News structure

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The Structure of TV News

“Storytelling”
Structure is central to all communication, whether nonverbal
or verbal. All art – painting, ceramics, sculpture, furniture making, stained glass, weaving, whatever form it takes – has structure. Even deconstruction calls for a structured, disciplined approach to the task.
Structure is involved in the way individual television news stories are produced, shot, edited, and aired within the larger framework of the newscast, itself a structured unit. This concept of structure is the single most important idea you will need to grasp because it is central to how journalists communicate with their audiences. For the television journalist, structure is an even more important concept because of the way the communication with the viewers takes place.

The task of journalism is also to explain and interpret the importance and significance of news events. There are reasons why the rhetoric and actions of one person are more important than those of another, why strategies and ideas expressed might or might not work.

These reasons are revealed by interviewing, digging for facts, taping, editing and writing stories that probe the reasoning, the motives, and the strategies of those involved. These elements are processed into news accounts and provide structure – the “how” and the “why” of the news as well as the “who”, “what”, “when”, and “where”. If we left the “how” and “why” out of our reports, the audience would be less well informed.

With this concept of structure in mind, we look now at some of the ingredients that make up the structure of television news communication, five distinct aspects are involved: showing and telling, the relationship between the people on the air and the viewers watching their television sets, storytelling, linear clarity and visual structure.

Showing and Telling:
As local and network television news has expanded and all-news cable channel have developed, the common dialogue today is:
Did you hear about ….. ?
Yes, I saw it…….

The important word here is saw. By using it people seem to mean they either “saw” a newscaster telling them about it or, because the technology makes it possible to bring pictures of a news event to people as it is happening, it is also more and more likely that they really did “see” at least some of it. Instant replay and other production techniques also make it possible for the audience to “see it” again and again, to analyze it in slow motion or frame by frame.

Pictures & Words:
Television news is more than just pictorial coverage. It “tells” the news with pictures in motion including news sounds, and with words spoken by anchorpersons, reporters, and news makers. The link between the pictures and the words is crucial. At the basic level that wedding of the right words with right pictures is at once the greatest potential strength and greatest potential weakness of television news. When that link is right the communication may be a whole new experience.

