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Seminário temp bov

  1. 1. Cattle temperament: Persistence of assessments and associations with productivity, efficiency, carcass and meat quality traits L. M. Cafe, D. L. Robinson, D. M. Ferguson, B. L. McIntyre, G. H. Geesink and P. L. Greenwood J ANIM SCI 2011, 89:1452-1465. doi: 10.2527/jas.2010-3304 originally published online December 17, 2010The online version of this article, along with updated information and services, is located on the World Wide Web at: Downloaded from at UNESP on July 20, 2011
  2. 2. Cattle temperament: Persistence of assessments and associations with productivity, efficiency, carcass and meat quality traits1L. M. Cafe,*†2 D. L. Robinson,*† D. M. Ferguson,*‡ B. L. McIntyre,*§ G. H. Geesink,*# and P. L. Greenwood*† *Australian Cooperative Research Centre for Beef Genetic Technologies, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales 2351, Australia; †Industry & Investment New South Wales, Beef Industry Centre, Armidale, New South Wales 2351, Australia; ‡CSIRO Livestock Industries, FD McMaster Laboratories, Armidale, New South Wales 2350, Australia; §Department of Agriculture and Food, Western Australia, South Perth, Western Australia 6151, Australia; and #Department of Meat Science, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales 2351, AustraliaABSTRACT: Relationships between temperament calpain-system markers for beef tenderness. Tempera-and a range of performance, carcass, and meat quality ment was not related (most P > 0.05) to tendernesstraits in young cattle were studied in 2 experiments gene marker status in Brahman cattle and was not (allconducted in New South Wales (NSW) and Western P > 0.26) modified by the growth promotant treatmentAustralia (WA), Australia. In both experiments, growth in either breed. The Brahman cattle had greater indi-rates of cattle were assessed during backgrounding on vidual variation in, and greater correlations within andpasture and grain finishing in a feedlot. Carcass and between, repeated assessments of FS and CS than didobjective meat quality characteristics were measured the Angus cattle. Correlations for repeated measures ofafter slaughter. Feed intake and efficiency during grain FS were greater than for repeated assessments of CS,finishing were also determined in NSW. Brahman (n = and the strength of correlations for both declined over82 steers and 82 heifers) and Angus (n = 25 steers and time. Average FS or CS for each experiment and loca-24 heifers) cattle were used in the NSW experiment. In tion (NSW or WA × backgrounding or finishing) wereNSW, temperament was assessed by measuring flight more highly correlated than individual measurements,speed [FS, m/s on exit from the chute (crush)] on 14 indicating that the average values were a more reliableoccasions, and by assessing agitation score during con- assessment of cattle temperament than any single mea-finement in the crush (CS; 1 = calm to 5 = highly sure. In Brahman cattle, increased average FS and CSagitated) on 17 occasions over the course of the ex- were associated with significant (P < 0.05) reductionsperiment. Brahman (n = 173) and Angus (n = 20) in backgrounding and feedlot growth rates, feed intakesteers were used in the WA experiment. In WA, tem- and time spent eating, carcass weight, and objectiveperament was assessed by measuring FS on 2 occasions measures of meat quality. In Angus cattle, the associa-during backgrounding and on 2 occasions during grain tions between temperament and growth rates, feed in-feeding. At both sites, a hormonal growth promotant take, and carcass traits were weaker than in Brahmans,(Revalor-H, Virbac, Milperra, New South Wales, Aus- although the strength of relationships with meat qual-tralia) was applied to one-half of the cattle at feedlot ity were similar.entry, and the Brahman cattle were polymorphic for 2 Key words: carcass, cattle, flight speed, meat quality, productivity, temperament©2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved. J. Anim. Sci. 2011. 