Learning theories - a review of the teaching role


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Learning theories - a review of the teaching role

  1. 1. Learning Theories A review for the teaching role Behaviourism Cognitivism Humanism
  2. 2. Please consider the following: Learning Activity and Reflection: What can you learn from the behaviourists to assist you in teaching in clinical practice? Learning Activity and Reflection: What can you learn from the cognitivists to assist you in teaching in clinical practice? Learning Activity and Reflection: What can you learn from the humanists to assist you in teaching in clinical practice?
  3. 3. Behaviourism Classical conditioning – Pavlov and Watson showed us how to change an unconditional response to a conditional response. What value is this to us?
  4. 4. Operant Conditioning Skinner’s Box. Random behaviour becomes focused dependent on the provision of a positive re-inforcement which increases probability of recurrence. Ornegativere-inforcement which increases the probability of the behaviour that precedes the negative re-inforcement.
  5. 5. So what then do you understand by the terms Punishment Omission of re-inforcement
  6. 6. And the correct answers are... Punishment is where an unpleasant stimulus occurs after the response. Punishment decreases the probability of occurrence of the response that precedes it. Omission of re-inforcement is where the absence of re-inforcement will lead to extinction of the response.
  7. 7. Implications for Teaching and Learning Behavioural objectives Linear teaching programmes (chaining) Branching teaching programmes (computer assisted learning) Mastery Learning
  8. 8. Behaviourism – some points for reflection Sub skill 1 Sub skill 2 Sub skill 3 Sub skills are chained together in Linear fashion
  9. 9. Classical vs operant Classical conditioning – limited usefulness Operant conditioning – quite influential in teaching. Variable response re-inforcement most useful Ignoring negative behaviour leads to extinction of that behaviour
  10. 10. Social or Observational Learning Also called Vicarious Learning – learning by observing others. (ie Modelling) Wide range of applications, perhaps most especially for the 1st year student Giving senior students responsibility will enhance their desire to act as a role model to juniors
  11. 11. Retrieval Recover from memory Storage Maintain in memory Cognitivism Memory Encoding Put into memory
  12. 12. 2 Types of Memory Short term memory (working memory) Long term memory
  13. 13. Short term memory Lasts seconds – minutes To encode, we must ATTEND to it. This is a selective process. How do you remember a new phone number? Visually Acoustically Semantically
  14. 14. Try to remember this... RLBKSJ
  15. 15. And now this… SPT, OARE
  16. 16. And this… O AIR TEK
  17. 17. How did you encode this info? SPT, OARE Visually O AIR TEK Acoustically Storage is best when we need to remember 7 +/- 2.
  18. 18. Forgetting… Try remembering this: 25734169385
  19. 19. Displacement occurs when… Trying to learn too much. We usually forget the first numbers but remember the last numbers. So, how can we boost our STM retention? By re-grouping (also called Chunking) sequences of letters/digits into units that can be found in LTM
  20. 20. What interferes with retention? Decay Theory – lost due to lack of rehearsal Repression Theory – Forgotten your dental appointment?! Wonder why?? Interference Theory – info becomes confused
  21. 21. Long Term Memory From STM, info is either displaced or rehearsed before transfer to LTM LTM–lasts for minutes and up to a lifetime Encoding in LTM - neither visual or acoustic. Requires meaning. More striking when used in sentences
  22. 22. Making meaningful connections Often the items we have to remember are meaningful, but the connections are not. Here, memory can be improved by creating links between items. EGBDF On old Olympus....
  23. 23. Storage and Retrieval In LTM, these 2 aspects are considered together. We need to Pay attention Take in meaning Be responsive to cues in the environment
  24. 24. Organisation of info is aided by sleep! Exam Material New Material Exam Exam Material ExamSleep Z Z Z ✔ ✗
  25. 25. Forgetting! Pro-active inhibition – old info interferes with new info Retro-active inhibition – new info interferes with old info Other means of forgetting - Emotional; Loss in STM; Decay in LTM; Repression; Altered conditions of recall; Physical damage
  26. 26. Improving Memory! Use of mental imagery Self recitation during study Over learning Organisational schemes
  27. 27. Important Factors associated with Successful Learning Methods of presentation of material Knowledge of progress and results Distribution of practice Study and Learning methods used by the learner
  28. 28. Implications for the Teacher Relevance of info Don’t give too much unfamiliar info Motivation Boredom/fatigue Overlearning Rehearsal and repetition Organisation and content
  29. 29. Humanism – some thoughts for reflection This perspective involves looking at the whole person in terms of their feelings, attitudes and values Self direction, empowerment and autonomy are strong concepts Maslow (1971) – self actualisation; Rogers (1983) – Freedom to Learn Facilitator vs Teacher
  30. 30. Implications for teaching / learning Rogers’ 10 principles of learning Arouse curiosity; present problems or challenges; Learning contracts Psychologically safe learning environment Mutual respect; participation expected Expression of feelings and values crucial Self evaluation rather than external feedback
  31. 31. The 3 Approaches to Teaching & Learning Find out what is right for your student Find out what works for you Pick up on cues from the student Be conscious of your environment Be alert to uncontrollable variables Consider your presentation style Get feedback as well as self evaluation