What is Motivation ? The word „motivate‟ means to move, to activate. Anything that initiates activity whether external or internal ,is motivating. Motivation is an inspirational process which impels the members of the team, to pull their weight effectively, to give their loyalty to the group, to carry out properly the tasks that they have accepted and generally to play an effective part in the job that the group has undertaken.
(contd.) It is the process of indoctrinating employees with unity of purpose and the need to maintain harmonious relationships among people. Motivation is a predisposition to act in a specific goal-directed way. “Inducement or incentive” – American Heritage Dictionary
Motivational drives David C. McClelland of Harvard University proposed that the organization offers an opportunity to satisfy at least three needs - for achievement - for affiliation - for power Also called Achievement motivation theory. People‟s motivational drives reflect elements of culture in which they grow up – their family, school, books..
Achievement Motivation A drive to overcome, accomplish objectives and get ahead. Accomplishment is important for its own sake, not for the rewards that accompany it. These people work harder when their superior provides detailed evaluation of their work behavior. This type of managers select assistants who are technically capable.
(contd.) They want concrete feedback on their performance. They like to take personal responsibility for finding solutions to problems. They like to take calculated risks and set moderate goals.
Affiliation Motivation A drive to relate people effectively. Persons with affiliation motives work better when they are complimented for their favorable attitudes and cooperation. Affiliation-motivated persons tend to select friends as assistants. Managers with strong needs for affiliation may have difficulty being effective managers.
(contd.) People seek affiliation because of a desire to have their beliefs confirmed; to avoid boredom, to avoid the mutual feelings of being beaten by the system. They are motivated by jobs that demand frequent interaction with co-workers.
Power Motivation A drive to influence people and change situations. They make excellent managers if their drives are for institutional power instead of personal power. They like to set goals, make decisions and direct activities. These people seek power through legitimate means, rise to leadership positions through successful performance, and therefore are accepted by others.
How motivation affects Organizational Behavior ?1. Performance appraisal: - Process of evaluating the performance of employees. Plays a key role in reward systems. Objectives of performance appraisal are: - Allocate resources - Motivate and reward employees - Give employees feedback - Maintain fair relationships within groups
(contd.) - Coach and develop employees - Comply with regulations Some organizations in both public and private sectors include self-appraisal as a formal part of the process. Wage Incentives – More pay for more production Profit Sharing – A system that distributes to employees some portion of the profits of business.
(contd.) Gain Sharing Plan – Shares the gains with employees on some formula basis. Flexible benefits – Also called cafeteria benefit programs Skill based pay – Rewards individual for what they know. Sacrifice reward – Overtime, Call-in pay, Shift differential Non-work award – Vacations, pensions
Motivation Theories Content Theories Maslow‟s Hierarchy Theory Herzberg‟s two-factor theory of motivation Alderfer‟s ERG theory Contemporary theories Equity theory Attribution theory
Content Theories Maslow‟s hierarchy theory : Maslow outlined the overall theories of motivation. He thought that a person‟s motivational needs could be arranged in a hierarchical manner. He believed that once a given level of need is satisfied it no longer serves to motivate. The next level has to be activated to motivate the individual.
(contd.) Maslow identified 5 levels of hierarchy needs. Psychological needs Safety needs Love needs Esteem needs Needs for self actualization Maslow‟s need hierarchy theory can be converted into the content model of work motivation as shown.
Maslow‟s model Self Actualized needs Growth Needs Esteem needs Social needs Deficiency Security needs Needs Physiological needs
Herzberg‟s two-factor theory ofmotivation extension of Maslows theory conducted a study among accountants and engineers found out impact of job content and job context study revealed two sets of factors affecting motivation and work-the two factor theory of motivation and job satisfaction. the absence of certain factors caused dissatisfaction. These were called the hygiene factors. They serve to prevent dissatisfaction the other set of factors ,if present , serve to motivate the individual to superior performance. they were the growth factors. challenging jobs and opportunities will ensure motivation of personnel.
Alderfer‟s ERG theory Extension of Maslows and Herzberg he identified 3 groups of core needs existence relatedness growth he suggests more of continuum of needs than hierarchical levels.
(contd.) this theory‟s results suggest that lower level needs need not be satisfied before a higher level need emerges as a motivating factor. an individual is motivated to satisfy one or more basic set of needs. Therefore if a person‟s needs at a particular level are blocked then attention should be focused on satisfaction of needs at the other levels.
Contemporary theories Equity theory major input into job performance and satisfaction is the degree of equity that people perceive in their work. inequity occurs when a person perceives that the ratio of his outcome to inputs and the ratio of a relevant other‟s outcomes to inputs is unequal.
(contd.) ratio is based on the person‟s perception. When ratio is not equal to other‟s, the person‟s strives to restore the equity.
Attribution theory this theory is concerned with the process by which an individual interprets behavior as being caused by certain parts of the environment. concerned with „WHY‟ questions assumes that humans are rational and motivated to understand the structure of their environment internal and external forces combine to determine behavior
Motivation at Work Process Theories of work Motivation : “Process theories” concentrate upon “how” motivation occurs. These theories identify the variables that go into motivation and their relationship with each other. Some of these theories are: Vroom‟s Expectancy Model Equity Theory Goal-Setting Theory
Vroom‟s Expectancy Model The expectancy model is based upon the belief that motivation is determined by the nature of the reward people expect to get as a result of their job performance. There are 3 important elements in the model. These are: Expectancy (E) Instrumentality (I) Valence (V) Motivational force (M) = ( E * I * V )
(contd.) According to this model of motivation, the person‟s level of effort (motivation) depends upon: Expectancy: A worker must be confident that his efforts will result in better productivity and that he has the ability to perform the task well. Instrumentality: The worker must be confident that such high performance will be instrumental in getting desired rewards. Valence: The worker must value these rewards as desired and satisfaction.