89:1452–1465 doi:10.2527/jas.2010-3304 1 This work was possible because of the financial and in-kind stock Australia (North Sydney, New South Wales, Australia); Southsupport and efforts of many individuals from the Cooperative Re- Australian Research and Development Institute (Urrbrae, Southsearch Centre for Beef Genetic Technologies (Armidale, New South Australia, Australia); Victorian Department of Primary IndustriesWales, Australia); Industry & Investment NSW (Armidale, New (Melbourne, Victoria, Australia); the Australian Brahman Breeders’South Wales, Australia); Queensland Department of Employment, Association (Rockhampton, Queensland, Australia); John Dee Ab-Economic Development and Innovation (City East, Queensland, attoir (Warwick, Queensland, Australia); and Harvey Beef (Harvey,Australia); CSIRO Livestock Industries (St. Lucia, Queensland, Western Australia, Australia). 2 Australia); the University of New England (Armidale, New South Corresponding author:, Australia); Western Australia Department of Agriculture and Received July 8, 2010.Food (South Perth, Western Australia, Australia); Meat and Live- Accepted December 8, 2010. 1452 Downloaded from at UNESP on July 20, 2011
  3. 3. Cattle temperament and productivity 1453 INTRODUCTION ing practices. The Brahman cattle, treatments, data, and sample collection and their management through- Cattle vary in their behavioral response to stressful out the experiments are described in detail by Cafe etevents, and this trait is defined as temperament. Ex- al. (2010a,b). Results are also reported here for Angustreme or reactive responses can be detrimental to cattle cattle, which were treated identically to the Brahmanwelfare and the safety of human handlers. Evidence is cattle in both experiments, with the 2 breeds managedemerging that cattle with calmer temperaments have together in combined replicates throughout the experi-improved productivity; however, the effects of tempera- ments. The numbers of animals in the experiments arement on economically important traits can be variable, presented in Table 1.and the biological basis for the effects is not well under- Briefly, the experiments were conducted at Industrystood (Ferguson et al., 2006). & Investment New South Wales, Agricultural Research Several tests have been developed to measure tem- and Advisory Station [Glen Innes, New South Walesperament by using the escape and avoidance behaviors (NSW); 29°44′ S, 151°42′ E, altitude 1,057 m, n =that cattle display when responding to stressful events, 213 cattle] and at the Western Australian Departmentsuch as handling by humans (reviewed by Burrow, of Agriculture and Food’s Vasse Research Station near1997). Two tests, which are simple and safe to mea- Busselton, Western Australia (WA; 33°45′ S, 115°21′ E,sure and are being used by the Australian beef cattle altitude 25 m, n = 193). Brahman cattle were selectedindustry to select for calmer temperament, are flight for experimental groups based on their genotype for thespeed (FS; Burrow et al., 1988) and crush score (CS; calpastatin (Barendse, 2002) and calpain 3 (BarendseGrandin, 1993). It is likely that these tests measure dif- et al., 2008) tenderness gene markers. At both sites,ferent combinations of aspects of cattle temperament, a small group of Angus cattle with only the favorableincluding general agitation and fear of humans, but this alleles for the calpastatin and calpain 3 gene markersremains a topic of discussion (Burrow, 1997; Kilgour et were included as positive controls for biological studiesal., 2006; Petherick et al., 2002, 2009a). Faster FS have on the calpain system. Equal numbers of heifers andbeen shown to lead to slower growth rates, particularly steers were used in the NSW experiment, whereas onlyunder more intensive management conditions (Burrow steers were used in the WA experiment. One-half theand Dillon, 1997; Petherick et al., 2009b); reduced feed cattle in each experiment were treated with a HGPconversion efficiency (Petherick et al., 2002); and