Israel power point presentation


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Dec 4th Adult Education Program

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  • Jewish Communities in the Land of Israel (7th to 11th Centuries) After the death of Emperor Julian II, in 363 CE, most of the Jewish settlements in the south were destroyed. The Jews remained mainly in the Galilee and in the larger cities.
  • Israel power point presentation

    1. 1. Israel and Palestine
    2. 2. <ul><li>The use of certain words can influence the way we think. </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Would you read the following statement: </li></ul><ul><li>“ We will consider your proposals”, </li></ul><ul><li>differently, if you read that the statement was made by </li></ul><ul><li>a. the moderate leader of the ... ? </li></ul><ul><li>or </li></ul><ul><li>b. the hardline leader of the... ? </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Without knowing anything about A or B, if you read the following: </li></ul><ul><li>“ A” liberated territory from “B” </li></ul><ul><li> To whom do you think the territory belongs? </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>“ A” and “B” have disputed territories </li></ul><ul><li> To whom do you think the territory belongs? </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> “ A” occupies “B”’s territory </li></ul></ul><ul><li> To whom do you think the territory belongs? </li></ul><ul><li>What would you think of “A” if you also read that: </li></ul><ul><li>“ A” is building “illegal settlements” on “B”’s territory </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>What do you think when you read about: </li></ul><ul><li>Argentinians – Argentina </li></ul><ul><li>Bolivians – Bolivia </li></ul><ul><li>Ireland – Irish </li></ul><ul><li>English – England </li></ul><ul><li>?Palestinians – Palestine? </li></ul>
    6. 11. <ul><li>The Land of Israel lies at the crossroads of important routes from Africa to Asia. Any country that wanted power in the region had to control the land of Israel. </li></ul>
    7. 13. The Assyrians seized control of the Northern Kingdom of Israel in 722 B.C.E. and exiled the northern tribes – the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel.
    8. 14. Then the Babylonians conquered the land of Judah, and in 586 B.C.E destroyed the First Temple. Many Jews were forced into exile.
    9. 15. The Babylonians were conquered by the Persians, and Cyrus, King of Persia, allowed the Jews to return to Israel (558 B.C.E.) and rebuild the Second Temple.
    10. 16. <ul><li>The Persians were defeated by Alexander the Great. After his death, the Land of Israel fell into the hands of Antiochus. The Macabees fought against his cruel laws. </li></ul>
    11. 17. <ul><li>The descendents of the Maccabees ruled an independent Israel for one hundred years. But then the Romans conquered Israel. </li></ul>
    12. 18. <ul><li>In 70 C.E. the Romans destroyed the Second Temple. </li></ul><ul><li>Tens upon tens of thousands of Jews were killed and sold into slavery, even sold to fight against wild animals in the Roman amphitheatres. </li></ul>
    13. 19. <ul><li>About 1,000 Jews escaped from Jerusalem to Masada, </li></ul><ul><li>but after three years, just before the Romans captured them, they commit suicide </li></ul>
    14. 20. <ul><li>The Bar Kochva rebellion against the Romans broke out in 132 C.E. </li></ul>After finally crushing the rebellion in 136 C.E., the Roman Emperor Hadrian decided to erase all connection between Jews (the name we have from the tribe Judah and the area known as Judea) and the Land of Israel.