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News structure

  1. 1.
  2. 2. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Structure is basis to all communication<br />It’s just like a foundation of TV News story<br />
  3. 3. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Structure is involved in:<br />Television News Story Production<br />Shots editing<br />On-air<br />Newscast itself<br />
  4. 4. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Structure – single most important idea<br />Structure – most important concept for TV Journalists<br />
  5. 5. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Task of Journalism <br /> is also Explain & interpret <br />the importance & significance of <br />news events<br />
  6. 6. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />There are reasons why the actions of one person are more important than those of another<br />
  7. 7. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />These reasons are revealed by <br />Interviewing<br />Digging for facts <br />Taping Editing<br />Writing stories that probe the reasoning<br />
  8. 8. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />These elements are processed into news accounts and provide structure – <br />The “how” and the “why” of the news <br />As well as the “who”, “what”, “when”, and “where”. <br />If we left the “how” and “why” out of our reports, the audience would be less well informed. <br />
  9. 9. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />some of the ingredients that make up the structure of television news: <br />Showing and telling <br />The relationship between the people on the air and the viewers watching their television sets <br />Storytelling<br />Linear clarity<br />Visual structure.<br />
  10. 10. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Showing and Telling:<br />As local and network television news has expanded and all-news cable channel have developed, the common dialogue today is: <br />Did you hear about ….. ?<br />Yes, I saw it…….<br />
  11. 11. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Showing and Telling:<br />The important word here is saw. <br />By using it people seem to mean they either “saw” a newscaster telling them about it <br />or, because the technology makes it possible to bring pictures of a news event to people as it is happening <br />
  12. 12. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Showing and Telling:<br />it is also more and more likely that they really did “see” at least some of it. <br />Instant replay and other production techniques also make it possible for the audience to “see it” again and again<br />To analyze it in slow motion or frame by frame.<br />
  13. 13. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Pictures & Words:<br />Television news is more than just pictorial coverage. <br />
  14. 14. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Pictures & Words:<br />It “tells” the news with pictures in motion including <br />News sounds<br />Anchorpersons <br />Reporters<br />News makers. <br />
  15. 15. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Pictures & Words:<br />The link between the pictures and the words is crucial. <br />
  16. 16. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Pictures & Words:<br />At the basic level that wedding of the right words with right pictures is <br />at once the greatest potential strength and greatest potential weakness of television news. <br />
  17. 17. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Pictures & Words:<br />When that link is right the communication may be a whole new experience. <br />
  18. 18. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Pictures & Words:<br />When the pictures and words don’t work together <br />When the screen is showing one thing <br />And words are telling something else – “ cross-scripting” in the jargon of the craft – confusion. <br />
  19. 19. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />The Anchor ingredient:<br />Now add in the second unique ingredient “Anchorpersons” <br />The fact that the audience is watching anchorpersons and reporters tell the news.<br />
  20. 20. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />The Anchor ingredient:<br />When former NBC News President Reuven Frank said, “Television news is at its best when it provides an experience for the audience,” <br />
  21. 21. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />The Anchor ingredient:<br />He seemed to be saying that television allows the audience to go along with the anchors and reporters to the scene of a news story, either with live coverage or visual coverage on film or tape, and be there with them as the action unfolds. <br />
  22. 22. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />The Anchor ingredient:<br />Although anchorpersons are not supposed to become emotionally involved in the news they are telling the audience about, they are human <br />
  23. 23. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />The Anchor ingredient:<br />A personal dimension is worth closer<br />It is an integral part of the television news communication process <br />
  24. 24. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Storytelling – A Dialogue with the Viewers:<br />Audience watch <br />The personality<br />The looks <br />The style of the anchorpersons <br />
  25. 25. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Storytelling – A Dialogue with the Viewers:<br />strong evidence that <br />how they tell and show the news is also important.<br />
  26. 26. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Storytelling – A Dialogue with the Viewers:<br />The experts believe <br />what takes place is a dialogue between the anchors<br /> and reporters and the audience.<br />
  27. 27. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Storytelling – A Dialogue with the Viewers:<br />The telling and showing of that story on television would involve <br />Pictures – probably live pictures – from the scene of the crash <br />
  28. 28. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Storytelling – A Dialogue with the Viewers:<br />Interviews with <br />Airline officials<br />Airport officials <br />Police<br />Firefighters<br />Rescue workers<br />Relatives of the victims<br />
  29. 29. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Storytelling – A Dialogue with the Viewers:<br />The station might develop some graphics to try to show the flight paths of the planes. <br />
  30. 30. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Storytelling – A Dialogue with the Viewers:<br />It might even have eyewitness reports from the people, who had seen the crash.<br />
  31. 31. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Storytelling – A Dialogue with the Viewers:<br />The anchors and reporters telling the story <br />Contribute a lot more facts, <br />identify sources more precisely, <br />