re- (Revalor-H, Virbac, Milperra, New South Wales, Aus-duced yield of poorer quality meat (King et al., 2006). tralia) at feedlot entry.Similar effects have been shown with greater CS (Voi- The Brahman weaner cattle were sourced from re-sinet et al., 1997a,b). search and commercial herds (n = 15 herds) in NSW, The present study was conducted to investigate the WA, and Queensland. Angus weaner cattle were sourcedpersistency over time of cattle temperament, as assessed from research herds (n = 3) in NSW and WA. All cattleby FS and CS, and to assess relationships between tem- were weaned at approximately 6 to 8 mo of age, but be-perament and a comprehensive range of performance cause of differing production systems in their regions oftraits in young Brahman and Angus cattle. The experi- origin, the Angus cattle were approximately 2 mo oldermental design also allowed potential interactions be- than the Brahman cattle at both sites. The cattle weretween temperament and tenderness gene marker status, grown (backgrounded) on pasture for approximately 6sex, hormonal growth promotant (HGP) treatment, mo, then grain finished in a feedlot for 80 d in WAand cattle management and meat processing practices and 117 d in NSW. In NSW, the cattle were trans-to be studied. ported approximately 160 km to the Australian Coop- erative Research Centre for Beef Genetic Technologies MATERIALS AND METHODS “Tullimba” research feedlot near Kingstown (30°20′ S, 151°10′ E, altitude 560 m) for grain finishing. In WA, Use of animals and the procedures performed in this the cattle were transferred to the feedlot facility at thestudy were approved by the Orange Agricultural Insti- Vasse Research Station for grain finishing. Feed intaketute Animal Ethics Committee of Industry & Invest- and feeding behavior were measured in the NSW feed-ment New South Wales, the Rockhampton Animal Ex- lot by using an automatic individual feeding system, asperimentation Ethics Committee of the Commonwealth described by Bindon (2001), and feed efficiency traitsScientific and Industrial Research Organisation, and were calculated as described in detail by Cafe et al.the Animal Ethics Committee of the Western Austra- (2010a).lian Department of Agriculture and Food. Cattle from each experiment were transported to their respective commercial abattoirs the day beforeAnimals and Experimental Designs slaughter, with no mixing of pens during transport or lairage. For each experiment, one-half of the replicates The present study was conducted as a part of 2 were slaughtered on each of 2 slaughter dates, with theconcurrent experiments designed to study the effects remaining replicates slaughtered 2 d later. Slaughterand mechanisms of action of tenderness gene markers, was conducted through captive bolt stunning and ex-and their interaction with management and process- sanguination. Electrical stimulation of the carcasses Downloaded from at UNESP on July 20, 2011
  4. 4. 1454 Cafe et al.Table 1. Descriptive statistics for the major traits assessed in Brahman and Angus cattle in the New South Wales(NSW) and Western Australia (WA) experiments NSW Brahman WA Brahman NSW Angus WA AngusVariable n Mean SD n Mean SD n Mean SD n Mean SDGrowth, kg                          Background start BW 164 218 36.0 173 208 59.2 49 295 28.3 20 293 9.4  Feedlot start BW 164 321 38.1 173 343 35.6 49 419 41.6 20 403 25.0  Feedlot end BW 164 435 55.8 173 449 51.1 49 578 59.1 20 520 28.5  Background ADG 164 0.72 0.119 173 0.64 0.169 49 0.71 0.134 20 0.52 0.097  Feedlot ADG 164 1.01 0.294 173 1.28 0.345 49 1.43 0.282 20 1.42 0.242Carcass                          Carcass wt, kg 164 244 32.3 173 242 25.7 49 321 36.6 20 270 15.1 Dentition1 164 0.05 0.310 173 0.72 1.032 49 0.61 0.931 20 1.90 0.447  LLM area,2 cm2 164 59.9 8.57 143 63.6 6.25 49 67.0 8.93 17 66.1 4.57  Rump fat, mm 164 12.0 2.61 173 8.0 2.56 49 18.3 5.44 20 8.9 2.67  Rib fat,2 mm 164 6.2 2.08 143 5.3 2.38 49 9.4 2.81 17 8.2 3.26  Marble score2 164 261 66.2 143 293 61.9 49 424 72.8 17 321 41.2  Meat color score2 164 2.8 1.07 143 2.7 1.05 49 