Information that someone else has written.
Reading about someone else‟s
Validates you comments – providing evidence
that your comments are correct.
You need to find information from secondary
sources to support your essay.
Find information about the ways that your
selected micro aspects create meaning for
Make sure you integrate quotes and reference
the source to acknowledge your research.
End of chapter summaries
Key word search
Reading and questioning oneself
In this example, Lacey is the author, 2005 is the
year of publication and, 37 is the page number.
“The edit is a potentially disrupting device, as it
changes the audience‟s perspective.” (Lacey,
As Lacey (2005:37) explains, “The edit is a
potentially disrupting device, as it changes the
Use a good search engine, eg. Google
Don‟t use Wikipedia
Be as precise as you can to avoid excessive
Don‟t let yourself be distracted!
All sources that you have referenced in the
essay must be included in a bibliography at
the end of your work.
It‟s important to do this so that the reader
can complete further research if they wish.
All sources should be listed in alphabetical
order by surname of the author.
For written texts, you will need the following
Author: surname and initial/s or Editor
Date of publication
Place of publication
For internet sources, you will need:
Name of author/writer/originator
Title of the piece
Full web address
Date last accessed
Kermode, M. (2011) „Triers of a Clown‟
Kermode, M. (2011) „Triers of a Clown‟ (Online)
Lacey, N. (2005) Introduction to Film,
Radner, H. (2009) „Le Divorce: romance, Separation
and Reconcilliation‟, in Abbott, S. & Jermyn, D.
Falling in Love Again: Romantic Comedy in
Contemporary Cinema, London: I.B. Tauris & Co.
1. Select a quote from the provided source and
write it out with the use of accurate
Make sure that you select a quote that you
understand so that you can explain it.
Don‟t ever include a quote without discussing
2. Find another suitable quote online