The verb "be"The verb be can be used as an auxiliary and a full verb. As an auxiliary we use this verb for compoundtenses and the passive voice. Note that be is an irregular verb:Simple Present: I am, he/she/it is, we/you/they areSimple Past: I/he/she/it was, we/you/they werePast Participle: beenYou can tell that in the following sentences be is an auxiliary because it is followed by another verb(the full verb). (For progressive forms use the "-ing" form of the full verb; for passive voice, use thepast participle of the full verb.)Progressive FormsPresent Progressive: He is playing football.Past Progressive: He was playing football.Present Perfect Progressive: He has been playing football.Past Perfect Progressive: He had been playing football.PassiveSimple Present/Past: The house is/was built.Present/Past Perfect: The house has/had been built.Future I: The house will be built."be" as a full verbThe verb be can also be a full verb. In this case, its not followed by another verb. If be is used as a fullverb, we do not need an auxiliary in negative sentences or questions.positive sentence: They are fifteen years old.negative sentence: They are not fifteen years old.question: Are they fifteen years old?
The verb "have"The verb have, too, can be used both as an auxiliary and as a full verb. As an auxiliary we use this verbto form compound tenses in active and passive voice. (Use the past participle of the full verb.)Compound Tenses - Active VoicePresent Perfect Simple: He has played football.Past Perfect Simple: He had played football.Present Perfect Progressive: He has been playing football.Past Perfect Progressive: He had been playing football.Compound Tenses - Passive VoicePresent/Past Perfect: The house has/had been built.Note that have is an irregular verb, too:Simple Present: I/we/you/they have, he/she/it hasSimple Past: I/he/she/it/we/you/they hadPast Participle: had"have" in positive sentencesAs a full verb have indicates possession. In British English, however, we usually use have got (havebeing the auxiliary, got the full verb).full verb: I have a car.auxiliary verb: I have got a car."have" in negative sentences and questionsWhen we use have as a full verb, we must use the auxiliary do in negative sentences and questions. Ifwe use have got, however, we do not need another auxiliary.have as a full verb: I do not have a car. Do I have a car?have as an auxiliary verb: I have not got a car. Have I got a car?
The verb "will"The verb will can only be used as an auxiliary. We use it to form the future tenses.The auxiliary verb "will"Future I: He will not play football.Future II: He will have played football.The verb will remains the same for all forms (no "s" for 3rd person singular). The short form fornegative sentences is wont.Examples: I will, he will I will not = I wontThe verb "do"The verb do can be both an auxiliary and a full verb. As an auxiliary we use do in negative sentencesand questions for most verbs (except not for be, will, have got and modal verbs) in Simple Present andSimple Past. (Use the infinitive of the full verb.)The auxiliary "do" in negative sentencesSimple Present: He does not play football.Simple Past: He did not play football.The auxiliary "do" in questionsSimple Present: Does he play football?Simple Past: Did he play football?The verb do is irregular:Simple Present: I/we/you/they do, he/she/it doesSimple Past: I/he/she/it/we/you/they didThe full verb "do"As a full verb we use do in certain expressions. If we want to form negative sentences or questionsusing do as a full verb, we need another do as an auxiliary.positive sentence: She does her homework every day.negative sentence:
She doesnt do her homework every day.question: Does she do her homework every day?Sentences without the auxiliary "do"In the following cases, the auxiliary do is not used in negative sentences/questions:the full verb is "be"Example: I am not angry. / Are you okay?the sentence already contains another auxiliary (e.g. have, be, will)Example: They are not sleeping. / Have you heard that?the sentence contains a modal verb (can, may, must, need, ought to, shall, should)Example: We need not wait. / Can you repeat that, please?the question asks for the subject of the sentenceExample: Who sings that song?