3.2 0.74 17 2.8 0.83  Ultimate pH2 164 5.49 0.051 143 5.57 0.085 49 5.49 0.054 17 5.57 0.047Shear force,3 N                          AT 1-d aged LLM 161 78.2 18.53 140 52.2 11.46 49 61.7 11.78 16 44.1 7.44  AT 7-d aged LLM 161 68.1 17.63 133 49.5 10.25 46 51.7 10.79 15 44.4 7.80  TS 1-d aged LLM 164 47.2 5.61 141 51.6 11.81 49 37.0 4.43 17 41.2 6.39  TS 7-d aged LLM 163 45.6 5.56 128 46.0 9.63 49 36.5 4.01 14 40.4 5.29Feed intake and efficiency                          Feedlot DMI, kg of DM/d 160 8.0 1.36 — — — 49 11.0 1.34 — — —  FCR, kg of DM/kg of BW gain 160 7.5 2.39 — — — 49 7.5 2.22 — — — NFI,4 kg of DM/d 160 −0.07 0.830 — — — 49 0.23 0.97 — — —  Feedlot ADG, kg 160 1.13 0.314 — — — 49 1.53 0.322 — — —  Feeding time, min/d 160 73.4 20.53 — — — 49 106.5 23.63 — — —  Feeding sessions, n/d 160 11.7 6.14 — — — 49 8.8 3.90 — — — 1 Dentition = number of erupted permanent incisors. 2 Meat Standards Australia (2009) grading data, where marble score is from 100 to 1,100 in increments of 10; meat color score is from 1 (lightest)to 9 (darkest), and ultimate pH is the pH at grading. 3 AT = Achilles-suspended side; TS = tenderstretched side; LLM = musculus longissimus lumborum. 4 NFI = net feed intake.was limited to that necessary for the hide removal pro- cattle were being handled through the yards for othercess at both sites, plus immobilization during exsan- management or data collection purposes. Cattle wereguination in WA. Standard AUS-MEAT carcasses were confined for a period of at least 5 s in a single-animalprepared (AUS-MEAT, 2007) and split into 2 sides, weighing crate before being released. Crush score wasand the right sides were resuspended by the pelvis [ten- assessed visually during the period in the weighingderstretch (TS) suspension method; Thompson, 2002]. crate, using a 5-point scale of agitation based on theSides were graded according to Meat Standards Aus- behavioral scoring system described by Grandin (1993),tralia (2009) procedures, and at bone-out, the musculus which was applied to cattle restrained in a squeezelongissimus lumborum (LLM) and musculus semiten- chute (crush) and head bail. Minor modifications weredinosus (STN) were taken from the Achilles-suspended made so that it was more suitable for loosely restrained(AT) sides, and the LLM were removed from the TS cattle. The scale used was as follows: 1= calm, stand-sides. These muscles were divided and aged at 1°C for ing still, head mostly still, slow movements; 2 = slightlyeither 1 or 7 d before freezing at −20°C. Sample prep- restless, looking around more quickly, moving feet; 3 =aration and measurement of texture (shear force and restless, moving backward and forward, shaking crate;compression), cooking loss, CIELAB meat color, and 4 = nervous, continuous vigorous movement backwardintramuscular fat percentage (determined by near-in- and forward, snorting; 5 = very nervous, continuousfrared spectrophotometry) were performed as described violent movement, attempting to jump out. All CS as-by Perry et al. (2001a). sessments throughout the experiment were made by the same person.Temperament Assessments When the cattle were released from the weighing crate, flight time was measured over a distance of 1.7 m Temperament was assessed by FS (Burrow et al., at both sites, and converted to FS (m/s) for analyses.1988) in both NSW and WA and also by CS (Grandin, Flight speeds of 1 to 1.5 m/s equated to cattle leav-1993) in NSW. The measurements were taken when the ing the crush at a walk, FS of 2 to 2.5 m/s equated to Downloaded from at UNESP on July 20, 2011
