-‰-߃- h-∂n-´p-≠v.- Po-h-Pm-e-ß-sf-bpw- k-ky-ß-sf-bpw-]-‰n- ssh-hn-[y-am¿-∂- ho-£-W-ß-fp-≠m- bn-´p-≠v.- a-p-jy-s‚bpw- {]-]-©-Øn-s‚bpw- D¬-]-Øn- sb-∏-‰n- h-∂pw-t]m-b-pw- sIm-≠n-cn-°p-∂- kn-≤m-¥-߃- °v- I-W-°n-√.- a-p-jy-s‚ K¿-`-[m-c-Ww- ap-X¬- {]-k-hw- h-sc-bp-≈- L-´-ß-sf-∏-‰n-bpw- im-kv-{Xw- A-`n{]m-b-߃- am-dn-am-dn- ]-d-™n-´p-≠v.- hn-ip-≤- Izp¿B≥- `u-Xn-I-im- kv-{Xw- ]-Tn-∏n-°m≥-th-≠n- h-∂- {K-v-Y-a-s√-∂pw- a-p-jy- cp-sS- [m¿an-Iam¿-K-Z¿-i--am-Wv- A-Xn-s‚ e-£y-sa-∂pw- Izp¿B≥- hm-Iyß-fn¬- n-∂p-X-s∂- hy-Iv-X-am-Ip-∂p≠v.- F-¶n-epw- {]m-]-©n-I- {]Xn-`m-k-ß-fn-eq-sS- ssZ-hm-kv-Xn- Xzw- I-s≠-Øm≥- a-p-jy-s- k-lmbn-°p-∂- cw-K-Øv- hn-ip-≤- Izp¿B≥- Nq-≠n-°m-Wn-°p-∂- Im-cy-߃- sX- ‰m-sW-∂v- H-cp- im-kv-{Xn-a-b-hpw- H-cn-°-epw- sX-fn-bn-®n- ´-n-√- F-∂- h-kv-Xp-X- A-Xn-s‚ ssZ-hn--I-X-bv-°p-≈- sX-fn-
  • 42. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 4444 hp-I-fn-sem-∂m-bn- n-e-n¬-°p-∂p.- A-Xp-sIm-≠p-X-s∂- F-°m-e-sØ-bpw-im-kv-{X-Pv-R-∑m¿-°v- Izp¿B≥- kzo-I- cn-°p-∂-Xn-v- _p-≤n-]-c-amb- X-S- -ap-≠m-bn-cp-∂n-√.- C-Xn-v- ]p-d-sa- -Ωp-sS- k-hn-ti-j- {i-≤-b¿-ln-°p- ∂- H-cp- hnj-b-ap-≠v.- hn-ip-≤- Izp¿B-n-s- ]-‰n- bm- sXm-cp- [m-c-W-bpw- D-≠mbn-´n-√m-Ø- ss{I-kv-X-h- b-lq- Z- m-kv-Xn-I- im-kv-{X-Pv-R-∑m¿- -SØn-b- K-th-j-W-߃- Izp¿B-n¬- 1400 h¿-jw-ap-ºv- im-kv-{Xw- {`qWm-h-kv-bn- em-bn-cp-∂- Im-e-Øv- ]-d-™- Im-cy-ß-sf- i-cn-sh-®p- sIm≠n-cn-°p-∂p F-∂Xm-W-Xv.- C-Xn-v- D-Zm-l-c-W-߃- n-c-h-[n-bp-≠v.- B-Im-i-`q-an-I-fp-sS- D¬-]-Øn- B-Im-i-tKm-f-ß-fpw- `q-an-bpw- H-∂n-®v- H-scm-‰- B-Zn-]- Zm¿-Y-Øn-s‚ `m-K-am-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂-Xv- C-∂v- im-kv-{X-cw- K-Øv- G-Xm-≠v- X¿°-a-‰- hn-j-b-am-Wv.- {]-]-©-Øn-s‚ D¬-]-Øn-sb-∏-‰n- hy-Xy-kvX- ho-£-W-ß-fp-s≠-¶n-epw- Xm-c-K-W-ß-fpw- {K-tlm-]-{K-l-ß-fpw- Htc- D-d-hn-S-Øn¬- n-∂v- hn-L-Sn-®v- cq-]w- sIm-≠-Xm-sW-∂-Xn¬- C-∂v- X¿- °w- A-h-ti-jn-°p-∂n-√.- {]-]-©-Øn-s‚ D-¤-hw- kw-_-‘n-®v- C-∂v- n-e-hn-ep- ≈- kn≤m-¥-ß-fn¬- {]-ap-J- tKm-f-im-kv-{X-Pv-R-cp-sS- Aw- Ko-Im-cw- tSn-bn-´p-≈-Xv- D-{Kam-b- H-cp- B-Zn-kv-t^m-S-- Øn¬-n-∂m-Wv- apgp-h≥- {]-]-©-Øn-s‚bpw- Xp-S-°-sa- ∂v- k-a¿-Y-n-°p-∂- _n-Kv-_mw-Kv- kn-≤m-¥-a-s{X.- m-ev- {]-ap-J- im-kv-{X-Pv-R-∑m¿- tN¿-∂v- 1976 am¿-®n- se- Scientific American¬- F-gp-Xn-b- H-cp- te-J--Øn¬-
  • 43. 45 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- C-{]-Im-cw- Im-Wmw:- ``Thus it appears that the Universe began from a state of infinite density about one hubble time ago. Space and time were created in that event and so was all the matter in the universe''. ""A-¥-am-b- A-f-hn¬- km-{¥-am-bn-cp-∂- H-cp- A-h- ÿ-bn¬-n-∂m-Wv- {]-]-©w- D-¤-hn-®-sX-∂m-Wv- hy-Iv-X- am-Ip-∂-Xv.- G-ItZ-iw- H-cp- "l-_vƒ- k-a-bw'-* ap-ºm-Wv- C-Xv- -S-∂-Xv.- kv-s]-bv-kpw- k-a-b-hpw- B- kw-`-h-tØm- sS-bm-Wv- kr-jv-Sn-°-s∏-´-Xv.- A-{]-Imcw-X-s∂- {]-]-©- Øn-se- ap-gp-h≥- ]-Zm¿-Y-hpw''-.- (`Will the Universe Expand forever' ScientificAmerican, March'76) hn-ip-≤- Izp¿B-n-se- 21:-30 kq-Iv-Xw- C-u- B-i-b-a- s{X- Du-∂n ∏-d-bp-∂-Xv.- J-tKm-f-im-kv-{Xw- H-´pw- hn-I-kn- ®n-´n-√m-Ø-Im-e-Øv- tem-I-sØm-cm-fpw- C-Ø-c-sam-cp- {]- kv-Xm-h-- -S-Øm≥- H-cp- km[y-X-bp-an-√.- k¿-h-Pv-R-m- b- ssZ-h-Øn-s‚ t_m-[-w- ap-tJ--b√m-sX.- D-{Kkv-t^m-S--a-S-°-ap-≈- {]-Xn-`m-k-߃-°v- ]n-∂n-se- bYm ¿Y- Im-c-W-sØ-∏-‰n- ]-d-bp-tºmƒ- `u-Xn-I-hm-Zn- Iƒ- k¿-h-Pv-pw- k¿-h-i-Iv-X-p-am-b- kw-hn-[m-b-I-s- X-≈n-∏-d-™p-sIm-≠v- C-cp-´n¬- X-∏p-I-bm-Wv.- F-∂m¬- Izp¿B≥- {]-m-]-©n-I{]-Xn-`m-k-ß-fp-sS- ]n-∂n-se- b-Ym¿- * (1920¬- {]-]-©-Øn-s≥-d- D-Xv-`-h-sØ-bpw- hn-Im-k-sØ-bpw- kw-_-v-[n- ®v- {]-k-IvX-am-b- n-co-£-W-߃- -S-Øn-b- F-Un≥- ]n.- l-_vƒ- F-∂- im- kv-{X-Pv-R-s≥-d- t]-cn¬- A-dn-b-s∏-Sp-∂-Xpw- A--¥-km-{μ-am-b- A-h-kv-Y-°p- ti-jw- {]-]-©w- ]n∂n´- Im-e-b-f-hn-s- Ip-dn-°p-∂-Xp-am-b- H-cp- k-a-b- ]-cn- Wm-a-a-s{X- l-_vƒ- ssSw)-
