MARRIAGE Sacred Heart College 3rd form Social Studies
What is marriage?Marriage (or wedlock) is a social union or legal contract between people that creates kinship.
Marriage (contract)• It is an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually intimate and sexual, are acknowledged in a variety of ways It depends on the culture or subculture in which it is found.• Such a union, often formalized via a wedding ceremony, may also be called matrimony.• Creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved.• Recognized by the state, a religious authority, or both.
History of Marriage• Marriage pre-dates recorded history.• Rules of marriage have changed over time. Depends on culture or demography• Reasons for marriage include: Man’s need for paternity of children, Exclusive right over a woman and legitimacy of relationship. In almost all societies, access to women is institutionalized.
Institutionalization of Female• Females tend to have very traditionally defined roles: Cooking Cleaning Rearing of children/Home-maker• Submissiveness to your spouse. Patriarchal households : (Example: go ask your dad...)• Pre-marriage expectations Innocence and Purity Family (dad) consent to the marriage.
Why people marry? People marry for many reasons:a) Legalb) Socialc) Libidinald) Emotionale) Economicf) Spiritualg) Religious
BEFORE MARRIAGE,a couple should spend time getting to know each other’s likes, dislikes, views and goals in order to minimize the possibility of conflict in the future.
Before getting married a couple should:a. Accumulate money for marriage expenses and housing.b. Get to know each other’s family.c. Identify a secure place of residence.d. Make a family plan.e. Ensure that they have the means and attitude to support a family.
The Marriage Creed Maturity Be willing to give and not receive Amicable Be truthful, be a friend and remove doubt Respectful Listen to words and gestures Refuge Be there in times of distress Individuality Allow to be oneself Approval Commend efforts and do not criticize Generosity Time and talent giving build strength EliminateEliminate troubles; be loyalty and committed
Influence of Culture on Marriage• Number of partners • Monogamy: marriage to one person • Polygamy: custom of having more than one spouse at a time. • Polyandry: custom of having more than one husband at a time. • Polygyny: custom of having more than one wife at a time.
Influence of Culture on Marriage - CONTD• Choice of partners • Endogamy: partner must be chosen from inside one’s own tribe. • Exogamy: partner must be chosen from outside one’s own tribe.• Rituals/traditions/customs • Dressing: customary marriage attire • Time: how long the marriage process will last. • Role of religion in marriage process • Role of male and female • Role of parents: Arranged marriage?
Influence of Culture on Marriage - CONTD• Residence • Neolocal: live on your own after marriage (Nuclear family). • Patrilocal: live with or near relatives of the groom ( extended family). • Matrilocal: live with or near relatives of the bride.• Authority • Matriarchal: mother is the head of the household. • Patriarchal: father is the head of the household. • Equalitarian: equal sharing of authority.
Influence of Culture on Marriage - CONTD• Lineage • Patrilineal: privileges and duties of descent follow male line. • Matrilineal: privileges and duties of descent follow female line. • Bilineal: privileges and duties of descent follow both line.
Influence of Culture on Marriage - CONTD• Marriage age: consent• Reason for marriage: Love Convenience security• Dowry: some cultures require a dowry (Muslim, Indian, African)• Divorce: can the marriage be terminated or annulled?
Type of Families• Nuclear family: is made up of the mom, dad, and children living under one roof.• Extended family: extends beyond mom, dad, and children.• Reorganized family: brings into relationship a child or children from previous relationship.• Single-parent family: one parent living with his/her child or children.
Type of Unions• Legal union: formal marriage between persons over the age of 18; or, with parental consent• Common-law union (consensual union): man and woman live under same roof without undergoing a legal marriage ceremony• Visiting relationship: a woman lives without a permanent spouse. Male visits her by intervals. Children born are termed illegitimate
Difference Between a family and a household Family Household• A unit of parents and • A social unit living children. A group of together belonging individuals who are to the same house intimately related, living and family; under one domestic; roof, supporting and as, household maintaining each other furniture; household socially, economically affairs. All the people and emotionally. living in a house.
Functions of the family• Socialization of children (video)• Economic cooperation and division of labor• Care supervision, monitoring, and interaction (video)• Legitimizing sexual relation• Reproduction• Provision of status: Social-family attributes Ascribed status; birth order Achieved status: based on individual’s effort• Affection, emotional support and companionship• Cultural: pass on traditions, tools, customs, habits, ideas
Healthy families1. Clearly identified hierarchy2. Well-defined parental roles3. Flexibility & adaptability - Can respond to situational & maturational crises4. Consistent, clear rules & expectations5. Consistent affection6. Consistent limit-setting7. Open communication, bi-directional8. Increased degree of support nurturance and acceptance of family members
Unhealthy families1. Rigidity - lack of flexibility2. Lack of individuality3. Extreme detachment4. Scape-goating - family member (often child) who is the object of displaced conflict/criticism5. Triangulation - Detouring conflict between 2 people by involving a third person, thereby stabilizing the relationship between the original pair6. Faulty problem solving skills7. Conflict avoidance8. Inconsistent application of affection/discipline9. Low levels of support/nurturance/acceptance10. Increased degree of expressed hostility towards each other/other family members
DIMENSIONS OF PARENTAL BEHAVIOUR:• All families organize themselves along the dimensions of affection and control which will result in specific child-rearing techniques/approaches/behaviors.• The family will demonstrate a unique pattern of: – affection – Involvement – supervision/control These will influence both the development and behavior of the child.
DIMENSIONS OF PARENTAL BEHAHVIOR:CONTROLParental control is conceptualized as: The degree to which parents exert control and power over the child, The level of direct involvement in the activities of the child.It is defined in terms of: The degree of supervision/monitoring of the childs activities, The quality, nature, consistency of discipline, The parents need to control the child.
Affection• AFFECTION is defined as the amount of love, nurturance, support, and positive value demonstrated towards the child. The degree of affection demonstrated towards the child may range from love-to-indifference-to hostility.
Involvement• INVOLVEMENT is defined as the degree and frequency of interaction between parent and child, the frequency and quality of communication between parent and child, interest in the activities of the child, and the quality of interaction between the parent and child.
Issues of Family life in Belize• In-laws• Finance• Pre-marital sex• The generation gap• Extramarital relations• Child rearing practices• Courtship and marriage• Arranged and shot-gun marriages; abortion