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  1. 1. Feminism
  2. 2. <ul><li>“ Feminism is an entire world view, not just a laundry list of woman’s issues” </li></ul><ul><li>- Charlotte Bunch </li></ul>
  3. 3. Definition of Femisism <ul><li>The doctrine advocating social political and all other rights to woman as equal to men </li></ul><ul><li>An organised movement for the attainment of rights for women </li></ul><ul><li>The fight against a male centred and male run world (patriarchy) </li></ul>
  4. 7. First Wave Feminism <ul><li>Late 19 th century UK & USA </li></ul><ul><li>Equal property rights & opposition to ‘Chattel’ marriage </li></ul><ul><li>Latter for political power and suffrage </li></ul><ul><li>1918 = initial voting rights, 1928 more (UK) </li></ul><ul><li>In USA they were anti slavery too </li></ul><ul><li>Against abortion </li></ul>
  5. 8. Second Wave <ul><li>1960-80’s </li></ul><ul><li>“ One is not born a woman but becomes one” Simone de Beauvoir </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the social construction of Woman as the Other </li></ul><ul><li>Moves away from 1 st wave in women should not aspire to masculine ideals </li></ul>
  6. 9. The Feminine Mystique 1963 <ul><li>Criticized the idea that women could only find fulfilment through childrearing and homemaking. </li></ul><ul><li>Betty Friedan says women are victims of a false belief system that requires them to find identity and meaning in their lives through husbands and children </li></ul><ul><li>Women lose their identity in that of their family – particularly suburbia </li></ul><ul><li>new technologies made household less difficult, but that had the result of making women's work less meaningful and valuable </li></ul>
  7. 10. Third Wave <ul><li>Early 1990s, arising as a response to perceived failures of the second wave </li></ul><ul><li>Sees 2 nd wave over-emphasize the experiences of upper middle-class white women. </li></ul><ul><li>contains internal debates between difference feminists and those who believe that there are no inherent differences between the sexes and contend that gender roles are due to social conditioning </li></ul>
  8. 11. Post Feminism <ul><li>Criticisms between waves </li></ul><ul><li>Feminism is no longer relevant to today's society – women agree with goals but are not classed feminist </li></ul><ul><li>Views that separate the sexes rather than unite them are sexist rather than feminist‘ </li></ul><ul><li>Susan Faludi says backlash of 2 nd wave caused feminism to look bad and cause women problems </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment does not have to bow to traditional feminist ideals </li></ul>
  9. 12. Post Feminism critique <ul><li>Adding the prefix post to feminism undermines the strides that feminism has made in achieving equality for everyone </li></ul><ul><li>Post-feminism gives the impression that equality has been achieved and that feminists can now focus on something else entirely. </li></ul><ul><li>Bridget Jones's Diary, Sex and the City, and Ally McBeal. Female characters like Bridget Jones and Carrie Bradshaw claim to be liberated and clearly enjoy their sexuality, but what they are constantly searching for is the one man who will make everything worthwhile. </li></ul>
  10. 13. Marxist Feminism <ul><li>Connects the oppression of women to Marxist ideas about exploitation, oppression and labor. </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal standing in workplace and the domestic sphere holds women down. </li></ul><ul><li>Prostitution, domestic work, childcare and marriage as ways in which women are exploited by a patriarchal system that devalues women </li></ul><ul><li>oppression of women as a part of a larger pattern that affects everyone involved in the capitalist system </li></ul>
  11. 14. Radical Feminism <ul><li>Radical feminism considers the male controlled capitalist hierarchy, which it describes as sexist, as the defining feature of women’s oppression. </li></ul><ul><li>women can free themselves only when they have done away with what they consider an inherently oppressive and dominating patriarchal system </li></ul>
  12. 15. Liberal Feminism <ul><li>assert the equality of men and women through political and legal reform. </li></ul><ul><li>focuses on women’s ability to show and maintain their equality through their own actions and choices. </li></ul><ul><li>all women are capable of asserting their ability to achieve equality, therefore it is possible for change to happen without altering the structure of society </li></ul>
  13. 16. Other forms <ul><li>Black feminism argues that sexism, class oppression, and racism are inextricably bound together. </li></ul><ul><li>Postcolonial feminists argue that oppression relating to the colonial experience, particularly racial, class, and ethnic oppression, has marginalized women in postcolonial societies </li></ul>
  14. 17. <ul><li>Classical liberal or libertarian feminism conceives of freedom as freedom from coercive interference. It holds that women, as well as men, have a right to such freedom due to their status as self-owners </li></ul><ul><li>Postmodern feminism is an approach to feminist theory that incorporates postmodern and post-structuralist theory. The largest departure from other branches of feminism is the argument that gender is constructed through language </li></ul>