    15. 21. <ul><ul><li>Hadrian attached the province of Judea to Syria, and renamed the land Syria Palaestina, or Palestine , named after the Philistines , the Plishtim, a sea-faring enemy of the Jews who had disappeared hundreds of years before . The name “Plishtim” comes from Hebrew – p’lisha means invasion, and “polshim” means invaders. Hadrian’s joining of the territory of Judea to Syria and renaming it Syria Palaestina , the Greek and Latin corruption of Philistines, was for the sole purpose of attempting to erase the connection between the Jewish people and her land. </li></ul></ul>
    16. 22. <ul><li>There were many other conquerors of the Land of Israel. The Byzantines (after the Roman Emperor Constantine converted to Christianity in 313 C.E.), tribes from the Arabia, called Arabs, the Crusades, non-Arab Muslims from Egypt, called Mamluks , the Ottoman Turks. </li></ul><ul><li>Throughout these conquests, especially after the Romans destroyed the Second Temple, many, many Jews were massacred, sold into slavery and exiled from the Land of Israel, Eretz Israel. The exiled Jews never forgot their homeland. Jews end every Yom Kippur and Passover Seder with the words, “Next Year in Jerusalem.” Jews always dreamt about the return to Zion (another name for Israel). </li></ul>
    17. 23. <ul><li>Many Jewish communities, however, managed to survive in the land. Jews have always lived in the Land of Israel, Eretz Israel. </li></ul><ul><li>When conditions were more favourable for the Jews living in the Land of Israel, Jews living in other lands returned to their homeland. But the conquerors made it very tough for Jews living in Israel. </li></ul>Jewish communities 7th to 11th centuries
    18. 24. <ul><li>Not one of the conquerors of the Land of Israel made it an independent country. Only the Jews made Israel an independent state. Only the Jews made Jerusalem their capital city. Not one of the conquerors of the Land of Israel took care of the land. They destroyed trees and plants, the soil was carried away by wind and rain, the water backed up and formed swamps which became a breeding place for mosquitoes and malaria. Conquerors came and were in turn defeated. </li></ul>
    19. 25. In 1895, Alfred Dryfus , a French Jewish captain, was falsely accused of being a spy.
    20. 26. <ul><li>A young assimilated Jewish reporter for an Austrian newspaper, Theodor Herzl, witnessed the crowds in the streets shouting “Death to the Jews!” </li></ul><ul><li>Herzl came to the conclusion that the Jews needed their own homeland, and wrote a book called The Jewish State . Herzl named the movement to create a modern Jewish State: Zionism . Although Jews had, for thousands of years, dreamt of returning to the Land of Israel, Zion, and many were already living there, Herzl was the father of political Zionism . </li></ul>
    21. 27. On Aug. 29, 1897, the First Zionist Congress met in Basel Switzerland.
    22. 29. <ul><li>Because, for the Christian world, the general geographical name of this area remained Palestine , delegates at this First Zionist Congress at Basel used the name “Palestine” as the location for the Home for the Jewish People. </li></ul>
    23. 30. <ul><li>This was the name used in the Balfour Declaration, Nov 2, 1917 – His majesty’s Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people. </li></ul><ul><li>The name “Palestine” was a geographical location. There was no country called Palestine – there never was an independent country with that name. </li></ul>
    24. 31. The area that included the Land of Israel was now part of the Ottoman Empire .
    25. 32. <ul><li>After the defeat of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War One, the San Remo Peace Conference was convened on April 24 – 25, 1920 to make decisions about the ex-Turkish territories in Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>In the words of Chaim Weizmann, “ This is the most momentous political event in the whole history of our movement, and it is perhaps, no exaggeration to say in the whole history of our people since the Exile.” </li></ul>
    26. 33. <ul><li>Arab national aspirations : </li></ul><ul><li>The Arabs were given </li></ul><ul><li> - the territories of Mesopotamia (which became Iraq in 1932) under a British Mandate </li></ul><ul><li>- Syria, which became independent in 1946, and Lebanon (1943) under a French Mandate </li></ul><ul><li>- in addition to the already existing state of Hijaz (which, along with Nejd, became Saudi Arabia in 1932). </li></ul>
    27. 34. <ul><li>And it was at the San Remo conference where Palestine was created TO BE the national home of the Jewish People , just as the borders of Syria, Lebanon and Mesopotamia (Iraq) were created for the Arabs. That was its only purpose. </li></ul>
    28. 36. <ul><li>In recognition of the persecutions of the Jewish people under many foreign occupiers of the land of Israel and countless forced exiles, the area called Palestine was reserved for the Jewish People as a whole, and not only for the Jews living there at that time. </li></ul>
    29. 37. <ul><li>Fifty-one member countries – the entire League of Nations – unanimously declared on July 24, 1922: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Whereas recognition has been given to the historical connection of the Jewish people with Palestine and to the grounds for reconstituting their national home in that country.” (preamble to the Mandate for Palestine). </li></ul>