  • 44. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 4646 Y-i-Iv-Xn- F-s¥-∂v- kv-]-jv-S-am-°p-∂p.- ""k-Xy-n-tj-[n-Iƒ- I-≠n-t√- D-]-cn-tem-I-ß-fpw- `q- an-bpw- H-´n t®¿-∂-Xm-bn-cp-∂p-sh-∂v.- F-∂n-´v- mw- A-h- sb- th¿-s∏-Sp-Øn''- (Izp¿B≥- 21:-30)-.- s-_p-e-Iƒ- Izp¿B-n¬- h-m-X-I-ß-fpw- kq-£v-a-]-Zm¿-∞-ß-fp-a-S-ßp-∂- H-cp- ]p- I-]-S-e- (Nebula)Øn¬-n-∂m-Wv- -£-{X-߃- ]n-d-hn-sb- Sp-Ø-sX-∂m-Wv- B-[p-n-I- im-kv-{Xw- I-cp-Xp-∂-Xv.- Se- crets of Space F-∂- {K-v-Y-Øn¬- Anthony feldman ]-d- bp-∂-Xv- Im-Wp-I-:- ``The process by which the stars from is probably a kind of condensation. The principal force behind the phenom- enon is gravity, operating between the countless molecules of gas and dust motes in the nebula. As an accumulation of matter builds up in particular region of the nebula the begining of a localised gravitational field emerge and the process a accelerates more material being drawn into the region by the gravitational pull of the increasing build up of dust and gas''. an-°-hm-dpw- H-cp-X-cw- km-{μo-I-c-W- {]-{In-b-bn-eq-sS- bm-Wv- £-{X-ß-ƒ- cq-]w-sIm-≈p-∂-Xv.- Cu- {]-Xn-`m-k- Øn-s‚ ]n-∂n-ep-≈- ap-Jy-i-Iv-Xn- s-_p-e-I-fn-se- F- Æ-a-‰- hm-X-I- X-∑m-{X-Iƒ-°n-S-bn-epw- [q-fo-I-c-W-߃- °n-S-bn-epw- {]-h¿-Øn-°p-∂- Kp-cp-Xzm-I¿-j-W-am-Ip-∂p.- s-_p-e-bn¬- H-cp- {]-tXy-I- {]-tZ-i-Øv- ]-Zm¿-Y-tI-{μo- I-c-Ww- -S-°p-tºmƒ- {]m-tZ-in-I-am-b- H-cp- Kp-cp-Xzm-I¿-
  • 45. 47 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- j W- ta-J-e- D-cp-Øn-cn-bm≥- Xp-S-ßp-∂p.- Cu- {]-{In-b- Xz-cn-X-s∏-Sp-∂-tXm-sS- B- {]-tZ-itØ-°v- Iq-Sp-X¬- ]- Zm¿Y-w- k-am-l-cn-°-s∏-Sp-∂p.- Kp-cp-Xzm-I¿-j-W-_-e- Øm¬- [q-fn-I-fp-sS-bpw- hm-X-Iß-fp-sS-bpw- ti-J-cw- Iq- Sn-Iq-Sn- h-cp-∂p''-.- (Secrets of Space P.p. 52 Aldus Books. London) hn-ip-≤- Izp¿B≥- 1400 h¿-j-߃-°v- ap-ºp-X-s∂- B- Im-i tKm-f-߃- ]p-I-]-S-e-Øn¬-n-∂v- cq-]w- sIm-≠- Xm-sW-∂- h-kvXp-X- hy-Iv-X-am-°p-I-bp-≠m-bn.- ""A-Xn-v- ]p-d-sa- A-h≥- D-]-cn-tem-I-Øn-s‚ kw-hn- [m-w- -S--Øn.- A-Xv- ]p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p.- A-Xn-tm-Spw- `q-an- tbm-Spw- A-h≥-- BPv-Rm-]n-®p-:- n-߃- c-≠pw- hn-t[-b- Xz-tØm-sS-tbm- A--n-Nv-Om-]q¿h--I-am-tbm- h-cq.- A-h- c- ≠pw- ]-d-™p-:- R-ß-fn-Xm- hn-t[-b-Xz-tØmsS- h-∂n-cn- °p-∂p''- (Izp¿B≥- 41:-11).- Cu- {]-Jym-]--Øn-v- ap-ºn¬- im-kv-{Xw- ]-I-®p-n¬- °p-∂p- F-∂-X-t√- hm-kv-X-hw?- im-kv-{Xm-`ym-kw- t]m-I-s´,- A-£-cm-`ym-kw- t]m-epw- t-Sn-bn´n-√m-Ø- ap-l-Ω-Zv- -_n--bp-sS- m-hn-eq-sS-bm- Wv- mw- Cu- hm-°p-Iƒ- tIƒ-°p-∂-Xv-!- C-sX-ß-s- kw- `-hn-®p?- D-Ø-cw- e-fn-X-am-Wv.- ap-l-Ω-Zv- -_n-- X-n-°v- e-`n-®- Zn-hy-t_m-[-w- D-cp-hn-Sp-I-bmbn-cp-∂p.- `q-an-bp-sS- B-Ir-Xn- `q-an-bp-sS- B-Ir-Xn-sb-∏-‰n- hn-ip-≤- Izp¿B≥- F-¥v- ]-d-bp-∂p sh-∂- tNm-Zyw- ]-e-cpw- D-∂-bn-°m-dp-≠v.- Izp¿B-n-se- `q-an- ]-c∂-Xm-sW-∂pw- ap-l-Ω-Zv- -_n--bp-
  • 46. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 4848 sS- Im-e-Øv- B-fp-Iƒ- [-cn-®n-cp∂- A-_-≤w- Izp¿B-n- epw- I-S-∂p-Iq-Sn-bn-´p-s≠-∂pw- Izp¿B≥- ssZ-hn-I-a-s√- ∂-Xn-v- A-Xp-X-s∂- a-Xn-bm-b- sX-fn-hm-sW-∂pw- Nne¿- tL-m-jn-°m-dp-≠v.- ""`q-an-sb- n-߃-°p-th-≠n- sa-Ø-bm-°n-b-h≥''- (Izp¿B≥- 2:-22)- ""`q-an-sb- mw- o-´n-bn-cn-°p-∂p''- (Izp¿B≥- 15:-19).- ""A-√m-lp- n-߃-°v- th-≠n- `q-an-sb- H-cp- hn-cn-∏m- °n-bn-cn-°p∂p''- (Izp¿B≥- 71:-19)-.- F-∂o- h-N--߃-°v- Np-‰p-am-Wv- hn-a¿-i--߃- tI- {μo-I-cn-®n´p-≈-X.v- F-∂m¬- hn-ip-≤- Izp¿B-n¬- `q-an-sb-∏-‰n- A-t-Iw- k-μ¿-` ß-fn¬- ssh-hn-[y-am-¿-∂- hn-i-Zo-I-c-W-߃- ¬- In-bn-´p-≈-Xn-s‚- sN-dn-sbm-cp- `m-K-w- am-{X-am-Wv- Cu- h-N- -ß-sf-∂- Im-cyw- hn-a¿i-I-∑m¿- ku-I-cy-]q¿-h-w- a-d-®p- sh-°p-∂p.- Nn-e- h-N--߃- t-m°q:- ""A-h-m-Ip-∂p- `-q-an-sb- n-߃-°v- Io-sgm-Xp-ßp- ∂Xm-°n-bXv.- A-Xn-m¬- A-Xn-s‚ Np-a-ep-I-fn-eq-sS- n- ߃- -S-∂p-sIm-≈pI''- (Izp¿B≥- 67:-15).- ""`q-an-sb- mw- sXm-´n-em-°n-Ø-∂n-t√?''- (Izp¿B≥- 78:-6).- ""A-√-m-lp-hm-Ip-∂p- n-߃-°v- `q-an-sb- H-cp- B-hm- k-tI-{μ-hpw- D-]-cn-`m-K-sØ- H-cp- ta¬-]p-c-bp-am-°n-Ø- ∂-h≥'' (Izp¿B≥- 40:-64).- Cu- h-N--ß-sf-√mw- ]-c-∂- `q-an-sb-bm-tWm- kq-Nn-