  5. 5. Cattle temperament and productivity 1455cattle leaving the crush at a trot, and FS of 3 to 3.5 methodology (Robinson, 1987), with animal fitted as am/s equated to cattle leaving the crush at a run. Dur- random backgrounding in NSW, the yard design required The average temperaments during backgroundingthe cattle to turn right at 90° into a side yard upon re- and finishing (FS and CS for NSW, and FS alone forlease from the crate. In this case, the FS measurement WA) were used in the analyses of temperament effectsbegan after the animals had made the turn and were on other traits because of the differences in the waytraveling in a straight line. Portable yard panels were that FS and CS characterized the temperament of cat-used in the side yard to narrow the exit sufficiently to tle; the changes in FS and CS between backgroundingkeep the cattle moving in a direct route over the 1.7- and grain finishing; and the greater reliability of av-m flight distance. At the feedlot in NSW and during erages compared with individual assessments. The ef-both phases in WA, FS measurements were taken in fects of temperament on production, carcass traits, anda straight line directly ahead of the point of release meat quality traits were assessed using linear mixedfrom the weigh crate. In WA, the same set of yards was models in Genstat. Separate analyses were carried outused to handle the cattle during the backgrounding and for each breed (Brahman and Angus) and experimentalfeedlot phases. site (WA and NSW) combination because of the differ- In NSW, FS was measured on 5 occasions during ences in experimental designs and residual variances.backgrounding and on 9 occasions during grain finish- To ensure all aspects of the experimental design wereing (FS 1 to 14); CS was assessed on 6 occasions during accounted for, the full models included the fixed effectsbackgrounding and on 11 occasions during feedlot fin- of the tenderness marker genotypes, HGP treatment,ishing (CS 1 to 17). The timing of the temperament as- and, for the NSW herd, sex. Random effects included insessments and the timing of the more invasive handling the models were property of origin, backgrounding rep-events are shown for the NSW experiment in Figure licate, feedlot replicate, slaughter group within slaugh-1. Blood sampling from the tail vein was conducted in ter day, and the first-order interactions. The effect ofthe race before weighing, and then the temperament temperament was fitted as a covariate in the full modelmeasures were made as described above. Ultrasound for each site × breed combination, with the averagescanning was conducted on 3 occasions with the cattle temperament variables (FS or CS during background-caught in the head bail; CS was assessed on each occa- ing or finishing) fitted as single covariates in separatesion during the final 30 s of the scanning process, which analyses, and both the linear and quadratic fits weretook approximately 2 min; and FS was measured after tested. Main effects and interactions were consideredrelease from the crush on 1 of these occasions. Muscle significant at P < 0.05 and were considered a tendencybiopsy was performed on the LLM, STN, and musculus toward significance at P < 0.10.semimembranosus under local anesthetic using a drillbiopsy technique (Gardner et al., 2001) on 2 occasionswith the cattle caught in the head bail. Temperament RESULTSassessments were not made when biopsies were per- The primary purpose of this paper is to report theformed. assessments of temperament in Brahman and Angus In WA, FS was measured on 2 occasions during back- cattle in NSW and WA and their relationships withgrounding and on 2 occasions during grain finishing productivity, carcass traits, and meat quality traits, for(FS 1 to 4). Flight speed 1 was measured 12 wk after which descriptive statistics are presented in Table 1.the commencement of backgrounding, when the cattle Results for the effects of HGP, tenderness gene markerwere in the yard for weighing; FS 2 was measured after status, and sex on the measured traits in the Brahmanultrasound scanning 10 wk later; FS 3 was measured at cattle are presented by Cafe et al. (2010a,b).feedlot entry a further 8 wk later; and FS 4 was mea-sured after ultrasound scanning a further 10 wk later. Relationships Between Temperament, HGP Treatment, Tenderness Gene MarkerStatistical Analyses Status, and Sex The consistency of FS and CS in ranking animals No interactions were observed between HGP treat-throughout the experiment was assessed using