Vroom‟s Expectancy Model: Second Level First Level Outcome Outcome Instrumentality Outcome 1 Reward 1Expectancy Reward 2 Motivational Reward 3 force Reward 4 Outcome 2 Reward 5 Reward 6
Equity Theory Equity theory is based on the assumption of some researchers that one of the most widely assumed source of job dissatisfaction is the feeling of the employees that they are not being treated fairly by the management or the organizational system. “Equity theory” has two elements. First, the workers want to get a fair reward for their efforts. Second, he would compare his rewards with the rewards of others who put in similar effort.
(contd.) As formulated by Adams, the equity theory comprises of the following postulates: Perceived inequity creates a feeling of resentment and tension within individuals. The extent of this tension reflects the magnitude and type of inequity. Individuals will be motivated to take steps to reduce this tension. The greater the extent of perceived inequity the greater is the strength of such motivation.
Process can be shown as…. Perceived inequity Creates tensions Steps taken to reduce them Outcome as behavior
Goal - Setting Theory Goal-setting theory is a relatively applied approach to motivation and is based upon the assumption that the type as well as the challenge of the goal includes motivation in the individual to achieve such goal. The quality of performance is generally shaped by how difficult and how specifically defined the goal is.
Goal-setting: Management ByObjectives (MBO) A logical extension of goal setting theory is Management by Objectives which involves systematic and programmatic goal setting throughout an organization. It is a process by which managers and subordinates work together in order to achieve these objectives. These objectives and goals are consistent with the organizational goals.
Elements of MBO The elements in the MBO Process: Central goal settings Manager-Subordinate Involvement Matching goals and resources. Freedom of implementation Review and appraisal of performance.
Advantages of MBO MBO it helps in a better overall management system. The managers are required to establish measurable targets and standards of performance and priorities for these targets. Both the manager and the subordinates know what is expected of them and therefore there is no role ambiguity or confusion. The subordinates feel proud of being involved in the organizational goals. This improves their morale and commitment.
(contd.) MBO often highlights the area in which the employees need further training. MBO puts strong emphasis on quantifiable objectives, the measurement and appraisal could be more objective, specific and equitable. It improves communication between management and subordinates.
Problems and Limitations MBO can only succeed if it has the complete support of top management. MBO may be resented by subordinates. There is considerable paperwork involved and it takes too much of the manager‟s time. The emphasis is more on short-term goals.
(contd.) Most managers may not be sufficiently skilled in interpersonal interaction such as coaching and counseling which is extensively required. The integration of the MBO system with other systems such as forecasting and budgeting is very poor. Group goal achievement is more difficult. It takes a lot of time, perhaps 3 to 5 years, to implement the MBO program properly and fully.
Suggestions for improving the effectiveness of MBO It is important to secure top management support and commitment. The objectives should be clearly formulated, should be realistic and achievable. MBO is a major undertaking and should replace old systems rather than just being added to them. The goals must be continuously reviewed and modified as the changed conditions require. All personnel involved should be given formal training in understanding the basics as well as the contents of the program.
Consequences of Job Dissatisfaction Job dissatisfaction produces low morale among workers and low morale at work is highly undesirable. Some of the indicators of low morale are: Employee unrest Absenteeism Tardiness Employee turnover Union Activity Early Retirement
Job Satisfaction It can be defined as “a pleasurable or positive emotional stake resulting from the appraisal of one‟s job or job experience.” Organizationally speaking, high level of job satisfaction reflects a highly favorable organizational climate resulting in attracting and retaining better workers.
Sources of Job Satisfaction Organizational factors Salaries and wages Promotions Company policies Work environment Supervisory style Work group Factors related to work itself Personal factors
Designing of the motivationThree field classification for the motivation to work: Economic rewards – such as pay, fringe benefits, material goods and security. This is an instrumental orientation to work and concerned with other things. Intrinsic satisfaction – which is derived from the nature of the work itself, interest in the job and personal growth and development. Social relationship – such as friendships, group working and the desire for affiliation, status and dependency.
Approaches to job motivation The application of motivational theories and greater understanding of dimensions of job satisfaction and work performance, have led to increasing interest in job design. Job design is concerned with the relationship between workers and the nature and content of jobs and their task functions.
Two major reasons for attention to jobdesign To enhance the personal satisfaction that people derive from their work To make the best use of people as a valuable resource of the organization and to help overcome obstacles to their effective performance.
Main methods of individual job redesign Job rotation:- This is the most basic form of individual job design. Job rotation involves moving a person from one job or task to another. Job enlargement:- This involves increasing the scope of the job and the range of tasks that the person carries out. Job enrichment:- Job enrichment arose out of Herzberg‟s two-factor theory. It involves vertical job enlargement.
Job design: A continuous process. Job design should be a continuous and progressive movement in order to satisfy people‟s needs for growth and learning. Organizational supports are also necessary to maintain and aid the development of job design.
Goal Setting Goals are targets and objectives for future performance. They help focus employees attention on items of greater importance to the organization. Encourages better planning for the allocation of resources (time, money and energy) Goal setting works as a motivational process because it creates a discrepancy between current and expected performance.
(contd.) A major factor in the success of goal setting is self- efficiency. First key to successful goal setting is to build and reinforce employee self-efficiency.
Elements of goal setting: Goal setting is most effective when four elements are present. Goal acceptance Specificity Challenge Performance monitoring
Conclusion Motivation is the mantra to success in both personal and official life. Empower Yourself And Others - Live Your Life With Motivation! Be Inspired! Believe in Yourself - Believe in Others!