  • 47. 49 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- ∏n-°p-∂Xv?- sXm-´n¬- ]-c-∂-Xm-tWm?- Io-sgm-Xp-°-s∏-´- Xn-s‚ Np-a¬- F-∂-]-Z-{]-tbm-Kw- n-iv-tN-jv-S-am-bn- N-Øp- In-S-°p-∂- ]-c-∂- `q-an-sb- kq-Nn-∏n-°p-∂-Xm-tWm?- B- sW-∂v- km-am-y-_p-≤n-bp-≈-h-cm-cpw- ]-d-bp-I-bn-√.- hn-ip-≤- Izp¿B-n¬- `q-an-sb-bpw- B-Im-i-tKm-f-ß- sf-bpw- kw_‘n-®v- ]-cm-a¿-in-®n-´p-≈-Xv- A-√m-lp-hn-s‚ A-]m-c-am-b- A-p-{K-l-Øn-s‚bpw- A-Xp-ey-am-b- I-g-n-hn- s‚bpw- sX-fn-hp-Iƒ- Nq-≠n-°m-Wn-°p-∂-Xn-s‚ `m-K-am- bn-´m-Wv.- F-°m-e-sØ-bpw- ap-jy¿-°v- A-p-`-h-th-Zy- am-Ip-∂-hn-[-Øn¬- C-Xv- hn-h-cn-°p-∂-Xn-m-W-t√m- {]-k- Iv-Xn-bp-≈-Xv.- `q-an- H-cp- tKm-f-am-sW-¶n-epw- A-Xn-s‚- B- t]-£n-I-a-m-bn- ]-c-∂- {]-X-e-Øn-s‚ ku-I-cy-ß-fpw- ku- `mKy-ß-fp-am-W-t√m- a-pjy-¿- Iq-Sp-X-em-bn- A-p-`-hn-°p- ∂-Xv.- Ir-jn- sN-øp-∂-Xpw- sI-´n-S-߃- D-≠m-°p-∂-Xpw- C-cn-°p-∂-Xpw- -S-°p∂-Xpw- I-fn-°p-∂-Xp-sa-√mw- `q-an- bp-sS- {]-X-e-Øn-s‚ ]-c-∏n-em-Wt√m.- a-s‰m-cp-hn-[-Øn¬- ]-d-™m¬- A-√m-lp- a-p-jy-v- ¬-Inb- A-p-{K-l-ß- fn-e-[n-I-hpw- B-t]-£n-I-am-bn- ]-c-∏p-≈- `q-an-bn¬sh®m- Wv- A-h≥- A-p-`-hn-°p-∂-Xv.- A-Xn-m¬- C-°m-cyw- a-p- jys- Hm¿-an-∏n-°p-∂-Xn-v- th-≠-{X- {]-k-Iv-Xn-bp-≠v.- `q-an-bp-sS- tKm-fm-Ir-Xn-bp-am-bn- _-‘-s∏-´v- F-√m-h¿- °pw- Ap-`-h-th-Zy-am-Ip-∂- Im-cyw- cm-hpw- ]-I-epw- am-dn- am-dn- h-cp-∂-Xm-Wv.- C-Xp-kw-_-‘n-®- hn-ip-≤- Izp¿B- n-se- ]-cm-a¿-iw- tKm-fm-IrXn-sb- kq-Nn-∏n-°p-∂- hn-[- Øn¬-X-s∂-bm-Ip-∂p.- ""B-Im-i-ß-sf-bpw- `q-an-sb-bpw- A-h≥- bm-Ym¿-Y-y-
  • 48. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 5050 ]q¿-h-w- krjv-Sn-®n-cn-°p-∂p.- cm-{Xn-sb- A-h≥- ]-I-en- t∑¬- Np-‰n-°p-∂p.- ]-I-ens- cm-{Xn-bn-t∑-epw- Np-‰n-°p- ∂p.- kq-cy-s-bpw- N-{μ-s-bpw- Ah≥- n-b-{¥-W-hn-t[- b-am-°p-I-bpw- sN-bv-Xn-cn-°p-∂p.- F-√mw- n-iv-NnX-am-b- ]-cn-[n-h-sc- k-©-cn-°p-∂p.- A-dn-bp-I.- A-h--s{X- {]- Xm-]nbpw- G-sd- s]m-dp-°p-∂-h-pw'' (Izp¿B≥- 39:-5).- {]-Im-i-hpw- C-cp-´pw- H-cp- tKm-f-Ønt∑¬- I-d-ßn-s°m- ≠n-cn-°p-∂- Zr-iy-am-Wv- Cu- h-N--Øn¬- kq-Nn-∏n-°-s∏- ´n-cn-°p-∂-Xv.- `q-an- ]-c-∂-Xm-sW-∂- k-¶¬-]-a-p-k-cn-®v- cm-hpw- ]-I-epw- Np-‰n-°-d-ßn-h-cp-I- F-∂-Xv- A-Nn-¥y-am- W-t√m.- D-Z-bm-kv-X-a-b-ß-sf- kw-_-v[n-®- hn-ip-≤- Izp¿B-n-se- ]-cm-a¿-i-ß-fpw- tKm-fm-Ir-Xn-sb- kq-Nn-∏n- °p-∂-Xp-X-s∂-bm-Ip-∂p.- ""D-Z-bÿm-Øn-s‚bpw- A-kv-X-a--ÿm--Øn- s‚bpw- mY≥.- A-h--√m-sX- bm-sXm-cp- ssZ-h-hp-an-√.- A-Xn-m¬- `m-c-ta¬-∏n-°-s∏-tS-≠-h-m-bn- A-h-s- o- kzo-I-cn-°p-I''- (Izp¿B≥- 73:-9).- ""c-≠v- D-Z-bÿm--ß-fp-sS-bpw- c-≠v- A-kv-X-a-bÿm- -ß-fpsS-bpw- m-Y≥''- (Izp¿B≥- 55:-17).- ""F-∂m¬- (A-t-Iw-)- D-Z-bÿm--ß-fp-sS-bpw- A-kv- X-a-bÿm--ß-fp-sS-bpw- c-£n-Xm-hn-s‚ t]-cn¬- Rm≥- k-Xyw- sN-bv-Xv- ]d-bp-∂p.- A-h-sc-°mƒ- -√-h-sc- ]-I- cw- sIm-≠p-h-cm≥- Xo¿-®bm-bpw- mw- I-gn-hp-≈-h-m- sW-∂v''- (Izp¿B≥- 70:-40).- H-cp- ÿn-c-am-b- ÿm--Øp-n-∂v- D-Z-b-hpw- A-kv-X-a- -hpw- nco-£n-°p-∂- hy-Iv-Xn-°v- X-s‚ ÿm--Øp-n-
  • 49. 51 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- ∂v- n-iv-Nn-XZq-c-ap-≈- N-{I-hm-f-ß-fm-Wv- D-Z-bm-kv-X-a-b- ÿm--ß-fm-bn- A-p-`-h-s∏-Sp-∂-Xv.- F-∂m¬- c-≠v- A¿- ≤tKm-f-ß-fn-se- c-≠v- n-iv-Nn-Xÿm--ß-fn¬-n-∂v- n- co-£n-°p-∂- hy-Iv-Xn-Iƒ-°v- c-≠p-ho-Xw- D-Z-bm-kv-X-a-- ÿm--߃- D-≈-Xm-bn- A-p-`-h-s∏-Sp-∂p.- `q-an-bp-sS- hnhn[- `m-K-ß-fn-se- hy-Xy-kv-X- ÿm--ß-fn¬-n-∂v- A- t-Iw- hy-IvXn-Iƒ- -n-co-£n-°p-∂-]-£w- A-h¿-°v- At- Iw- D-Z-bm-kv-X-a--ÿm--߃- D-≈-Xm-bn- A-p-`-h-s∏- Spw.- `q-an- ]-c-∂-Xm-sW∂- k-¶¬-]-{]-Im-cw- D-Z-bm-kv-X-a- ÿm--ß-fp-sS- Cu- hn-[-Øn-ep≈- ssh-hn-[y-Øn--v- {]- k-Iv-Xn-bn-√-t√m.- C-n-bpw- ]-e-cp-sS-bpw- kw-i-b-߃- A-h-ti-jn-t®- °pw.- c-≠mw-X-c-Øn-se- ]m-T-]p-kv-X-I-Øn¬- ]-d-bp-∂- A-tX- ssi-enbn¬- Ip´n-I-tf- `q-an- D-cp-≠-Xm-Ip-∂p- F- ∂v- ]-S-®-h-v- ]-d-™p-Iq-Sm-bn-cpt∂m- F-∂m-bn-cn-°pw- Nn- e-cp-sS- kw-i-bw.- C-∂pw- H-cp- I-Sw-I-Y-bm-bn- Xp-S-cp-∂- `q-K¿-`-sØ-∏-‰n- Ir-Xy-am-b- hn-h-c-߃- Izp¿B-n-eq-sS- ¬-In-°q-tS- F-∂pw- tNm-Zy-ap-b-cmw.- a-p-jy-v- kz-bw- I-s≠-Øm≥- I-gn-bp-∂- `u-Xn-Ihn-Pv-Rm--߃- P--a[y- Øn¬- F-Øn-°p-I- F∂-X-√- {]-Xyp-X- `u-Xn-I]m-Wv- Un-Xy-hpw- hn-`-h-ti-jn-bpw- F√mw- D-≠m-bn-´pw- [m¿-an-I- am-bn- A-[x-]-Xn-®v- t]m-Ip-∂- a-p-jy¿-°v- t¿-h-gn- Im- Wn-°p-I-bm-Wv- hn-ip-≤- Izp¿B-n-s‚ Zu-Xyw- F-∂- Imcyw- hn-kv-a-cn-°m-sX-bm-I-Ww- Izp¿B-n-I- Zr-jv-Sm-¥- ß-sf- hni-I-e-w- sN-øp-∂-Xv.- ap-gp-h≥- -£-{X-߃-°pw- {K-l-߃-°pw- D-]-{K-l- ߃-°pw- tKm-fmIr-Xn- ¬-In-b- {]-]-©-m-Y-s- kw-