  32. 32. Storytelling – A Dialogue with the Viewers:<br />give a list of the names of the dead, <br />interview experts who might analyze how and perhaps why the crash occurred. <br />
  33. 33. End of Part – 1Thank you <br />
  34. 34. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Storytelling – A Dialogue with the Viewers:<br />The station would put together a package of information it hoped would be as complete and clear as possible<br />A package based on up-to-the-minute information. <br />
  35. 35. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Storytelling – A Dialogue with the Viewers:<br />Regardless of the visual and word content of the story, <br />A dialogue between the reporters or anchors and the viewers. <br />Those viewers have tuned in asking to be shown and told about the events of the day. <br />
  36. 36. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Storytelling – A Dialogue with the Viewers:<br />The news staff at the television station has chosen the plane crash as its lead story<br />Because of its importance, <br />judging it to be the most important story <br />
  37. 37. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Storytelling – A Dialogue with the Viewers:<br />Viewers count on the broadcast journalist to make that kind of selection – they expect the important news to come first.<br />
  38. 38. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Linear News:<br />A fourth structural consideration: Broadcast news is linear (step by step or Logical manner).<br />It took the industry a long time to realize this. Most experimentation developing what is called “broadcast news style” grew out of physical problems. <br />
  39. 39. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Linear News:<br />For those trying to read the conventional wire service reports on the air, breathing space was lacking. <br />
  40. 40. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Linear News:<br />Delivering the long sentences and convoluted paragraphs without taking a breath led to oxygen deprivation. <br />
  41. 41. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Linear News:<br />The wire services, <br />Particularly Reuters, APTN & United Press International,<br />came up with “broadcast wires” <br />in which the writing was simpler <br /> short sentences <br />conversational words. <br />
  42. 42. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Forward Motion:<br />Viewers get the news <br />In a flow of information that is constantly moving forward<br />The first story is immediately followed by the second, and so on through entire newscast. <br />
  43. 43. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Forward Motion:<br />A viewer cannot stop the flow, <br />To go back and pick up missed points <br />The way a newspaper reader can stop and return to an earlier element or slow down to ponder a confusing paragraph. <br />
  44. 44. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Forward Motion:<br />The viewer cannot speed ahead, or skin<br />cannot slow down newscaster, if she or he is talking too fast.<br />
  45. 45. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Forward Motion:<br />The structure of Television News contain:<br />The beginning – the Lead<br />The middle – the development of facts and details<br />The end – the conclusion<br />
  46. 46. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Forward Motion:<br />It is natural to finish all the parts of Story Element A before moving on to Story Element B.<br />
  47. 47. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Forward Motion:<br />Logical progress is needed – both aural and visual facts<br />
  48. 48. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Forward Motion:<br />The audience quickly becomes confused and irritated if we jump back and forth from one element to another in the narration or visual segment. <br />
  49. 49. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Forward Motion:<br />Keep subjects and verbs close together<br />Avoid too many dependent clauses<br />
  50. 50. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Forward Motion:<br />Make sure the referents of pronouns are clear <br />The audience can’t stop and go back to puzzle it out.<br />
  51. 51. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Forward Motion:<br />Television news producers spend a large amount of time figuring out where to place stories and how to group stories in the news.<br />
  52. 52. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Forward Motion:<br />Three Points keep clear in mind regarding preparation of News Bulletin <br />logical arrangement<br />A logical progression<br />Forward movement <br />
  53. 53. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Forward Motion:<br />The producer wants to maintain the highest level of interest and attention throughout the newscast. <br />
  54. 54. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Forward Motion:<br />Much time is spent determining what the lead story will be, <br />But perhaps as much time is also spent arranging the order of the rest of the items in the news program.<br />
  55. 55. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Visual Structure:<br />One of the major element of the structure of television news concerns the linear nature of the way the audience receives the news pictures themselves. <br />
  56. 56. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Visual Structure:<br />The scenes of the news event must move forward in an orderly fashion, or randomness will defeat clear communication.<br />
  57. 57. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Visual Structure:<br />Visual continuity in television news is everyone’s responsibility. <br />
  58. 58. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Visual Structure:<br />The videographer and reporter covering a story must be aware that unless they provide the elements for visual continuity in the raw videotape.<br />
  59. 59. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Visual Structure:<br />Compression is essential with both words and pictures <br />
  60. 60. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Visual Continuity<br />The key element of visual structure is visual continuity. <br />
  61. 61. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Visual Continuity<br />Visual continuity compresses the action of a story into a smoothly flowing whole. <br />
  62. 62. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Visual Continuity<br />The word continuity means uninterrupted connection, succession, union, or duration over time. <br />
  63. 63. Structure of TV News: “Storytelling”<br />Visual Continuity<br />The key element of visual structure is visual continuity. <br />Visual continuity compresses the action of a story into a smoothly flowing whole. <br />The word continuity means uninterrupted connection, succession, union, or duration over time. <br />
  64. 64. Thank You<br />

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