EMERGENCY MEDICAL TECHNICIAN - BASIC

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EMERGENCY MEDICAL TECHNICIAN - BASIC

  1. 1. GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY EMERGENCY MEDICAL TECHNICIAN - BASIC dr shabeel pn
  2. 2. Pharmacology Basics <ul><li>Indications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The reasons for administering a medication or performing a treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contra-indications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A factor that prevents the use of a medication or treatment (eg. Allergies) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Pharmacology Basics <ul><li>Dose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The amount of a drug to be administered at one time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mechanism of Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How a drug works </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Pharmacology Basics <ul><li>Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The desired result of administration of a medication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Side Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects that are not desired and that occur in addition to the desired therapeutic effects </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Medication Names <ul><li>Chemical Name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>describes the drug’s chemical structure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generic Name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reflects the chemical name, but in shorter form </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Medication Names <ul><li>Trade Name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the name the manufacturer uses to market the drug </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Official Name </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the name used in the U.S. Pharmocopoeia </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Routes of Administration <ul><li>Sublingual </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Under the tongue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nitroglycerin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Oral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The drug is swallowed and absorbed through the stomach and intestinal tract </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oral Glucose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aspirin </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Routes of Administration <ul><li>Inhalation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a gas or aerosol inhaled by the patient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen by mask </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Albuterol by hand-held metered- dose inhaler or by small-volume nebulizer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Injection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The drug is injected into a muscle mass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Epinephrine by auto-injector </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Medication Forms <ul><li>Tablets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>compressed powder shaped into a disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aspirin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nitroglycerin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Liquid for Injections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>liquid with no particulate matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Epinephrine </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Medication Forms <ul><li>Gel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>viscous substance that the patient swallows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oral Glucose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Suspension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>drug particles mixed in a solute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activated Charcoal </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Medication Forms <ul><li>Fine powder for Inhalation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a crystalline solid mixed with liquid to form a suspension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Albuterol by hand-held metered-dose inhaler </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Gas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen by mask </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Medication Forms <ul><li>Spray </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitroglycerin sub-lingual spray </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Liquid/vaporized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Albuterol by small-volume nebulizer </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Steps to Administering Medication <ul><li>Obtain an Order </li></ul><ul><li>Confirm Order </li></ul>
  14. 14. Steps to Administering Medication <ul><li>Select Proper Medication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid contamination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check Expiration Date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check For Signs of Contamination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discoloration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cloudiness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Particulate Matter </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Steps to Administering Medication <ul><li>Verify Form & Route </li></ul><ul><li>Inform Patient of Order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inquire about allergies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recheck Medication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expiration date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contamination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At least two more times after initial check </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Steps to Administering Medication <ul><li>Assess Patient prior to administration of the drug </li></ul><ul><li>Administer the correct dose by the correct route </li></ul><ul><li>Dispose of Contaminated Equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Reassess After Administration </li></ul>

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