  • 50. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 5252 _-‘n-s®-Sp-tØm-fw- `q-an-bp-sS- tKm-fm-Ir-Xn- {]-tXy-Iw- F-Sp-Øp-]-d-tb-≠- H-cp- hnjb-a-√-t√m.- H-cp- J--tK-m-fim- kv-{X-Pv-R-s- kw-_-‘n-®n-S-tØm-f-hpw- `q-an-bp-sS- tKm- fm-Ir-Xn- hn-kv-a-bm-h-l-am-b- H-cp- {]-Xn-`m-k-sam-∂p-a-√.- F-∂m¬- `q-an-bn¬- am-{Xw- {]-]-©-m-Y≥- kw-hn-[m-n-®- khn-ti-j- ku-I-cy-߃- F-√m-h-cp-sS-bpw- N-n-¥-°v- hn- j-bo-`hn-t°-≠-Xm-Wv.- a-p-jy-Po-hn-Xw- B- ku-I-cy-ß- fp-sS- A-`m-h-Øn¬- A-km-[y-am-bn-cn-°pw.- A-X-p-sIm-≠p- X-s∂- A-h- H-cp-°n-Ø-∂- {kjv-Sm-hn-v- a-p-jy≥- F-{X- -μn- tc-J-s∏-Sp-Øn-bm-epw- a-Xn-bmIn-√.- Cu- cw-K-Øm- Wv- Izp¿B≥- Du-∂¬- ¬-Ip-∂-Xv.- `q-an-bp-sS- k-hn-ti-j-X-Iƒ- `q-an-sb- a-‰v- {K-l-ß-fn¬-n-∂v- hy-X-y-kv-X-am-°n- n¿- Øp-∂- khn-ti-j-X-Iƒ- F-s¥m-s°-bm-Wv?- ""kw-c-£n-X-am-b- ta¬-∏p-c-''- (Izp¿B≥- 21:-33)- F-∂v- hn-ip-≤- Jp¿B≥- hn-ti-jn-∏n-°p-∂- A-¥-co-£- ta-em- ∏v- ap-tJ-- `q-an-bn¬- Po-hn-Xw- kw-c-£n-°-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p- sh-∂-Xm-Wv- `q-an-bp-sS- au-en-I-am-b- k-hn-ti-j-X-I-fn-sem- ∂v.- a-‰v- {K-l-ß-fn-tem- N-{μ-n-tem- A-Øc-sam-cp- km-l- N-cy-an-√.- {]m-W-hm-bp-hn-s‚ A-`m-hw,- am-c-I-am-b- hn-In- c-W-߃,- D¬-°-Iƒ- F-√mw- tN¿-∂v- a-‰v- {K-l-ß-fn¬- Po-hn-Xw- A-km-[y-am-°p-tºmƒ- A-n-X-c-am-b- A-¥-co- £-a-Wv-U-ew- _m-ly-{]-]-©-Øn¬-n-∂v- h-cp-∂- hn-]- Øp-I-sf- XS™p-n¿-Øn- `q-an-sb- kw-c-£n-°p-∂p-;- {]m- W-hm-bp- ap-tJ-- Poh≥- n-e-n¿-Øp-∂p.- Secrets of Space F-∂- {K-v-Y-Øn¬- Anthony feldman
  • 51. 53 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- ]-d-bp∂p:- The atmosphere performs two vital roles, It provides an ocean of air that enables living creatures to breath and it also acts as a shield against some of the worst hazards of space. Although everyone can immediatly appreciate the im- portance of air to breath it is more difficult to imagine the canopy of atmosphere as an important roof of over people's heads. But at every moment the atmosphere is sheilding us from lethal radiation from the Sun. ""A-¥-co-£-Øn-v- n¿-Wm-b-I-am-b- c-≠v- [¿-a-߃- n¿-h-ln-°m-p-≠v.- Po-hn-I-fp-sS- izm-tkm-Nv-Om-k-Øn-m- bn- A-Xv- hm-bphn-s‚ H-cp- k-ap-{Zw- X-s∂- H-cp-°p-∂p.- A-Xn-v- ]p-d-sa- _m-lym-Im-i-Øn-se- N-n-e- sIm-Spw-Zp-c- ¥-ß-fn¬-n-∂v- Im-Øp-c-£n-°p-∂- Hcp- I-h-N-am-bpw- A- Xv- {]-h¿-Øn-°p-∂p.- ""iz-kn-°m-p-≈- hm-bp-hn-s‚ {]m-[m-yw- G-sXm- cmƒ°pw- s] s´-∂v- a--kn-em-Ip-sa-¶n-epw- P--ß-fp-sS- X-e-°v- ao-sX- n-e-sIm-≈p-∂- A-Xy-¥w- {]m-[m-y-ap-≈- H-cp- ta¬-∏p-c- F-∂- n-e-bn¬- A-¥-co-£ta-em-∏n-s- hn-`m-h-w- sN-øm≥- {]-bm-kw- tXm-∂n-tb-°mw.- F-∂m¬- Hm-tcm- n-an-j-Øn-epw- kq-cy-n¬-n-∂p-≈- am-c-I-am-b- hn- In-c-W-߃-s°-Xn-sc- A-¥-co-£w- -ap-s°m-cp- I-h-N- ambn- h¿-Øn-°p-∂p''.- (Secrets of Space-Aldus Books Lon- don P.O.86)
  • 52. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 5454 `qan-sb-∂- sa-Ø- ""`q-an-sb- n-߃-°v- sa-Ø-bm-°n-Ø-∂n-cn-°p-∂p''- (Izp¿B≥ 2:-22)- F∂- h-N--sØ-bpw- B-[p-n-I-n-K-a- -ß-fp-sS- sh-fn-®-Øn-em-Wv- hne-bn-cp-tØ-≠-Xv.- am-c-I- am-b- c-iv-an-I-tf¬-°m-sX, D¬-°m-n-]m-X-sØ- `-b-s∏- Sm-sX,- H-cp- Hm-Iv-kn-P≥- kn-en-≠¿- Iq-sS-sIm-≠p-t]m-Im- sX,- `m-c-k-¥p-e-w- n-e-n¿-Øn-s°m-≠v,- n-b-{¥n-X-am- b- Dujv-am-hn¬- a-e¿-∂p-In-S-∂v- H-∂v- hn-{i-an-°m-p-≈- {]-Ir-Xn-Z-Ø-am-b- sa-Ø- ku-c-bq-Y-Øn¬- `q-ap-J-Øv- am- {X-am-Wp-≈-Xv.- `q-an- Po-hPm-e-߃-°v- h-k-Xn-bm-bpw- hn- {i-a-ÿ-e-am-bpw- kw-hn-[m-n-°-s∏-´-t∏mƒ- F-{X-am-{Xw- I-Wn-i-am-b- ]-cn-ÿn-Xn- n-b-{¥-W-߃- ]m-en-°-s∏-´n- ´p-s≠-∂v- im-kv-{Xw- C-t∏m-gpw- hn-e-bn-cp-Øn-s°m-≠n-cn- °p-I-bm-Wv.- sh-≈w,- sh-≈w- k¿-Δ-{X,- ]-t£........- hm-bp-t]m-se- X-s∂- -ap-°v- ]-cn-Nn-X-am-Wv- sh-≈-hpw.- F-∂m¬- {]-]-©-Øn-se- A-Xp-ey-am-b- bu-Kn-I-fn-sem- ∂m-Wv- sh-≈w.- Ωp-sS- X-e-°v- ap-I-fn¬- a-g-bm-bn- sNm- cn-bp-∂,- P-em-i-b-ß-fn¬- kw`-cn-°m-hp-∂- sh-≈w- C- √m-bn-cp-s∂-¶n-¬- Cu- `q-an-bn¬- Po-h≥- ne-n¬-°n-√m- bn-cp-∂p.- {Z-h-ambpw- J-c-am-bpw- hm-X-I-am-bpw- amdn- Poh- Pm-e-ß-fp-sS- hnhn-[- B-h-iy-߃- n-d-th-‰p-∂- Im-em- h-ÿ-sb- B-sI- n-b-{¥n-°p-∂- kz-m-`m-hn-I- hm-Xm-p- Iq-e-Øn-v- k-lm-bn°p-∂- Water Cycle A-Y-hm- P-e-N- {Iw- F-ß-s- n-b-{¥n-°-s∏-Sp∂p?- C-∂pw- D-Ø-cw-In- ´m-Ø- k-a-ky-bm-Wv- Im-em-h-ÿ-bp-sS- K-Xn-hnK-Xn-Iƒ.-
