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  • 1. Module 2Youth in the Community(c) Copyright CTA CODE of Course CHC51408, MODULE 2 Version Date: 15.03.2013CHCCD412B Work within aCommunity Development Framework1
  • 2. Principles and practises ofCommunity Development work Structural disadvantage and Inequality Social Justice and Human Rights Participation and Empowerment Political process(c) Copyright CTA CODE of Course CHC51408, MODULE 2 Version Date: 15.03.20132
  • 3. Structural disadvantage andinequality Lack of community services, employmentopportunities, shops or social/recreationalopportunities in an area Specific groups in a community aremarginalised and lack access to some featuresof their communities; or those features arenot appropriate for them(c) Copyright CTA CODE of Course CHC51408, MODULE 2 Version Date: 15.03.20133
  • 4. Disadvantaged Groups may include: Children and young people Those with mental health issues Minority racial, cultural orreligious groups Low Socio economic status The elderly Those with disabilities The socially isolated Those with special needs: drugaddicts, gamblers, victims ofdomestic violence, homeless,etc.(c) Copyright CTA CODE of Course CHC51408, MODULE 2 Version Date: 15.03.20134
  • 5. Social Justice and Human Rights Social Justice is built upon the concepts of HumanRights and Equality Social Justice rejects disadvantage. Everyoneshould enjoy the same freedoms and lifeopportunities Community development aims to provide socialjustice by eliminating social imbalances in acommunity(c) Copyright CTA CODE of Course CHC51408, MODULE 2 Version Date: 15.03.20135
  • 6. Participation and Empowerment One of the aims of Community Development isfor political empowerment of individuals andgroups within a community This political power is often expressed throughopportunities for community participation indecision making This can involve having a say in the design ofcommunity programs that you hold an interest inor to have your vote on the outcome of animportant decision that affects your community6 (c) Copyright CTA CODE of Course CHC51408, MODULE 2 Version Date: 15.03.2013
  • 7. Participation and Empowerment cont. You can empower people by giving them anopportunity to express their needs and toinfluence the decision making process In community development that means listeningto the needs of all community members andallowing everyone to have their say on thedecisions being made True empowerment involves supportingcommunity members to effectively participate inthe decision making process. For example: by hosting community meetings by providing them with all the information theyneed to make informed decisions(c) Copyright CTA CODE of Course CHC51408, MODULE 2 Version Date: 15.03.20137
  • 8. Community Participation andEmpowerment A developer wants to build a beachfront resort.The local council hosts a community meeting todiscuss the proposal. Some people are for thedevelopment because it will create jobs and extratourist dollars for local businesses. Others areworried about losing access to the beach andhave environmental concerns The community meeting allows everyone toexpress their concerns and share ideas on howthe proposal can be amended so that it isacceptable for all The decisions made in the meeting are thenincorporated into the development plan(c) Copyright CTA CODE of Course CHC51408, MODULE 2 Version Date: 15.03.20138
  • 9. Why is Community Participation andEmpowerment important? Professional experts and Politicians are notperfect; they do not always make the bestdecisions The best decisions are made when all relevantinformation is available Local knowledge, experience, values and beliefsare important. This information paired withexpert knowledge is most likely to lead tosuccessful decision making Community members are more likely to supportthe final outcome when they have participated inthe decision making process(c) Copyright CTA CODE of Course CHC51408, MODULE 2 Version Date: 15.03.20139
  • 10. Political Process Through Community Participation andEmpowerment, political power is granted toindividual community members Depending on the organisation, council orgovernment department that has set up theprocess, the power of individuals in theparticipation process can range from token tocomplete decision making powers Decisions can be made via a public vote or theend outcome can be the result of careful analysisof the feedback and either a partial or completedeferral to community opinion or advice10(c) Copyright CTA CODE of Course CHC51408, MODULE 2 Version Date: 15.03.2013
  • 11. Political Process; Stakeholders Other times a reference group of stakeholders ischosen/elected to work in collaboration with thedecision-making body or organisation; workingtogether for an appropriate outcome When conducting Community Consultation it isimportant to balance the community participation andempowerment outcomes It is often not feasible to try and get the wholecommunity involved in decision making processes, partof what a community worker must do is to identify thekey stakeholders The key stakeholders are the people who are mostaffected by what is happening and the final decision11 (c) Copyright CTA CODE of Course CHC51408, MODULE 2 Version Date: 15.03.2013
  • 12. Community Consultation It is often a matter of policy that communityconsultation be done and the views of communitymembers to be considered in decision making Community organisations, local councils andgovernment departments can conduct communityconsultation A good community consultation where advice isheeded leads to community acceptance of the finaldecision. If the community’s advice is ignored, thefinal decision may be rejected by that community(c) Copyright CTA CODE of Course CHC51408, MODULE 2 Version Date: 15.03.201312
  • 13. Models of work for CommunityDevelopment Locality Development Work Brokering connections betweencommunities and systems Community needs analysis Research Social Action Advocacy13 (c) Copyright CTA CODE of Course CHC51408, MODULE 2 Version Date: 15.03.2013
  • 14. Social Action Model Social Action or Group Action is where individualswith an issue will band together to be heard andcreate political power for themselves Social Action is often coordinated by a number ofvolunteers who do fundraisers, rallies, advertisingcampaigns and petitions to promote and advocatefor their cause Social Action groups become more powerful asthey grow in membership Politicians can co-operate with social actiongroups to gain their support Politicians who ignore powerful social actiongroups risk being dumped at the next election(c) Copyright CTA CODE of Course CHC51408, MODULE 2 Version Date: 15.03.201314