    30. 38. <ul><li>In Hebrew, the name Palestina was always followed by the letters aleph, yud in brackets, which stood for Eretz Israel. In Hebrew, it was called Palestina Ay. In the early drafts of the Mandate, the words Eretz Israel appeared in full in brackets next to the name of Palestine in the preamble of the document. However, these two words were deleted in a unilateral British revision of the Draft Mandate of March 15, 1920. </li></ul>
    31. 39. <ul><li>What were Britain’s obligations as Mandatory? </li></ul><ul><li>Article 6 : </li></ul><ul><li>“The Administration of Palestine, while ensuring that the rights and position of other sections of the population are not prejudiced, shall facilitate Jewish immigration under suitable conditions and shall encourage , in co-operation with the Jewish agency referred to in Article 4, close settlement by Jews on the land, including State lands and waste lands not required for public purposes.” </li></ul>
    32. 40. <ul><li>Article 5: </li></ul><ul><li>The Mandatory shall be responsible for seeing that no Palestine territory shall be ceded or leased to, or in any way placed under the control of the Government of any foreign Power. </li></ul>
    33. 41. This was to be the Jewish homeland:
    34. 42. <ul><li>However, the British, in 1922, gave the Arabs further land, 77% of the land that was supposed to be reserved for the Jewish homeland. Jewish settlement in these areas was now forbidden. In 1923, the British then, illegally, gave further land, the Golan Heights, to the French, which then became part of Syria. </li></ul>
    35. 43. <ul><li>The creation of yet another Arab state in eastern Palestine (today Jordan) on 77 percent of the landmass of the original Mandate intended for a Jewish National Home in no way changed the status of Jews west of the Jordan River, nor did it inhibit their right to settle anywhere in western Palestine, the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea. </li></ul>
    36. 44. <ul><li>The Mandate for Palestine was unanimously approved by the Council of the League of Nations, which was comprised at that time of 51 countries, and the present United Nations Charter recognizes the UN’s obligation to uphold the commitments of the League of Nations. It was also incorporated into US law on June 30, 1922. </li></ul><ul><li>According to international law valid to this day, Jews are allowed to settle anywhere west of the Jordan river. There is no occupation, and no illegal settlements. </li></ul>
    37. 45. <ul><li>The British did not keep any of their obligations. If the British had, Jews escaping from Hitler would have had a place to go. Instead, the British had gun- boats out, and would not let the Jews in. </li></ul><ul><li>And then, because some of the Jews started fighting the British, the British had enough, and gave back the whole Mandate to the UN. </li></ul>
    38. 46. <ul><li>It is important to note that the UN’s Nov 29, 1947 partition plan, which was to further give away much of the remaining land for Jewish settlement and partition it between Jews and Arabs, the partition plan that people, wrongly, think is the legal basis for Israel, was not only illegal, it has no legal standing. </li></ul>
    39. 47. <ul><li>How did the Arabs view the idea of partitioning what remained of Palestine? </li></ul><ul><li>A local Arab leader, Abd al-Mahdi, testified before the Peel Commission in 1937 as follows: &quot;There is no such land. Palestine is a term invented by the Zionists. There is no Palestine in the Bible. Our land was for hundreds of years a part of Syria.&quot; </li></ul>
    40. 48. <ul><li>In 1947, Arab leaders protesting the U.N. partition plan argued that Palestine was part of Syria and &quot;politically, the Arabs of Palestine [were] not [an] independent[,] separate ... political entity.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>In 1956 Ahmed Shukari, founder of the P.L.O., proclaimed from the podium of the U.N., as the Arab League's ambassador there, &quot;such a creature as Palestine does not exist at all. This land is nothing but the southern portion of Greater Syria…&quot; </li></ul>
    41. 49. <ul><li>The Arabs rejected the label “Palestine” for the land. What about the name “Palestinians”? </li></ul><ul><li>After the creation of the Mandate, the Jews enthusiastically took on the name “Palestinians”. </li></ul>
    42. 50. <ul><li>The Jerusalem Post , founded in 1932, was called the Palestine Post until 1948. </li></ul><ul><li>Bank Leumi L’Israel , incorporated in 1902, was called the Anglo-Palestine Company until 1948. </li></ul><ul><li>Until 1948, when the modern State of Israel was established, the term “Palestinian” meant Jews living in Palestine , and this was acknowledged by Arab leaders. In a memorandum from Emir Abdullah, ruler of Transjordan to the Palestine Royal Commission in 1937, he referred to “the Arabs in Palestine”, and mentioned that the Mandatory Power referred to Jews “whom it called Palestinians”. </li></ul>
    43. 51. <ul><li>So how is it that the Arabs now claim that there is a so-called Palestinian people, who were the inhabitants of their country “Palestine”? When did this happen? </li></ul>
    44. 52. Who is David, and who is Goliath?