  • 53. 55 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- ""`q-an-sb- a-p-jy-s‚ I-fn-sØm-´n-em-°p-∂-Xn¬''- (Izp¿B≥-78:-6)- ap-Jy- ]-¶p-h-ln-°p-∂- H-cp- L-S-I-a-s{X- sh-≈w.- A- Xn-s-∏‰n- hn-ip-≤- Izp¿B≥- ]-d-bp-∂p-: "-"A-√m-lp-hm-Wv- A-h-s‚ Im-cpWy-Øn-s‚ ap-t∂m- Sn-bm-bn- Im-‰p-I-sf- A-b-°p-∂-h≥.- H-Sp-hn¬- P-e-`m-cw- Xn-ßp-∂- ta-L-sØ- A-h- h-ln-°p-tºmƒ- ar-X-{]m-bam- b- H-cp- {]-tZ-i-tØ-°v- A-Xn-s- mw- -bn-°p-I-bpw- A- ß-s- AXp-aq-ew- mw- sh-≈w- sNm-cn-bp-I-bpw- F-√m- Ø-cw- Im-bv-I-n-Ifpw- mw- A-Xp-aq-ew- D¬-]m-Zn-∏n-°p- I-bpw- sN-øp-∂p.- A-{]-Im-c-am-Wv- a-cn-®-h-sc-bpw- mw- ]p-d-Øp-sIm-≠p-h-cp-∂-Xv.- n-߃- kv-a-cn-°p∂-h-cm-sb- ¶n¬''- (Izp¿B≥ 7:-57).- Im-e-h¿-j-°m-‰v,- a-g,- -Zn-Iƒ,- k-ap-{Z-߃- C-h-sb- √mw-sIm≠v- A-p-{K-lo-X-am-b- H-tc-sbm-cp- {K-lw- `q-an- bm-Wv.- _p-[-{K-l-Øn¬- A-¥-co-£-ta- C-√.- ip-{I-n¬- A-¥-co-£-ap-s≠-¶n-epw- A-Xv- Im¿ _¨,- kƒ-^¿- Hm- Iv-ssk-Up-I-fp-sS- H-cp- an-{in-Xw- am-{X-a-s{X.- sNm-Δ-bp-sS- A-¥-co-£-Øn¬- P-emw-i-ap-s≠-¶n-epw- A-hn-sS-bpw- P- e-N-{Iw- cq-]w-sIm-≠n-´n-√.- hym-g-Øn¬- ssl-t{Um-kƒ- ss^-Un-s‚bpw- A-tam-Wn-bw- {I-n-kv-‰-ep-I-fp-sS-bpw- ssl- {U-P-s‚bpw- Iq-sS- ln-a-I-W-ß-fp-s≠-¶n-epw- a-g-bpw- P- em-i-b-ß-fp-an-√.- ln-a I-h-N-Øn¬- s]m-Xn-™p-In-S-°p- ∂- bq-dm--kn-s‚bpw- s-]v-‰yq-Wn-s‚bpw- A-¥-co-£- Øn¬- ao-sX-bv-m-Wp-≈-Xv.- Im-‰n-s-bpw- a-g-sb-bpw- `q-K¿-`-P-e-sØ-bpw- ]-‰n- hy-
  • 54. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 5656 Iv-X-am-b- Im-gv-N-∏m-Sv- k-ao-]q-‰m-≠p-Iƒ-h-sc- im-kv-{X- Øn-p-≠m-bn-cp-∂n√.- Izp¿B-s‚ A-h-X-c-W-Im-e-sØ- A-d-_n-Iƒ-°v- im-kv-{X-Øn-s‚- _m-e-]m-T-߃- t]m-epw- A-dn-bp-am-bn-cp-∂n-√.- B- n-e-°v- Cu- Im-cy-ß-sf-∏-‰n- B-[p-n-I- n-K-a--ß-fp-am-bn- tbm-Pn-°p-∂- {]Xn-]m-Z-- ß-f-m-Wv- Izp¿-B--n-ep-≈-Xv- F-∂- Im-cyw- Izp¿B-s‚ ssZ-hn-I-X-°v- km-£yw- h-ln-°p-∂p.- Im-‰v,- Im¿-ta-Lw,- C-Sn-bpw- an∂-epw-,- a-g,- `qK¿-`P-ew- C-h-sb- H-cp- Nm-{In- I{]-{In-b-bp-sS- `m-K-ßfm-bn- hn-ip-≤- Izp¿B≥- A-h-X- cn-∏n-°p-∂p.- `q-an-bn-se- {]-tXy-I- Xm-]-n-e-bm-Wv- a-s‰m-cp- n¿-Wm- b-I- LS-Iw.- A-y-{K-l-ß-fn¬-n-∂p-am-{X-a-√,- `q-an-bp- sS- D-]-{K-l-am-b- N{μ-n¬-n-∂p-t]m-epw- hy-Xy-kv-X-am- bn- `q-an-bp-sS- D-]-cn-X-e-Øn-v- k¥p-e-n-X-am-b- Du-jv-am-hv- ¬-I-s∏-´n-cn-°p-∂p.- A-¥-co-£-Øn-se-bpw- `q-K¿`-Øn- se-bpw- k-hn-ti-j- km-l-N-cy-ß-fm-Wv- C-Xnv- k-lm- bn-°p-∂-Xv.- X-Wp-Øp-d-bp-I-tbm- Np-s´-cn-bp-I-tbm- sN- øm-Ø- Du-jv-a-f-am-b- H-cp- sa-Ø-bs{X- Cu- A¿-Y-Øn¬- `q-X-ew.- cm-{Xn-Im-e-ß-fn¬- N-t{μm-]-cn-X-e-Øn-se- Xm-]w- K-Wy-am-bn- Ip-dbp-tºmƒ- `qan-bn¬- A-ß-s- kw-`-hn- °p-∂n-√.- `q-K¿-`-Xm-]w- D-]-cn-X-e-Øn-te-°v- t-cn-b- tXm- Xn¬- kw-{I-an-°p-∂-Xm-Wv- C-Xn-v- Im-c-Ww.- ]-I¬- k-a- b-Øv- A-¥-co-£-]m-fn-Iƒ- k-q-cy-c-iv-an-I-sf- A-cn-s®-Sp- Øv- ip-≤o-I-cn-°p-I-bpw- sa-cp-°n-sb-Sp-Øv- ]m-I-s∏-SpØp- I-bpw- sN-øp-∂p.- kq-cy-p-am-bp-≈- A-I-e-Øn¬- `q-an-bp-tS-Xn¬-n-∂pw-
  • 55. 57 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- h-f-scsbm-∂pw- `n-∂-a-√m-Ø- ÿm--am-Wv- N-{μ-t‚Xv.- ]- t£,- N-t{μm-]-cn-X-ew- H-cn-°-epw- Po-h-Pm-e-߃-°v- sa- Ø-sbm-cp-°p-I-bn-s√-∂m-Wv- F-√m- im-kv-{Xn-K-a--ß- fpw- Nq-≠n-°m-Wn-°p-∂-Xv.- sh-≈an-√m-Ø,- Im-¥-h-e-bw- Zp¿-_-e-am-b- N-t{μm-]-{K-lw- Xm-]-n-e-bnepw- `q-an-bn¬- n-∂v- h-f-sc- `n-∂-am-Wv.- N-{μ-s‚ a-[y-tc-Jm-{]-tZ-i-Øv- ´p-®-k-a-b-sØ- Xm- ]w- G-I tZ-iw- 1340 cbpw- A¿-≤-cm-{Xn-bn¬- -˛1530 cbpw B-Ip-∂p.- A-sX- s]mcn-bp-∂- D-®-bpw- X-Wp-Øp-d-bp-∂- cm-{Xn-bpw.- ssSw- A-‰v-e-kv- tc-J s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xv- Im-Wp- I-:- That the Earth and Moon are very different world is beyond doubt. But how they evolved so differently is still a matter for conjecture (Time Atlas 6th Edn. 1980) ""`q-an-bpw- N-{μ-pw- h-f-sc- hn-`n-∂-am-b- tem-I-ß-fm- Ip-∂p- F∂- h-kv-Xp-X- kw-i-bm-Xo-X-a-s{X.- ]-s£,- C- {X-bpw- hy-Xym-k-ap-≈-Xm-bn- A-h- F-ß-s- ]-cn-W-an-®p- F-∂- hn-j-b-sØ- ]-‰n- C-t∏mgpw- Du-ln-°m-t- I-gn-bq''.- ]¿-h-X-߃- `q-an-bp-sS- B-Wn-Iƒ- ""mw- `q-an-sb- sXm-´n-epw- ]¿-Δ-X-ß-sf- B-Wn-I-fp- am-°n-bn-t√?''- (Izp¿B≥- 78:-7)- ]p-cm-X-- A-d-_n-Iƒ-t°m- a-‰v- P--hn-`m-K-߃-t°m- ]¿-h-X߃- `q-an-bp-sS- B-Wn-I-fm-sW-∂- [m-c-W- D-≠m- bn-cp-∂n-√.- A-hcp-sS- Ir-Xn-I-fn-sem-∂pw- ]¿-h-X-sØ-]- ‰n- A-ß-s-sbm-cp- ho-£Ww- Im-W-s∏-Sp-∂n-√.- A-Xp-
