Modern exploration mgs mpf_mo

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Modern exploration mgs mpf_mo

  1. 1. Modern Exploration Global Surveyor
  2. 2. Modern Exploration Global Surveyor  Objectives:  High resolution imaging of the surface  Study the topography and gravity  Study the role of water and dust on the surface and in the atmosphere  Study the weather and climate of Mars  Study the composition of the surface and atmosphere  Study the existence and evolution of the Martian magnetic field
  3. 3. Modern Exploration Global Surveyor  Instruments  Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC); capture high-resolution images of the surface (1.5 meters per pixel)  Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES); investigate thermal properties of rocks and soils, collect mineralogy data  Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA); elevation data  Magnetometer/Electron Reflectometer; search for evidence of a planetary magnetic field
  4. 4. Modern Exploration Global Surveyor
  5. 5. Modern Exploration Global Surveyor Credit:MalinSpaceScienceSystems–www.msss.com Credit:MalinSpaceScienceSystems–www.msss.com
  6. 6. Modern Exploration Global Surveyor Credit:MalinSpaceScienceSystems–www.msss.com Credit:MalinSpaceScienceSystems–www.msss.com
  7. 7. Modern Exploration Global Surveyor Credit:MalinSpaceScienceSystems–www.msss.com Credit:MalinSpaceScienceSystems–www.msss.com
  8. 8. Modern Exploration Global Surveyor Credit: Malin Space Science Systems – www.msss.com
  9. 9. Modern Exploration Global Surveyor Credit: NASA/JPL/ASU
  10. 10. Modern Exploration Global Surveyor Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
  11. 11. Modern Exploration Global Surveyor Credit: NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center
  12. 12. Modern Exploration Global Surveyor Notable results from Global Surveyor  The northern hemisphere is probably just as cratered as the southern hemisphere, but the craters are mostly buried.  High-resolution imagery shows modifications to the surface have taken place over the past decade.  Hundreds of gullies were discovered that were formed from liquid water (probably), possibly in recent times.  The Thermal Emission Spectrometer found that just about all of the surface of Mars is covered with volcanic rock.  Magnetometer data show remnant, alternating magnetic fields
  13. 13. Modern Exploration Global Surveyor How did Global Surveyor advance scientific understanding of Mars?  Smoking gun evidence that liquid water was stable on the surface for long periods of time  Mars exhibits a “global dichotomy” in terms of topography  Spectral ID of the global surface composition What technological advance(s) did Global Surveyor carry?  Highest-resolution camera, for the time  Laser altimeter  TES; lithology, mineralogy  Magnetometer; remnant magnetic field
  14. 14. Modern Exploration Mars Pathfinder
  15. 15. Modern Exploration Mars Pathfinder The primary mission objectives were to demonstrate the feasibility of low-cost landings on, and exploration of, the Martian surface (Faster, Better, Cheaper) Scientific objectives included  atmospheric entry science  long-range and close-up surface imaging  the general objective was to characterize the Martian environment for further exploration
  16. 16. Modern Exploration Mars Pathfinder Landed in Ares Vallis which was believed to be the site of an ancient flood Landing site selection made using Viking orbiter imagery First rover; first to use airbags
  17. 17. Modern Exploration Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Locations
  18. 18. Modern Exploration Mars Pathfinder Pathfinder Landing Site
  19. 19. Modern Exploration Mars Pathfinder Lander Instruments  Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP)  Meteorological Station Rover Instruments  Three cameras, two stereo cameras in the front and a rear color imaging system; cameras worked in tandem with a laser system to detect and avoid obstacles  Alpha-Proton-X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS); assess the composition of rocks and soils
  20. 20. Modern Exploration Mars Pathfinder
  21. 21. Modern Exploration Mars Pathfinder Notable results from Pathfinder More than 16,500 images from the lander and 550 images from the rover More than 15 chemical analyses of rocks and soil and extensive data on winds and other weather factors Findings from the investigations carried out by scientific instruments on both the lander and the rover suggest that Mars was at one time in its past warm and wet, with water existing in its liquid state and a thicker atmosphere
  22. 22. Modern Exploration Mars Pathfinder How did Pathfinder advance scientific understanding of Mars?  Evidence on the ground for a warm, wet past What technological advance(s) did Pathfinder carry?  First rover; can be remotely operated  New landing system
  23. 23. Modern Exploration NASA’s theme for Mars exploration - Follow the Water - began with the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission Odyssey, and every mission since, has addressed the Mars programs’ four goals:  Determine whether life ever arose on Mars  Characterize the climate of Mars  Characterize the geology of Mars  Prepare for human exploration
  24. 24. Modern Exploration Mars Odyssey
  25. 25. Modern Exploration Mars Odyssey Objectives:  Determine the abundance of hydrogen, most likely in the form of water ice, in the shallow subsurface  Globally map the elements that make up the surface  Acquire high-resolution thermal infrared images of surface minerals  Provide information about the structure of the Martian surface  Record the radiation environment in low Mars orbit as it relates to radiation-related risk to human exploration
  26. 26. Modern Exploration Odyssey 3 instruments:  Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS); mineralogy  Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS); elemental composition  Martian Radiation Environment Experiment (MARIE)
  27. 27. Modern Exploration Odyssey Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona
  28. 28. Modern Exploration Odyssey Credit:NASA/JPL/Universityof Arizona
  29. 29. Modern Exploration Odyssey Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona
  30. 30. Modern Exploration Odyssey Notable results from Odyssey  Evidence for vast amounts of subsurface water ice at both polar regions  Can you see it?
  31. 31. Modern Exploration Odyssey Credit: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona
  32. 32. Modern Exploration Odyssey
  33. 33. Modern Exploration Odyssey Notable results from Odyssey  Evidence for vast amounts of subsurface water ice at both polar regions  Can you see it?  Where is it?  Underneath the surface but…  How deep?  Is it dirty ice? Or icy dirt?
  34. 34. Modern Exploration Odyssey How is Odyssey advancing scientific understanding of Mars?  Water-ice exists underneath the surface in the polar regions, not just at the poles What technological advance(s) does Odyssey carry?  GRS; able to “look” below the surface

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