    45. 53. <ul><li>The Arabs wanted to change this perception. So they created a smaller people. Even though they had rejected the name Palestine in the past, they now realized that it could be very beneficial for their cause. They created a “Palestinian People”. </li></ul>
    46. 54. <ul><li>W hy would the Arabs take on a non-Arabic name that they cannot even pronounce? </li></ul><ul><li>Arabs cannot pronounce the letter “P”. </li></ul><ul><li>Arab propaganda relies on the fact that most people are ignorant – ignorant of the origin of the name Palestine and its history. By taking on the name “Palestinians”, Arabs could now portray themselves as the original inhabitants of the land “Palestine”. </li></ul>
    47. 55. What did the land look like? Jewish Haluzim (Pioneers) in the Land of Israel
    48. 56. Tel Aviv 1909
    49. 57. Metula 1912 ליאו קאהן
    50. 58. Gesher Bnot Yaakov 1912
    51. 59. Mascha (Kfar Tavor) <ul><li>Mark Twain (Samuel Langhorne Clemens) wrote in &quot;The Innocents Abroad&quot;, 1867 &quot;There is not a solitary village throughout its whole extent (valley of Jezreel, Galilea); not for thirty miles in either direction... One may ride ten miles hereabouts and not see ten human beings. </li></ul>
    52. 60. Moshava Yama
    53. 61. Moshava Kineret
    54. 62. Tiberias Hot Springs
    55. 63. Olive groves near Tzfat (Sefad)
    56. 64. Bay of Haifa
    57. 65. Petach Tikvah (1912)
    58. 66. Rishon L’Zion (1912)
    59. 67. Rehovot (1912)
    60. 68. The road from Jerusalm to Shechem (Nablus)
    61. 69. <ul><li>Report of the British Royal Commission, 1913: </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;The area was under-populated and remained economically stagnant until the arrival of the first Zionist pioneers in the 1880's, who came to rebuild the Jewish land. The country had remained &quot;The Holy Land&quot; in the religious and historic consciousness of mankind, which associated it with the Bible and the history of the Jewish people. </li></ul>Jewish development of the country also attracted large numbers of other immigrants - both Jewish and Arab…”
    62. 70. <ul><li>Walid Shoebat, a former PLO terrorist, stated, &quot;As I lived in Palestine, everyone I knew could trace their heritage back to the original country their great grandparents came from… The fact is that today's Palestinians are immigrants from the surrounding nations! I grew up well knowing the history and origins of today's Palestinians as being from Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Morocco, Christians from Greece, Muslim Sherkas from Russia, Muslims from Bosnia, and the Jordanians next door. My grandfather, who was a dignitary in Bethlehem, almost lost his life by Abdul Qader Al-Husseni (the leader of the Palestinian revolution) after being accused of selling land to Jews. He used to tell us that his village Beit Sahur (The Shepherds Fields) in Bethlehem County was empty before his father settled in the area with six other families. The town has now grown to 30,000 inhabitants&quot;. </li></ul>Bethlehem 1840
    63. 71. <ul><li>Tewlik Bey El-Hurani, the Governor of the Hauran (southwestern Syria) stated, in an interview with La Syrie published on August 12, 1934, that “in the last few months from 30,000 – 36,000 Hauranese [Syrian] had entered Palestine and settled there”. </li></ul>
    64. 72. <ul><li>If many Arabs who call themselves “Palestinians” came to the land of Israel from other Arab countries, what do they mean by “Palestine”? </li></ul><ul><li>Do Arabs call all this land Palestine? </li></ul>
    65. 73. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Or just land that remains in the hands of Jews? </li></ul>
    66. 76. Five Arab armies attack in a genocidal war against the State of Israel. Azzam Pasha, Secretary General of the Arab League, declared: “This will be a war of extermination, and a momentous massacre.”