  • 56. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 5858 sIm-≠v- X-s∂- D-]-cyp-Iv-X- Izp¿B≥- kq-Iv-X-sØ- im- kv-{Xo-bm-S-n-ÿm--an-√m-Ø- H-cp- {]-kv-Xm-ham-bn- ]-e-cpw- Nn-{Xo-I-cn-®n-´p-≠v.- F-∂m¬- `q-K¿-`-im-kv-{X- cw-K-sØ- B-[p-n-I- K-th- j-W-߃- sX-fn-bn-°p-∂-Xv- ]¿-h-X-߃- `q-an-sb- kw- _-‘n-®n-S-tØm-fw- GX¿-Y-Øn-epw- B-Wn-I-fm-sW-∂m- Wv.- `q-K¿-`-im-kv-{X-Øn-se- H-cp- B-[n-Im-cn-I- {K-v-Y-Øn¬- tc-Js∏-Sp-Øn-b-Xv- tm-°p-I-:- The failure of certain earth quake waves to pass beneath huge granitic ranges and reduced attraction of gravity near such mountain masses suggest that those mountains reach down to considerable depths-having roots as it were, in the underlying basalt like an iceberg's their submerged part is greater than their exposed parts. The granitic zone under mountains may be as much as four times as thick as it is under plains. (Geolog Richard M. pearl 3rd Edn 1966 published by Barnes & noble. Newyork) ""I--Ø- I-cn-ºm-d-I-fp-≈- ta-J-e-Iƒ-°n-S-bn-eq-sS- `q- I-º- Xcw-K-߃-°v- I-S-∂p-t]m-Im≥- I-gn-bp-∂n-√- F-∂- Xpw- A-Ø-cw- ]¿h--X-`m-K-߃-°-Sp-Øv- Kp-cp-Xzm-I¿-j- Ww- Ip-d-bp-∂p-sh-∂-Xpw- kqNn-∏n-°p-∂-Xv- B- ]¿-h-X- ߃- K-Wy-am-b- Af-hn¬- D-≈n-te-°v- B≠p-In-S-°p-∂p- sh-∂m-Wvv- A-Y-hm- A-Snbn¬- ÿn-Xn-sN-øp-∂- _-kmƒ- ´n¬- sN-‰p-ap-´p-∂- th-cp-Iƒ- A-h-bv-°p-s≠-∂m-Wv.- H-cp- sF-kv- _¿Kn-s‚ (ln-am-n-bp-sS) s]m-ßn-°m-Wp-∂- `m-
  • 57. 59 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- K-tØ-°mƒ- F-{X-tbm- h-ep-Xm-bn-cn-°pw- ap-ß-n-°n-S-°p- ∂- `m-K-sa-∂-t]m-se ]¿-h-X-߃-°v- Io-gn-ep-≈- I-cn-ºm- d- ta-J-e- k-a-X-e-߃°v- Io-sg-bp-≈-Xn-s‚ m-en-c-´n- tbm-fw- I--ap-≈-X-m-bn-cn-°pw''.- `q-an-bp-sS- k-¥p-en-X-Xz-Øn¬- ]¿-h-X-߃-°p-≈- ]- ¶m-Wv- hnip-≤- Izp¿B≥- ssZ-hn-IZr-jv-Sm-¥sa-∂- n-e- bn¬- Nq-≠n-°m-Wn-°p-∂- a-s‰m-cp- Im-cyw.- C-∂pw- A-]- Iz-a-Xn-I-fm-b- hn-a¿-i-I-∑m¿- X-≈n-∏-dbm-dp-≈- Cu- ssZ- hn-IZr-jv-Sm-¥-sØ- km-£y-s∏-Sp-Xp-∂- hn-[-Øn-em-Wv- B- [p-n-I- K-th-j-W-߃- o-ßp-∂-Xv.- ""`q-an-bn¬- mw- D-d-®p-n¬-°p-∂- ]¿-h-X-ß-fp-≠m- °n-bn-cn-°p∂p-.- `q-an- A-h-sc-bpw sIm-≠v- o-ßnt∏m- Im-Xn-cn-°m≥''- (Izp¿B≥- 21:-31).- a-‰v- A-t-Iw- h-m-Iy-ß-fn-epw- ]¿-h-X-߃- ¬-Ip-∂- kp-ÿnc-X- Izp¿B≥- Nq-≠n-°m-Wn-°p-∂p≠v.- `q-I-º-X-cw-K-ß-sf-bpw- `q-`m-K-{`w-i-ß-sf-bpw- `q-K¿-`- N-e--ß-sf-bpw- ]-‰n-bp-≈- B-[p-n-I]-T--߃- hn-ip- ≤- Izp¿B-n-s‚ A-h-X-c-W-Im-e-Øv- tem-I-Øn-v- A- Pv-Rm-X-am-bn-cp-∂- [m-cm-fw- h-kv-Xp-X-Iƒ- sh-fn-®-Øv- sIm- ≠p-h-∂n-´p-≠v.- A-h-bn¬- ]-e-Xpw- ]¿-h-X-ß-sf-∏-‰n-bp- ≈- Izp¿B-n-I- ]-cm-a¿-i-ß-fpsS- k-Xy-X-bnte-°v- hn- c¬- Nq-≠p-∂-X-s{X.- `q-I-º-X-cw-K-ß-fp-sS- th-K-X-sb- n-b-{¥n-®p-sIm-≠pw,- `q-tKm-f-Øn-s‚ B-¥-cn-I-hpw- _m-ly-hpam-b- L-S-- ]- cn-c-£n-°p-∂-Xn¬- ]¿-h-X-߃- h-ln-°p-∂- ]-¶v- `q-K¿- `-im-kv-{Xw- B-[p-n-I- km-t¶-Xn-I- hn-Zy-bp-sS- k-lm-b-
  • 58. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 6060 tØm-sS- C-∂v- kq-£v-a-am-bn- hne-bn-cp-Øns°m-≠n-cn- °p-I-bm-Wv.- Zn-hy-Z¿-i--Øns‚ A-`m-h-Øn¬- 1400 h¿- jw-ap-ºv- H-cp- hy-Iv-Xn-°v- Cu- hn-j-bw- ]-cm-a¿-in-°m≥- Ign-bp-am-bn-cp-∂n-√.- `q-tKm-fw- Izp¿B-n¬- K-eo-en-tbm- K-eo-en-bm-Wv- `q-an- D-cp-≠-Xm-sW-∂v- {]- kv-Xm-hn-®- B-Zyhy-Iv-Xn-sb-∂pw- A-t±-l-Øn-v- ap-ºv- F- √m-h-cpw- [-cn-®n-cp∂-Xv- `q-an- ]-c-∂-Xm-sW-∂p-am-bn-cp-∂p- sh-∂pw- ]-e-cpw- H-gp-°≥-a-´n¬- ]-d-bmdp-≠v.- Izp¿B-n¬- ]-c-∂- `q-an-sb-∏-‰n-bm-Wv- ]-d-™n-´p-≈-sX-∂pw- ap-kv-enw- I-sfm-s°- `q-an- ]-c∂Xm-sW-∂m-bn-cp-∂p- [-cn-®n-cp-∂-sX- ∂pw- C-kv-emw- hn-cp-≤¿- ]-d-™p--S-°m-dp-≠v.- C-°q´¿- hn-ip-≤- Izp¿Bs-∏-‰n-bpw- ap-kv-enw- N-cn-{X-sØ-∏-‰n-bpw- A-Pv-R-cm-sW-∂v- am-{X-a-√,- s]m-Xp-hn-Pv-Rm--Øn¬-t]m- epw- ]-cnXm-]-Ic-amw-hn-[w- ]n-t∂m-°-am-sW-∂m-Wv- sX- fn-bn-°p-∂-Xv.- k-l-{km-_v-Z-߃-°v- ap-ºp-X-s∂- Cu-Pn-]v-‰p-Im-cpw- tdm-am-°mcpw- a-‰pw- 3651 /4 Zn-h-k-ap-≈- ku-c-h¿jw- K- Wn-®n-cp-∂p-sh-∂v- Ncn-{X-Øn-s‚ _m-e-]m-T-sa-¶n-epw- ]- Tn-®-h¿-s°m-s°- A-dn-bmw.- Ipsd- {]mh-iyw- ss¬- - Zn-bn¬- ]-c-am-h-[n- sh-≈w- I-b--dp-∂- Znh-k-߃- n-co- £n-®n-´v- A-Ø-cw- c-≠v- Zn-h-k߃- X-Ωn-ep-≈- A-I-ew- I-W-°m-°n- A-Xn-s‚ i-cm-i-cn- K-Wn-®n-´m-Wv- 3651 /4 F- ∂- D-Ø-cw- In-´nbsX-∂v- `u-Xn-I-hm-Zn-bm-b- H-cp- -c-hw- i- imkv-{X-Pv-R≥- tc-J-s∏-Sp-Øn-°-≠p.- Pq-en-b≥- I-e- ≠¿- cq-]w-sIm-≠Xv- F-hn-sS- sh-≈w- I-b-dn-b-Xn-s‚ I-