Pearson ment and temperament assessments (all P > 0.26) incorrelations in Genstat (VSN International Ltd., Hemel Brahman or Angus cattle at either site. No associationHempstead, UK). The consistency of FS was analyzed was observed between CS and tenderness gene markerfor both sites (NSW, 14 measures; WA, 4 measures), status (all P ≥ 0.12) in Brahman cattle in NSW, andand the consistency of CS was analyzed using the 17 no consistent association was observed between FS andassessments made in NSW. The significance of the day tenderness gene marker status (Cafe et al., 2010a) inof measurement effects for the repeated measures of Brahman cattle at either site. Where there were indica-FS at both sites and of CS in NSW were conducted tions of sex differences in NSW, heifers always had nu-in Genstat using linear mixed models and the REML merically greater temperament scores than did steers, Downloaded from at UNESP on July 20, 2011
  6. 6. 1456 Cafe et al.but the differences were small and rarely significant. FS and CS over TimeThe effect of sex on FS was not significant for eitherbreed (all P ≥ 0.09). Brahman heifers had greater CS FS in NSW. Means for all 14 FS measurements onthan steers during backgrounding (2.15 vs. 1.98, SED NSW cattle are shown graphically in Figure 1a, with= 0.079, P = 0.037) and in the feedlot (1.59 vs. 1.45, means and SD of a representative 8 (selected to provideSED = 0.066, P = 0.045); no significant effect of sex on an even spread over time) presented in Table 2. A sig-CS was observed in the Angus cattle (all P ≥ 0.18). Be- nificant effect of day of measurement on FS (P < 0.001)cause of the lack of interactions between temperament was observed in both breeds.and these effects, further discussion on temperament is In the Brahmans, FS decreased during background-made without reference to them. ing (FS 1 = 2.1 to FS 5 = 1.6 m/s, SED = 0.05 m/s, P Figure 1. Mean (±SEM) a) flight speed (FS) and b) crush score (CS) for Angus (●, ○) and Brahman (■, □) cattle in the New South Walesexperiment during backgrounding (solid symbols) and finishing in a feedlot (open symbols). Time of management, ultrasound scan (Scan), andtissue (Biopsy) and blood (Bleed) sampling events and are also shown. Downloaded from at UNESP on July 20, 2011
  7. 7. Cattle temperament and productivity 1457 1Table 2. Mean (±SD) and timing of a spread of individual flight speed (FS, m/s) measurements taken duringbackgrounding or at the feedlot, and correlations between FS measurements for the Brahman (below diagonal, n= 164) and Angus (above diagonal, n = 49) cattle in the New South Wales experimentItem FS 1 FS 2 FS 3 FS 4 FS 6 FS 9 FS 12 FS 14Brahman 2.1 ± 0.99 2.0 ± 0.74 1.8 ± 0.75 1.5 ± 0.74 2.4 ± 0.78 2.1 ± 0.92 1.9 ± 0.92 2.1 ± 0.77Angus 1.3 ± 0.44 1.3 ± 0.53 1.5 ± 0.53 1.0 ± 0.42 2.0 ± 0.51 1.9 ± 0.62 2.0 ± 0.62 2.0 ± 0.49Day2 0 30 91 126 182 203 231 252FS 1   0.26† 0.43* 0.50* 0.33* 0.28† 0.26† 0.29†FS 2 0.65*   0.35* 0.54* 0.33* 0.15 −0.06 0.15FS 3 0.55* 0.67*   0.70* 0.19 0.27† 0.12 0.25FS 4 0.62* 0.66* 0.70*   0.40* 0.29† 0.14 0.25FS 6 0.48* 0.52* 0.54* 0.53*   0.51* 0.41* 0.30†FS 9 0.44* 0.45* 0.51* 0.52* 0.66*   0.50* 0.41*FS 12 0.37* 0.47* 0.54* 0.48* 0.61* 0.75*   0.49*FS 14 0.36* 0.45* 0.48* 0.50* 0.57* 0.63* 0.71*   1 FS 1 to 5 conducted during backgrounding, and FS 6 to 14 conducted at the feedlot. A subset of 8 FS were chosen to illustrate the range ofcorrelations in the entire set of 14 measurements. 2 Days from first FS measurement. †P < 0.10; *P < 0.05.