    67. 77. <ul><li>Jews, who had lived in Judea, Samaria and Gaza for thousands of years, are slaughtered, (the Jews in Hevron had already been slaughtered in 1929) and any remaining Jews are ethnically cleansed from these areas. The Jordanians rename Judea and Samaria, the names that had been used for these areas for thousands of years, in order to try and erase the Jewish connection with this land. They renamed this area, the “West Bank.” </li></ul>
    68. 78. <ul><li>Judea and Samaria, renamed the West Bank, is the birthplace of the Jewish people. The Cave of the Patriarchs, Maarat Hamachpeila in Hevron, is the burial cave of the Jewish matriarchs and patriarchs, and where King David ruled before he established Jerusalem as the capital city c. 1000 B.C.E. The burial site of Joseph is in Shechem (Nablus). </li></ul><ul><li>Even though the land was renamed the “West Bank”, almost all Arab localities in Judea and Samaria have retained Biblical Jewish names, thus reaffirming their Jewish roots. Examples include the following: </li></ul>
    69. 79. <ul><li>Anata is Biblical (and contemporary) Anatot , the dwelling of the Prophet Jeremiah. </li></ul><ul><li>Batir is Biblical (and contemporary) Beitar , the headquarters of Bar Kochba, the leader of the Great Rebellion against the Roman Empire, which was suppressed in 135CE. Beit-Hur is the biblical (and contemporary) </li></ul><ul><li>Beit Horon , site of Judah the Maccabee´s victory over the Assyrians. </li></ul><ul><li>Beitin is biblical (and contemporary) Beit El , a site of the Holy Ark and Prophet Samuel´s court. </li></ul><ul><li>Bethlehem is mentioned 44 times in the Bible and is the birth place of King David. </li></ul><ul><li>Jaba ´ is the biblical (and contemporary) Geva , site of King Saul’s son Jonathan’s victory over the Philistines. </li></ul><ul><li>Jenin is the biblical (and contemporary) Ein Ganim, a Levite town within the tribe of Issachar. </li></ul><ul><li>Mukhmas is biblical (and contemporary) Mikhmash, residence of Jonathan the Maccabee and site of King Saul´s fortress. </li></ul><ul><li>Seilun is biblical (and contemporary) Shilo , a site of Joshua´s tabernacle and the Holy Ark and Samuel´s youth. </li></ul><ul><li>Tequa is biblical (and contemporary) Tekoa , hometown of the Prophet Amos. </li></ul>
    70. 80. <ul><li>When the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was founded in 1964, Judea and Samaria (the West Bank) was annexed to Jordan, and Gaza was ruled by Egypt. Was this land part of the land demanded by the PLO? </li></ul><ul><li>The Original Palestine National Charter 1964 </li></ul><ul><li>Article 24. </li></ul><ul><li>This Organization does not exercise any regional sovereignty over the West Bank in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, on the Gaza Strip or the Himmah Area. </li></ul>
    71. 81. <ul><li>Even without the “West Bank” and Gaza, the Arabs try, yet again, to destroy Israel in 1967 . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Events leading up to the Six- Day War: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>November 1966, an Egyptian-Syrian Defense Agreement was signed, encouraging the Syrians to escalate tensions, which reached a climax in the spring of 1967. </li></ul><ul><li>May 14: Egypt mobilizes its forces in and around the Suez Canal. </li></ul><ul><li>May 16: Egypt moves it forces eastward across the Sinai desert towards the Israeli border, demanding the withdrawal of UN Emergency Force (UNEF) stationed along the frontier. </li></ul><ul><li>May 19: The Egyptians expelled the UN Emergency Force (UNEF) from the Gaza Strip and Sinai, and continued pouring its military forces into these areas. </li></ul><ul><li>May 22: Egypt closed the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping, constituting a casus belli for Israel. </li></ul><ul><li>May 24-June 4: Answering the Egyptian call, the governments of Jordan, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Syria and Lebanon moved their forces toward the Israeli border. Israel mobilized its reserve forces, and launched a diplomatic campaign to win international support for ending the Egyptian blockade of Israeli shipping through the Strait of Tiran. </li></ul>
