Zygomycota (Rhizopus) the Common Molds -are primarily decomposers -asexual spores may be produced in sporangia -sexual reproduction occurs between + and – strains forming a 2n zygote; a zygospore develops and may lie dormant for a long period of time; meiosis occurs just before germination -only the zygote is diploid; all hyphae and asexual spores are haploid
Zygomycota – common molds The fungal mass of hyphae, known as the MYCELIUM penetrates the bread and produces the fruiting bodies on top of the stalks Mycelia = a mass of hyphae or filaments
Rhizoids = root-like hyphae The zhizoids meet underground and mating occurs between hyphae of different molds (SEXUAL REPRODUCTION)
Truffles are round, warty, fungi that are irregular in shape. They vary from the size of a walnut to that of a man's fist. Since the times of the Greeks and Romans these fungi have been used in Europe as delicacies, as aphrodisiacs, and as medicines. They are among the most expensive of the world's natural foods, often commanding as much as $250 to $450 per pound. Truffles are harvested in Europe with the aid of female pigs or truffle dogs, which are able to detect the strong smell of mature truffles underneath the surface of the ground. The female pig becomes excited when she sniffs a chemical that is similar to the male swine sex attractant. The use of dogs to find truffles is also and option.
Bracket Fungi Puff Balls Mushrooms Jelly Fungi Basidiomycete Fungi that all produce Basiospores
Other Basidiomycetes Rusts and Smuts Rust infecting wheat leaves Rust infecting a Leaf Whitrot Smut digesting old wood
Deuteromycota (Imperfect Fungi) -Regarded as imperfect because they exhibit no sexual stage has been observed in their life cycle -Members are not closely related and are not necessarily similar in structure or appearance; do not share a common ancestry, polyphyletic = coming from many ancestors – hmm weird
Resemble Ascomycetes, but their reproductive cycle has never been observed
Different from Ascomycetes because there is a definite lack of sexual reproduction, which is why they are called Imperfect Fungi
Penicillium fungi Up Close
Water Molds -- Oomycota The water molds are better known as the MILDEWS. Fish tank fuzz is an example. Protist-like mold because share common characteristics with plant-like protists, such as the cell wall
Hyphae + & - fuse to create ascospores in ascus Conidia on conidophores Yeast, morels, truffles Ascomycota Gametangia fuse to create zygospore Unflagel. spores drop from sporangia Chitin cell walls Coenocytic = hyphae lack crosswalls Rhizopus a dung fungus Zygomycota Gametes fuse in gametangia creating oospores Flagellated oospores from sporangia Cellulose cell walls, 2N hyphae Mildew Spud blight Oomycota Sexual Asexual Characteristics Ex’s Phylum
Sexual repro Not known Asexual by conidia which produce conidophores Similar To Basidio and Zygomy Penicillium, Athlete’s Foot fungus, Tomato Blight Fungi Imperfecti Deuteromycota Sexual when hyphae fuse in BASIDIA to produce basidiospores Asexual by way of Conidophores which produce conidiospores Cross walls in hyphae Mushrooms Puffballs, rusts, smuts Basidiomycota
Cross Walls of Hyphae Coenocytic hyphae where the nucleis of each cell is embedded in the cytoplasm without a cell wall Eg. Zygomycota, Oomycota Hyphae with cross walls Eg. Basidiomycota, Ascomycota coenocytic having multiple nuclei embedded in cytoplasm without cross walls; nonseptate
Lichens are mutualistic symbiotic organisms. They have an ____________ fungus and a _________ or cyanobacterial portion. There are three lichen growth forms which are predominant in nature: _____________________ _____________________________ Lichens
Mycorrhizae Mycorrhizae means “fungus-root”; mutualistic relationship between plant and fungi The plant photosynthesizes while the fungus more efficiently takes up nutrients and water from the rhizosphere than the roots would alone.
Plant benefits include:
Improved nutrient/water uptake
Improved root growth
Improved plant growth and yield
Improved disease resistance
Reduced transplant shock
Reduced drought stress
Soredia are the asexual reproductive part of lichens, containing both symbionts. Rhizines may be present to anchor the lichen. Notice the distinctive algal layer and the fungal layer present in the above illustration.