2. Outline• Previous Technologies - 1G, 2G, 3G (CDMA, GSM, UMTS) – Multiplexing; Frequency, Time & Code• Reasons for New Research•4G TECHNOLOGY - Architecture, AdHoc, IP core, OFDM5G TECHNOLOGY
3. 1G Technology
4. Previous Technology - 1G “First Generation” • Analog - Continuous in amplitude and time - Variations in the signal - disrupts over long distances • Simplest type to wireless data • Average between 4,800 to 9,600 bps (bits per second)
5. 2G Technology
6. Previous Technology - 2G• Advantages - Digital - consists of 1s and 0s • Digital signal: 1) Low level, 2) High level, 3) Rising edge, and 4) Falling edge
7. Previous Technology - 2G - Digital data can be compressed and multiplexed much more effectively than analog voice encodings • Multiplexing - multiple analog message signals or digital data streams are combined into one signal
8. Previous Technology - 2G - Allows for lower powered radio signals that require less battery power - CODEC introduction - program that encodes and decodes digital data stream or signal • Translates data from digital to analog and vice versaspeaker voice CODEC 10111001
9. Previous Technology - 2G• Advantages - The digital voice encoding allows digital error checking • increase sound quality • lowers the noise level - Going all-digital allowed for the introduction of digital data transfer • SMS - “short message service” • E-mail
10. Previous Technology - 2G• Disadvantages - Cell towers had a limited coverage area • Jagged Decay curve - Abrupt dropped calls - Analog - gradual sound reduction • “Spotty” coverage
11. 3G Technology
12. Previous Technology - 3G• Large capacity and broadband capabilities• Allows the transmission of 384kbps for mobile systems and up to 2Mbps• Increased spectrum efficiency - 5Mhz - A greater number of users that can be simultaneously supported by a radio frequency bandwidth - High data rates at lower incremental cost than 2G - Global roaming
13. Previous Technology - 3G• CDMA - Code Division Multiple Access - Form of multiplexing - Does not divide up the channel by time or frequency - Encodes data with a special code associated with each channel
14. Types of Multiplexing• FDMA - Each phone call is allocated one frequency for the entire duration of the call.• TDMA - Each phone call is allocated a spot in the frequency for a small amount of time, and "takes turns" being transmitted.• CDMA - Each phone call is uniquely encoded and transmitted across the entire spectrum, in a manner known as spread spectrum transmission.
15. Frequency Division Multiple Access Time Division Multiple Access Code Division Multiple Access frequency
16. Reasons for New Research• Even though 3G has successfully been introduced to European mobile users, there are some issues that are debated by 3G providers and users. - High input fees for the 3G service licenses - Great differences in the licensing terms - Current high debt of many telecommunication companies, making it more of a challenge to build the necessary infrastructure for 3G
17. Reasons for New Research• Government are forced to support to the financially troubled operators• 3G phones are expensive• Lack of 2G mobile user buy-in for 3G wireless service• Lack of coverage because it is still a new service
18. Evolution to Fourth Generation systems
19. How 4G Works
20. What is 4G?• Fourth Generation Technology• Faster and more reliable - 100 Mb/s (802.11g wireless = 54Mb/s, 3G = 2Mb/s)• Lower cost than previous generations• Multi-standard wireless system - Bluetooth, Wired, Wireless (802.11x)• Ad Hoc Networking• IPv6 Core• OFDM used instead of CDMA• Potentially IEEE standard 802.11n - Most information is proprietary
21. OFDM• Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing• Allows for transfer of more data than other forms of multiplexing (time, frequency, code, etc)• Simplifies the design of the transmitter & receiver• Allows for use of almost the entire frequency band - No gaps to prevent interference needed• Currently used in WiMax (802.16) and Wi-Fi (802.11a/g)
22. How OFDM Works Bit = 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 Above, binary phase shift keying (BPSK). The phase of the sin wave changes to represent a different bit.
23. How OFDM works • Frequency of the previous wave
24. How OFDM works• The frequencies are spaced so that the signals do not interfere with each other (no cross talk)• Parallel Data Transmission - Allows for the sending of multiple signals simultaneously from the same antenna (or wire) to one device - Each transmission has a different stream of bits
25. FIFTH GENERATION 5G5G refers to the fifth generation of cellular wireless standards 5G is apacket switched wireless system with wide area coverage and highthroughput.5G wireless uses OFDM and millimeter wireless that enables data rate of20 mbps and frequency band of 2-8 GHz. 5G is going to be a packed based network.The 5G communication system is envisioned as the real wireless network,capable of supporting wireless world wide web ( wwww).