  • 15. Advocacy Model Similar to the Social Action Model Advocates or Advocacy groups speak out fordisadvantaged or marginalised groups in an effortto influence government policy to help supportthose groups Advocacy groups actively engage in the politicalprocess and are often sought to be involved asstakeholders in decision making processes Charities often function in advocacy roles(c) Copyright CTA CODE of Course CHC51408, MODULE 2 Version Date: 15.03.201315
  • 16. Locality Development Work Locality development work is communitydevelopment that is initiated by the communitymembers that are in need (and professionals andvolunteers are invited to assist) An easy to recognise form of Locality DevelopmentWork is disaster relief, for example cyclone, floods Locality Development Work is always controlled bythe community members seeking support andoutsiders are directed as to what needs to be doneto help them16 (c) Copyright CTA CODE of Course CHC51408, MODULE 2 Version Date: 15.03.2013
  • 17. Brokering connections betweencommunities and systems Another form of Community Development work iswhen an organisation or government departmentactively tries to forge links with communities to learnhow to make their services more user-friendly This is an area where community reference groupscome into play These reference groups provide on-going advice tothe organisation on things like policies, proceduresand needs in the community(c) Copyright CTA CODE of Course CHC51408, MODULE 2 Version Date: 15.03.201317
  • 18. Community needs analysis / research Forming and supporting a communityreference group can provide on-goingadvice to an organisation on what theyshould be doing. Sometimes anorganisation will just want a snap-shot ofwhat they should be doing next A community needs analysis or researchproject is an exercise where communitymembers and stakeholders areapproached and their needs documented(often as a survey). This data helps theorganisation plan what they should bedoing next18 (c) Copyright CTA CODE of Course CHC51408, MODULE 2 Version Date: 15.03.2013
  • 19. Working with Individuals in Groups In community development you will work withmany individuals from a wide variety ofbackgrounds and a range of personalities An effective community development worker will berespectful, friendly and a great listener When working with groups it is also important forthe worker to be able to push discussions along andprevent them from going off-topic and also toensure everyone has a chance to expressthemselves19 (c) Copyright CTA CODE of Course CHC51408, MODULE 2 Version Date: 15.03.2013
  • 20. Individual differences Talkative Shy Helpful Difficult Optimist Pessimist Respectful Disrespectful Prepared Unprepared20 (c) Copyright CTA CODE of Course CHC51408, MODULE 2 Version Date: 15.03.2013
  • 21. Individual differences Language Social, economic, physical and health issues Culture and cultural practices relating to: Religion / Spiritual Observances Family Relationships Status / Protocol Ceremonies / Celebrations Prohibition / Taboos(c) Copyright CTA CODE of Course CHC51408, MODULE 2 Version Date: 15.03.201321
  • 22. Areas of bias Pro-business Pro-environment Religious bias Cultural bias Age bias Bias against unemployed, homeless, drugaddiction, gamblers, etc Bias against illness, disability or mentallyhealth status Personal beliefs bias Bias to issues you are dealing with personally22 (c) Copyright CTA CODE of Course CHC51408, MODULE 2 Version Date: 15.03.2013
  • 23. Constructive Outcomes fromCommunity ConsultationIn community meetings the Community DevelopmentWorker assumes the role of the facilitatorAs a facilitator you must: Ensure everyone at the meeting understands what isunder discussion. Start with presentation, use agenda or info pamphlets Show no bias towards any group or individual Make sure everyone knows the rules for the meetingand that those who break them will be asked to leave Ensure every person receives an equal opportunity toexpress their ideas and opinions(c) Copyright CTA CODE of Course CHC51408, MODULE 2 Version Date: 15.03.201323
  • 24. Constructive Outcomes fromCommunity ConsultationAs a facilitator you must: Prevent discussions from going off-topic Prevent any one person from dominating thediscussions Conduct meetings in a culturally appropriatemanner Keep meetings to time and ensure agenda isfollowed (if there is one) – an agenda can beagreed on at the very start of the meeting Record discussions and outcome of meetings(c) Copyright CTA CODE of Course CHC51408, MODULE 2 Version Date: 15.03.201324
  • 25. Making a difference A community consultation meeting can byitself provide valuable feedback fororganisations to improve programs or makebetter decisions However for a more meaningful approach andif there is enough community interest andresources available, creating a communityreference or working group can be valuable(c) Copyright CTA CODE of Course CHC51408, MODULE 2 Version Date: 15.03.201325
  • 26. Making a difference A community reference or working group can beformed by delegates of various stakeholder groupsor made up from elected representatives from acommunity meeting A community reference group can be involved inall steps of the decision making process and theirrecommendations can be incorporated into theplan for whatever is happening(c) Copyright CTA CODE of Course CHC51408, MODULE 2 Version Date: 15.03.201326
  • 27. Summary Community Development is action that serves theneeds of groups in a community that needsupport and don’t have a voice Community Development is not led by the ideasof “experts” and imposed upon communities Community Development is always informed bythe ideas, knowledge and values of communitymembers The outcomes of Community Developmentinclude quality community services, programs,policies, local laws and decisions for the sale anduse of public land and waters(c) Copyright CTA CODE of Course CHC51408, MODULE 2 Version Date: 15.03.201327
  • 28. Community Development is making aTown or City Home for all Communitymembers28 (c) Copyright CTA CODE of Course CHC51408, MODULE 2 Version Date: 15.03.2013