< 0.001), with no pattern for the SD except that it was < 0.001) and Angus (P = 0.008) cattle. Little changegreater at FS1. In the feedlot (where FS was measured was observed in SD over time in either breed. In Brah-as the cattle exited the crush in a straight line, unlike man cattle, correlations ranged from 0.41 to 0.52 (all Pbackgrounding, where cattle had to turn right at 90° < 0.001). In the Angus cattle, correlations ranged frombefore measurement), the FS was slightly faster, but −0.02 to 0.55 (P < 0.001 to P < 0.9), with the weakestno consistent change over time was observed in means being those involving the first measurement.or SD. The first feedlot (FS 6) and FS 13 measure- CS in NSW. Means for all CS assessments for thements (measured after the animals had been scanned NSW cattle are shown graphically in Figure 1b, withand biopsied the previous week) were the greatest (P means and SD for a representative 8 of 17 CS assess-< 0.001). Angus cattle had slower FS than Brahmans. ments (selected to provide an even spread over time)Flight speed in the Angus decreased during back- shown in Table 3.grounding (FS 1 = 1.3 to FS 5 = 1.1 m/s, SED = 0.07, A significant effect of day of assessment was ob-P < 0.001), with no change in the SD over time. Flight served. In the Brahman cattle, CS decreased duringspeed of the Angus cattle was also faster in the feedlot, backgrounding (CS 1 = 2.5 to CS 6 = 1.7, SED = 0.07,again with no pattern of change over time in means or P < 0.001), but the SD were variable. The second as-SD. The fastest FS was FS 13 (P < 0.001), measured sessment (CS 2), when the animals were ultrasoundafter the animals had been scanned and biopsied the scanned for the first time, was the greatest (P < 0.001).previous week. At the feedlot, CS were less in the second half of the Correlations for 8 of 14 FS measurements (selected feeding period, except for CS 15, which was assessedto provide an even spread over time) are presented in during ultrasound scanning (P < 0.001). In Angus cat-Table 2. The moderate to high correlations were all tle, CS decreased slightly during backgrounding (CS 1significant (all P < 0.001) for the Brahman cattle, and = 1.6 to CS 5 = 1.4, SED = 0.10, P < 0.001), exceptwere greatest between measurements from the same lo- for CS 2, taken during ultrasound scanning, which wascation (i.e., backgrounding or finishing). For the Angus the greatest. The SD was greater for CS 1 and CS 2.cattle, correlations were not as strong; 90% of the cor- Crush scores were less at the feedlot, and again, theyrelations of FS at the same location were significant were slightly less in the second half of the feeding pe-(P < 0.001 to P < 0.21), but only approximately 30% riod. No pattern of change in SD in the feedlot wasat different locations were significant (P < 0.001 to P observed for either breed.< 0.95). For both breeds, correlations decreased with Correlations for 8 of the 17 CS assessments are pre-increasing time between measures. sented in Table 3. Overall, correlations for CS were less FS in WA. Flight speed was measured 4 times in than for FS, and were less in the Angus cattle. In thethe WA herd: 86, 155, 210, and 282 d after the begin- Brahmans, correlations were generally greater betweenning of backgrounding. Means and SD were 1.7 ± 0.45, CS assessments at the same location, but most correla-1.5 ± 0.52, 1.5 ± 0.52, and 1.5 ± 0.52 m/s for Brah- tions between backgrounding and feedlot assessmentsmans and were 1.7 ± 0.30, 1.4 ± 0.38, 1.5 ± 0.41, and of CS were also significant. Correlations were not as1.4 ± 0.45 m/s for Angus on these respective days. The strong for the Angus cattle, with 30% of those for theeffect of day of measurement was significant, with the same location being significant and 25% for differentsecond measurement being slowest in both Brahman (P locations being significant. Downloaded from at UNESP on July 20, 2011
  8. 8. 1458 Cafe et al.Table 3. Mean (±SD) and timing of a spread of individual crush score1 (CS, score 1 to 5) assessments taken dur-ing backgrounding or at the feedlot, and correlations between CS assessments for the Brahman (below diagonal, n= 164) and Angus (above diagonal, n = 49) cattle in the New South Wales experimentItem CS 1 CS 2 CS 3 CS 4 CS 7 CS 10 CS 14 CS 17Brahman 2.5 ± 0.93 2.8 ± 0.73 1.5 ± 0.63 2.0 ± 0.84 1.5 ± 0.59 1.6 ± 0.59 1.4 ± 0.57 1.4 ± 0.60Angus 1.6 ± 0.64 2.1 ± 0.69 1.3 ± 0.48 1.3 ± 0.48 1.2 ± 0.37 1.2 ± 0.43 1.1 ± 0.33 1.1 ± 0.35Day2 30 71 91 126 182 203 231 252CS 1   0.24† 0.31* 0.24† 0.27† −0.10 0.13 0.25†CS 2 0.20*   0.44* 0.25† 0.04 0.09 0.06 0.22CS 3 0.40* 0.19*   0.28† 0.37* 0.08 0.25† 0.32*CS 4 0.37* 0.21* 0.37*   0.03 0.08 0.25† 0.19CS 7 0.20* 0.08 0.26* 0.15   0.26† 0.17 0.29*CS 10 0.32* 0.23* 0.36* 0.27* 0.35*   0.37* 0.04CS 14 0.26* 0.18* 0.33* 0.22* 0.35* 0.47*   0.20CS 17 0.19* 0.21* 0.24* 0.32* 0.34* 0.48* 0.38*   1 CS 1 to 6 conducted during backgrounding, and CS 7 to 17 conducted at the feedlot. A subset of 8 CS were chosen to illustrate the range ofcorrelations in the entire set of 17 measurements. 