    72. 82. <ul><li>Walid Shoebat, a former PLO terrorist, acknowledged: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Why is it that on June 4th 1967 I was a Jordanian and overnight I became a Palestinian?” “We did not particularly mind Jordanian rule. The teaching of the destruction of Israel was a definite part of the curriculum, but we considered ourselves Jordanian until the Jews returned to Jerusalem. Then all of the sudden we were Palestinians - they removed the star from the Jordanian flag and all at once we had a Palestinian flag”. </li></ul>
    73. 83. <ul><li>Joseph Farah, an Arab-American journalist who wrote Myths of the Middle East (posted on WorldNet Daily Commentary), wrote, “Isn't it interesting that prior to the 1967 Arab-Israeli war, there was no serious movement for a Palestinian homeland? … </li></ul><ul><li>“ In the Six-Day War, Israel captured Judea, Samaria and East Jerusalem. But they didn't capture these territories from Yasser Arafat. They captured them from Jordan's King Hussein. I can't help but wonder why all these Palestinians suddenly discovered their national identity after Israel won the war… </li></ul><ul><li>“ There is no language known as Palestinian. There is no distinct Palestinian culture. There has never been a land known as Palestine governed by Palestinians. Palestinians are Arabs, indistinguishable from Jordanians (another recent invention), Syrians, Lebanese, Iraqis, etc. Keep in mind that the Arabs control 99.9 percent of the Middle East lands. Israel represents one-tenth of 1 percent of the landmass.” </li></ul>
    74. 84. <ul><li>Zahir Muhsein, executive member of the PLO (Palestine Liberation Organization), in an interview with the Dutch newspaper Trouw, March 1977, said, “The ‘Palestinian People’ does not exist. The creation of a Palestinian state is only a means for continuing our struggle against the State of Israel for our Arab unity. In reality today there is no difference between Jordanians, Palestinians, Syrians and Lebanese. Only for political and tactical reasons do we speak today about the existence of a Palestinian people, since Arab national interests demand that we posit the existence of a distinct Palestinian people to oppose Zionism. .” </li></ul>
    75. 85. The area of Judea and Samaria are crucial for Israel’s defense.
    76. 89. The world demands that Palestine should be divided – two states for two peoples. When talking to people in the West, the “Palestinian” government claims that it wants an independent state in the “West Bank” and Gaza. In their own press, in every school book and every map, “Palestine” includes all of Israel. PA Ministry of Religious Affairs
    77. 90. <ul><li>The day after PA Chairman Abbas delivered the Palestinian Authority's request for statehood to the UN, PA TV, which is controlled directly by Abbas' office, broadcast a map that erases Israel and envisions Palestinian sovereignty over all of Israel. </li></ul><ul><li>Text right: &quot;Expelled&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Text left: &quot;Resolve&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Text bottom: &quot;Right to return&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>[PA TV, Sept. 24, 2011] </li></ul>
    78. 91. <ul><li>In an interview aired on Al-Jazeera September 23, 2011 Member of the Fatah Central Committee, Abbas Zaki stated, “ If Israel withdraws from Jerusalem, evacuates the 650,000 settlers, and dismantles the wall--what will become of Israel? It will come to an end.… ” confirming that the Palestinians’ goal is to “ wipe Israel out ,” but because it is “ not [acceptable] policy to say so, keep it to yourself.… ” ( MEMRI, September 23, 2011. ) </li></ul>
    79. 92. Jordan’s rulers once acknowledged that: &quot;Palestine and Transjordan are one,&quot; King Abdullah I told the Arab League in Cairo in 1948. &quot;The truth is that Jordan is Palestine and Palestine is Jordan,&quot; King Hussein said in 1981.
    80. 93. The world has now forgotten that Palestine was already divided between Jews and Arabs, and the Arabs received over 77% of the land. There already is a two-state solution! There already is a “Palestinian” State!