The concept Site – away from the wards of zones : a) outer zone – reception area. b) clean zone – between the reception and OR. C) asceptic zone – OR . D) dirty zone – disposal area and space for cleaning of instruments
Diguanides – e.g. chlorhexidine – good activity against gm + ve organisms , moderate activity against gm- ve organisms, poor activity > TB bacilli, spores , fungi & viruses . Used as an antiseptic for skin & mucous memb.
Halogens e.g. hypochlorites and chlorine – active against bacteria including spores ,fungi, hepatitis B & HIV virus
Dry heat – Hot air ovens which have controlled cycles, such as 160 °C for 1 hour – suitable for killing bacteria on materials which are not penetrable by steam e.g. glassware, powder such as talc, oils & petroleum jelly.
Moist heat – Steam under pressure – simplest is domestic pressure
High pressure vacuum autoclaves
Low temp. steam(73°C) & formaldehyde – suitable for heat sensitive materials and equipment with plastic component