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Mr. Jones is a 72 y/o gentleman brought to you by his daughter for progressive memory loss. He denies any problems. She reports that he was an accountant, and is now unable to keep his own check book straight. He has also had difficulty with getting lost while driving to the store. His wife died 2 years ago, and he was diagnosed with depression at that time. In addition, he has HTN and DM. His father was diagnosed with alzheimer’s disease at the age of 85. On exam, his BP is 170/90; he is oriented, scores 26/30 on the MMSE (0/3 recall and difficulty with the intersecting pentagon); he is unable to do the clockface.
A few months later, his MMSE is 24/30; on exam he has some mild cogwheel rigidity and a slight shuffling gate, but no tremor. His daughter reports that he has been having vivid visual hallucinations and paranoid thought…
Data from Canadian Study of Health and Aging, estimate adjusted for length bias, with random sample of 10,263 people over age 65 screened for cognitive impairment; for those with dementia, ascertained date of onset and conducted followup for 5 years