  • 59. 61 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- W-°p-tm-°n-bn-´m-sW-∂v- B-cpw- F-hn-sS-bpw- F-gpXn- °-≠n-√.- `q-an- kq-cy-v- Np-‰pw- H-cp- {]Z£n-Ww- ]q¿-Øn- bm-°m-s-Sp-°p-∂- k-a-b-Øn-v- Xp-ey-am-b- H-cp-h¿-jw- I-Wn-i-am-bn- K-Wn-®-h¿- ]m-b- t]m-se-tbm- ]-∏-Sw- t]m- se-tbm- D-≈- `q-an-sb- a--kn¬- I≠p-sIm-≠m-Wv- A-ß- s- sN-bv-X-sX-∂v- hm-Zn-°m≥- n-jv-]-£-a-Xn-Iƒ-°v- km- [y-a-√.- K-eo-en-tbm- ]n-d-°p-∂-Xn-v- q-‰m-≠p-Iƒ-°v- ap- ºp-X-s∂- ap-kv-enwim-kv-{X-⁄-∑m-cpw- a-X-]-Wv-Un-X-∑m- cpw- `q-an-bpsS- tKm-fm-Ir-Xn-sb-∏-‰n- tc-J-s∏-Sp-Øn-bn-´p- ≠v.- Any how, the fact of the earth being a sphere of very small dimensions in comparison to the size of the universe was accepted without a position by every Arabian Scholar, and the very first scientific work undertaken after the vise of Astronomy among them was a determination of the size of the earth. It was carried out by order of Khalif Al-Mamoon in the plane Palmyra according to the account given by Ibn Junus that the length of a degree was measured by two ob- servers between Wamia and Tadmoor and by two others in another locality we are not tole where. The first measure given a degree equal to 57, and second one equal to 56.25 Arabian milesof 4000 black cubits, and the approximate mean 3652 /3 -miles was adopted as the final research. The cricumference of the earth being 20400 miles and the diam- eter 6500 miles. (A History of Astronomy from Thales to Kepler by Ile Dreyar. 2nd Edn.Dover Publication, New york) ""{]-]-©-hp-am-bn- Xp-e-w- sN-øp-tºmƒ- h-f-sc- sN-dn-
  • 60. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 6262 b- ]-cn-amWw-- am-{X-ap-≈- H-cp- tKm-f-am-Wv- `q-ansb-∂- h- kv-Xp-X- G-tXm- hn[-Øn¬- A-td-_y≥- ]-Wv-Un-X-∑m¿- °n-S-bn¬- A-n-tj-[y-am-b- kzoIm-cyX- t-Sn-°-gn-™n- cp-∂p.- A-h¿-°n-S-bn¬- tPym-Xn-im-kv-{X-Øn-s‚ D-Z-v-K-Xn- sb-Xp-S¿-∂v- BZy-am-bn- S-Ø-s∏-´- im-kv-{Xo-b- kw-cw- `w- `-q-an-bp-sS- h-en-∏w- n¿-W-bn-°p-I-bm-bn-cp-∂p.- ]m¬an- dm- k-a-X-eØn¬- J-eo-^m- am-aq-p-s‚ D-Ø-c-hv- {]-Im-c-am- Wv- AXv- -S-∂-Xv.- C-_v-p-bq-p-kv- ¬-In-bn-´p-≈- hn-h- c-ß-fp-k-cn-®v- A∂v- m-ev- n-co-£-I-∑m¿- tN¿-∂v- H-cp- Un-{Kn-bp-sS- ssZ¿-Lyw- A-f°p-I-bm-Wv- sN-bv-XXv.- c-≠p- t]¿- hm-an-bv-°pw- X-Zv-aq-dn-pw- C-S-°pw,- a-‰v- c-≠p-t]¿- tc- J-s∏-Sp-Ø-s∏-´n-´n-√m-Ø- a-s‰m-cp- ta-J-e-bn-ep-am-Wv- A- f-hp-I-sf-Sp-Ø-Xv.- B-Zyw- In-´n-b- A-f-h-p-k-cn-®v- H-cp- Un- {Kn- 57 A-td-_y≥- m-gnI-°v- Xp-ey-am-bn-cp-∂p.- c-≠m-a-Xv- In-´nb- A-f-h-p-k-cn-®v- 56.-25m-gn-I-bpw.- 4000ap-g-a-s{X- H- cp- A-td_y≥- m-gn-I.- A-¥n-a- hn-i-I-e--Øn¬- c-≠v- A-f-hp-I-fp-sS-bpw- Iq-Sn- G-ItZ-i- i-cm-i-cn- 3651 /3 mgn- I- H-cp- Un-{Kn-bp-sS- ssZ¿-Ly-am-bn- Aw-Ko-I-cn-°-s∏-Sp- ∂p.- A-ß-s- `q-an-bp-sS- Np-‰-f-hv- 20400 mgn-I-bm-bpw- hym-kw- 6500 m-gn-I-bm-bpw- K-Wn-°-s∏-´p''- (tPym-Xn-im- kv-{X- N-cn-{Xw- sX-bv¬-kv- apX¬- sI-π¿- h-sc).- `q-an-sb- H-cp- tKm-f-am-bn- I-≠-p-sIm-≠v- C-kv-em-an-s‚ {]-`m-h Im-e-Øv- (tIm-∏¿- n-°-kpw- K-eoentbmbpw- P- n-°p-∂-Xn-v- q‰m-≠p-Iƒ-°v- ap-ºv) -S-Ø-s∏-´- n-co- £-W- K-th-j-W-ß-fp-sS- sNdnsbm-cw-iw- am-{X-am-Wv- Cu- D-≤-c-Wn-bn¬- Nq-≠n-°m-Wn-°-s∏-´Xv.- hn-ip-≤- Izp¿B- n-s‚ ssZ-hn-I-X-bn¬ ]q¿-W-am-bn- hn-izm-k-a¿-∏n-®n-cp-