26. OBJECTIVE5G being developed to accommodate quality of service(QoS) raterequirements set by further development of existing 4G applications.Flexible channel bandwidth between 5 and 20MHz, optionally up to40MHz.Data rate of at list 1Gb/s between any two points in the world.Increase system spectral efficiency of up to 3bit/s/Hz/cell in the downlinkand 2.25bit/s/Hz/cell for indoor usage.Standard wireless 5G aims to provide wireless data over long distancefrom point-to-point link to cellular mobile type access.
27. BENEFITS OF 5G5G is high speed, high capacity, and low cost per bit.It support interactive multimedia, voice, streaming video, Internet, and otherbroadband services more effectively.It provides bidirectional ,accurate traffic statistics.The high quality services of 5G technology based on Policy to avoid error.5G technology is providing large broadcasting of data in Gigabit whichsupporting almost 65,000 connections.5G technology offer transporter class gateway with unparalleled consistency.Through remote management offered by 5G technology a user can get betterand fast solution.
28. SPEED5G WiFi products have 450megabits per second, whichis at least three timesfaster than the mostcommon devices using thecurrent wireless system,802.11n.And because the newstandard givemanufacturersthe flexibility to offer a rangeof products with differentlevels of performance, somehigh-speed 802.11ac deviceswill offer transmission inexcess of a gigabit persecond -- remarkablespeeds that wired networksattained only recently.
29. RELIABLITY5G Wifi offers dramaticimprovements in wirelessreliability, range andcoverage.Homes and apartments nowplagued with "dead spots" willenjoy vastly improvedreception.5G Wifi networks, withbeam-forming and otherinnovations, do a much betterjob in penetrating all forms ofbuilding materials, includingconcrete than itspredecessors.
30. Impact of 4G
31. Socio-Economic Impact• More affordable communication services• One device can communicate with all vs. many devices communicating with some devices• TV, internet, phone, radio, home environment sensors all reachable through one device  the cell phone - Streaming HD video• Too connected? - Increase in social networking, invasion of privacy, security concerns - Increase in regulation likely (ie. no driving and using a cell phone)
32. When?• China Mobile, KPN, NTT DoCoMo, Orange, Intel, Motorola, Sprint Nextel, T-Mobile and Vodafone already doing research on 4G• Much of this information is proprietary at this time• Expected release of 4G services as early as 2008.• Majority of companies expect widespread use of 4G systems by 2010.• Lifecycle of 4G is estimated to be 15 years.
34. Bibliography - Texts• Agha, Khaldoun & Omidyar, Cambyse. Mobile and Wireless Communications Networks. Singapore, World Scientific, 2003• Glisic, Savo. Advanced Wireless Communications: 4G Technologies. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, 2004• Lightman, Alex. Brave New Unwired World; The Digital Big Bang and the Infinite Internet. New York, John Wiley & Sons, 2002• Wang, Jiangzhou. Broadband Wireless Communications. Norwell, Massachusetts, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001
35. Bibliography - Websites• Charmed Technology wireless everywear. Charmed Technology. 11/16/2006 www.charmed.com• OFDM Tutorial. Wave Report. 11/16/2006 http://www.wave-report.com/tutorials/OFDM.htm• OFDM Tutorial. University of Edinburgh. 11/3/2006. www.ee.ed.ac.uk/~acmc/ OFDM Tut.html• How VoIP Works. HowStuffWorks.com 11/16/2006. http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/ip-telephony3.htm• W-OFDM Technology in 4G Cellular Networks. 11/16/2006. http://www.4g.co.uk/PR2004/August2004/2032.htm
36. Bibliography - Websites• OFDM Overview. Intel Corporation. 11/16/2006 http://www.intel.com/education/highered/wireless/lectures/l07- overview_of_ofdm.ppt• Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing. Intel Corporation. 10/30/2006 www.intel.com/netcomms/technologies/wimax/303787.pdf• 4G Technologies Support Transmission Rates up to 100Mbps . www.4G.co.uk. 10/30/2006 http://www.4g.co.uk/PR2006/2067.htm• Move over 3G here comes 4G. The Economist. 11/4/2006 http://www.economist.com/business/displayStory.cfm?story_id= 1816742
37. Bibliography - Websites• FDMA vs TDMA vs CDMA: What is the difference? Rice University. 11/15/2006 http://www.owlnet.rice.edu/~elec301/Projects01/cdma /compare.html• Introduction to CDMA. Qualcomm Learning Center. 11/15/2006 http://www.cdmauniversity.com/ProdTech/cdma/traini ng/cdma25/m4/m4p01.html• CDMA Overview. UMTS. 11/15/2006 http://www.umtsworld.com/technology/cdmabasics.ht m