“ Strength does not come from winning. Struggles & Hardship develop your strength. When you go through hardship and decide not to surrender, that is strength” Arnold Schwarzenegger Bodybuilder and Actor
Pathology of Breast Cancer Dr. Venkatesh M. Shashidhar Senior Lecturer in Pathology Fiji School of Medicine
Modified sweat glands.
Lobes and lobules of gland
in fat tissue stroma.
Ducts emerge from acini of glands
Smaller ducts join to form lactiferous ducts
Lactiferous ducts merge just beneath the nipple to form a lactiferous sinus.
Estrogen receptor expression is proportional to differntiation of tumor
inversly proportional to prognosis and response to tamoxifen (receptor antagonist) therapy.
Demonstrated by Immunoperoxidase special stain.
The HER2 proto-oncogene encodes a cell surface receptor that is overexpressed in approximately 25%-30% of breast cancers.
Trastuzumab (Herceptin®) is the first monoclonal antibody that targets the extracelluar domain of the HER2 protein, and inhibits growth of breast cancer cells that over express this protein.
Estrogen receptor (ER) in nuclei
Immunoperoxidase Positivity Neg 1+ 2+ 3+
Stag Definition 5-year Surv (%) 7-year Surv (%) I Tumor 2 cm or less without spread 96 92 II Tumor 2-5cm with regional lymph node involvement but without distant metastases, OR > 5 cm in diameter without spread 81 71 III Any size with skin/chest wall fixation, & axillary or internal mammary nodal involvement, without distant metastases 52 39 IV Tumor of any size with or without regional spread but with evidence of distant metastases 18 11