  • 61. 63 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- ∂-h¿- X-s∂-bm-bn-cp-∂p- Cu- K-th-j-W-ß-fn-te¿-s∏-´n- cp-∂-Xv.- `q-an- tKm-fm-Ir-Xn-b-m-bn-cn-°p-I- F-∂-Xv- Izp¿B- v- hn-cp-≤-am-sW-∂v- A-h-tcm- A-h-cp-sS- k-a-Im-en-I-cm- b- apkv-enw- ]-WvUn-X-∑m-tcm- n-cq-]n-°p-I-t]m-epw- sN- bv-Xn-´n-√.- X-s∂-bp-a-√- kq-cy-N-{μ-∑m-sc-bpw- cm-∏-I-ep-I-sf-bpw- ]-‰n- {]Xn-]m-Zn-°p-∂- k-μ¿-`-ß-fn¬- hn-ip-≤- Izp¿B≥- - kzo-I-cn-®n-´p-≈- ssien- hy-Iv-X-am-bpw- tKmfm-Ir-Xn-sb- Ip-dn-°p-∂-Xm-sW-∂- Imcy-Øn¬- ap-kv-enw- k-ap-Zm-b-Øn- se- {]-ap-J- ]-Wv-Un-X-∑m¿-°v- X¿-°-an-s√-∂v- am-k-∏n-d- hn-sb-∏-‰n-bp-≈- H-cp- eLp-Ir-Xn-bn¬- ssiJp¬- C-kv- emw- C-_v-p-ssX-an-ø - kv-]-jv-S-am-°n-bn-´p-≠v.- {]ap-J- Izp¿B≥- hym-JymXmhm-b- C-amw- dm-kn- bpw- C-°m- cyw- A-k∂n-Kv-≤-am-bn- Xp-d-∂v- ]-d-™n-´p-≠v.- C-_v-p-ssX- an-b- bpw- Camw- dmkn- bpw- -thm-∞m--Im-e-Øn-v- F- {X-tbm- ap-ºv- C-kv-em-an-I- hn-⁄m-o-b-ß-fp-sS- sh-fn- ®Øn¬- Im-cy-߃- tm-°n-°-≠- ]-Wv-Un-X∑m-c-s{X.- hn-ip-≤- Izp¿B-n-s‚ A-am-p-jn-I-X-°p-≈- Hm-tcm- sX-fnhpw- A-]-{K-Yn-®v- Cu- e-Lp-Ir-Xn- hen®p-o-´m-p- t±-in-°p-∂n-√.- a-p-jy-sc-∏-‰n-bpw- {]-]-©-sØ-∏-‰n-bpw- a-p-jy-s‚ ]- X--Ønpw- D¬-I¿-j-Øn-pw- n-Zm--am-b- au-en-I- h- kv-Xp-X-I-sf-∏-‰n-bpw- hn-ip-≤- Izp¿B≥- A-h-X-cn-∏n-°p- ∂- B-i-b-߃- tI-hew- H-cp- a-pjy-s‚ Nn-¥-I-fm-bn- cp-∂p-sh-¶n¬- A-h- H-cn-°-epw- nXy-k-Xy-ß-fm-Ip-am-bn- cp-∂n-√.- Im-e-tZ-i-ßfp-sS- A-Xn¿-h-c-ºp-Iƒ-°-∏p-d-tØ-
  • 62. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 6464 °v- A-h- o-≠p-n¬-°p-am-bn-cp-∂n-√.- Cu- h-kv-Xp-X- kp- X-cmw- hy-Iv-Xam-°p-∂-X-s{X- ap-I-fn¬- ]-cm-a¿-in-°-s∏-´- sXfn-hp-Iƒ.- h-m-b--°m-tcm-Sv,- a-p-jy≥- k-Xyw- kzo-I-cn-°-W-sa-∂v- n¿-_-‘-an-√.- ]t£,- k-Xyw- F-¥m-sW-∂v- I-≠p-]n-Sn-°mp-≈- Xm¬- ]-cy-an-√m-bv-a- ap-jym-kv-Xn-Xz-Øn-p--X-s∂- A-]-am--am- Wv.- A-Xn-s- n-tj-[n-°m≥- im-iz-X- -c-I-Øn-se-Øp- ∂- ]m-X-I-am-Wv.- ssZhw- a-p-jy-v- hn-th-Nn-°m-p-≈- I-gn-hv- ¬-In-b- Xn-m¬- a-p-jy≥- h-kv-Xp-n-jv-T-am-bn- hn-thNn-°p-sa-∂v- {]-Xo-£n-°p-∂p-sh-∂m-Wv- C-kv-emw- ]-Tn-∏n-°p-∂-Xv.- Nn- ¥n-°p-I,- tNm-Zyw- sN-øpI,- ho-≠pw- Nn-¥n-°p-I.- C-kv-em-an-s‚ G-sX-¶n-epw- H-cp- A-[ym-]-w- h-f-sc- [r-Xn-bn¬- kzo-I-cn-°p-hm≥- B-cpw- Xm-¶-sf- n¿-_-‘n- °p-I-bn-√.- Ckv-emw- a-p-jy-v- kz-ta-[-bm- Nn-¥n-®v- sX- c-s™-Sp-°p-hm-p-≈-k-zm-X-{¥yw- A-p-h-Zn-°p-∂p.- C-kv- em-an-s- ]-‰n- Xm-¶-fp-sS- A-dn-hv- k-a-{K-amtWm- F-∂v- kz- bw- ]-cn-tim-[n-°p-I.- D≈- A-dn-hv- A-ap-kv-enw- aqe-ß- fn¬-n-∂pw- e-`n-®-Xm-tWm- F-∂pw.- A-Ø-cw- aqe-߃- Hcp-]-s£,- Ckv-em-an-s- kw-_-‘n-®- `m-Kn-IZr-iy-ß- fn¬-n-∂v- cq]-s∏-´-Xpw- h-kv-Xp-n-jv-T-hpw- {I-a-hp-am-b- ]cntim-[--°v- hn-t[-bam-°m-Ø-h-bpw- BIm-n-S-bp-≈- h-bm-tWm- F-∂pw- ]-cn-tim-[n-°pI.- H-cp- ]-Yym-lm-cw- A-Xv- cp-Nn-®p-tm-°m-Ø-h-cn¬-n- ∂p-≈- tI´p-tIƒ-hn-bp-sS- A-Sn-ÿm--Øn¬- kzm-Zn-jv-S-
  • 63. 65 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- am-tWm- F-∂v- Xo-cpam-n-°p-∂-Xv- ym-b-bp-Iv-X-am-tWm?- A-√-t√-m.- A-Xp-t]m-se- C-kvem-ans- kw-_-‘n-®v- Xm- ¶ƒ- H-cp- A-`n-{]m-bw- cq-]-s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xv- hn-iz-kv-X-am-b- aq-e-ß-fn¬- n-∂m-bncn°-Ww.- A-Xv- cp-Nn-®p-tm-°p-I- am-{X-a-√- A-Xv- Z-ln-°p-I-bpw- th-Ww,- Xm-¶ƒ- H-cp- A- `n{]m-bw- cq]s∏-Sp-Øp-∂-Xn-v- ap-ºv.- A-Xm-bn-cn-°pw- C- kv-em-an-t-m-Sp≈- _p-≤n-am-s‚ k-ao-]-w.- Xm-¶ƒ-X-s∂- A-Sp-Ø-]-Sn- sX-c-s™-Sp-°p-I.- sX-c- s™-Sp-°p-hm-p-≈- Xm-¶-fp-sS- kzm-X-{¥y-hpw,- ssZ-hw- ¬-In-b- Xm-¶-fp-sS- Nn-¥m-i-Iv-Xn-bpw- tN-X--bpw- D-]- tbm-Kn-°p-hm-p-≈ kzm-X-{¥yhpw- B-Zcn-°-s∏-Sp-sa-∂v- C-kv-emw- n-c-¥-cw- Xm-¶ƒ-°v- D-d-∏v- X-cp-∂p-sh-∂-Xv- Xm- ¶-sf- k-lm-bn-°pw.- F-√m-ap-jy¿-°pw- Cu- kzm-X-{¥y- hm-Rv-O-bp-≠v.- a-s‰m-cmƒ-°pw- A-Xv- Xm-¶-fn¬-n-∂v- F- Sp-Øp-I-f-bm≥- A-[n-Im-c-an-√.- k-Xy-Øn-te-°p-≈- Xm- ¶-fp-sS- _p-≤n-]-c-am-b- bm-{X- kp-J-{]-Z-am-°-s´- F-∂pw- Xm-¶ƒ-°v- tem-I-{k-jvSm-hv- k-Xyw- kzo-I-cn-°m-p-≈- sI¬-∏v- ¬-I-s´- F-∂pw- R-߃- B-iw-kn-°p-∂p.- Xm-¶ƒ-°v- C-kv-em-an-s- kw-_-‘n-®v- h-kv-Xp-n-jv-S- am-bn- ]Tn-°-W-sa-∂v- B-{K-l-ap-s≠-¶n¬- n-®v- Hm-^v- {Sq- Øn-s- k-ao-]n°pI.-
  • 64. Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬- 6666 kXyØns≥d hnf°pamSw apgph≥ apjycpsSbpw ∑°pw CltemIsØbpw ]ctemIsØbpw hnPbØnpambn {]]©mY≥ ¬Inb ktμiamWv Ckvemw. CXv ]n¥pStc≠Xv apjycpsS _m[yXbmWv. c£bnte°pw kam[mØnte°pw im¥nbnte°pamWXv £Wn°p∂Xv. ]ctemI hnPbamWXns≥d e£yw. AXnmbn, GImb A√mlpsh am{Xw Bcm[n°pI Ah≥ aplΩZv _nbneqsS ¬Inb ktμiw ]n¥pScpI. Cu kXyØnte°v F√mhscbpw £Wn°p∂p. _v[s∏SpI: NICHE OF TRUTH P.B. N0: 832, Poothole, Thrissur-4. Tel: 9746547777 Email:dawa@nicheoftruth.org www.nicheoftruth.org
  • 65. 67 Izp¿B≥ Hcp kXym-tz-jn-bpsS apº-n¬-