2 Days from first flight speed measurement. †P < 0.10; *P < 0.05.Average FS and CS ships were weaker for Angus cattle; only the correlation between average FS and CS during backgrounding was Averages of FS and CS assessed during background- significant (r = 0.39, P = 0.006).ing and at the feedlot in NSW, and average FS assessedduring backgrounding and at the feedlot in WA are FS and Productivity Traitspresented in Table 4. In line with the changes over timedescribed above, average feedlot FS was faster than av- The relationships between average FS and produc-erage backgrounding FS in NSW (P < 0.001), whereas tion, efficiency, carcass traits, and objective meat qual-CS was less at the feedlot (P < 0.001). In WA Brah- ity traits are indicated by estimates of the linear covari-mans, FS was slightly slower at the feedlot than during ates in Tables 6, 7, and 8; quadratic relationships arebackgrounding (P = 0.024). In WA Angus cattle, no reported only when significant.difference was observed in FS measured during back- Growth, Intake, and Efficiency. Effects of av-grounding or at the feedlot (P = 0.35). erage backgrounding and average feedlot FS on produc- Correlations between backgrounding and feedlot aver- tion and efficiency traits are presented in Table 6. Forages within assessment type (e.g., 0.69 for FS and 0.41 NSW Brahmans, cattle with faster backgrounding FSfor CS in the NSW Brahmans; Table 5) were greater had reduced BW at all times during the experiment (allthan for any individual pair of measurements from dif- P ≤ 0.046) and reduced ADG during backgroundingferent locations. This indicates that the averages gave a (P = 0.043) and finishing (P = 0.001). The quadraticmore accurate assessment of both FS and CS than did relationship between background FS and backgroundany single measure. Similarly, in WA the correlation ADG was stronger (P = 0.009) than the linear relation-between the average backgrounding and feedlot FS was ship, with most of the decline in ADG occurring for0.66 (P < 0.001) for Brahmans and 0.51 (P = 0.02) for background FS of >2.5 m/s. Increasing background FSAngus. was also related to reduced DMI (P = 0.012) and less In the NSW Brahmans, correlations between average time spent eating (P = 0.046). Increasing feedlot FSFS and CS, ranging from 0.41 to 0.49 (all P < 0.001), was related to reduced BW at the midpoint (P = 0.040)provide an indication that the 2 different temperament and at the end of the feedlot period (P = 0.030) and tomeasurements ranked the cattle similarly. The relation- decreased feedlot ADG (P = 0.007). Increasing feedlotTable 4. Average flight speed (m/s) and crush score (1 to 5) during backgrounding and feedlot finishing in Brah-man and Angus cattle in the New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA) experiments Flight speed Crush scoreItem NSW Brahman NSW Angus WA Brahman WA Angus NSW Brahman NSW AngusLocation               Background 1.84 1.24 1.61 1.49   2.12 1.56 Feedlot 2.09 1.97 1.54 1.42   1.58 1.21SED 0.042 0.063 0.028 0.080   0.034 0.04P-value <0.001 <0.001 0.024 0.35   <0.001 <0.001 Downloaded from at UNESP on July 20, 2011
  9. 9. Cattle temperament and productivity 1459 Table 5. Correlations between average flight speed (FS, m/s) and crush score (CS, score 1 to 5) determined during backgrounding and feedlot finishing in Brahman (be- low diagonal, n = 164) and Angus (above diagonal, n = 49) cattle in the New South Wales experiment Item Background FS Feedlot FS Background CS Feedlot CS Background FS   0.42* 0.39* 0.23 Feedlot FS 0.69*   0.08 0.24 Background CS 0.49* 0.41*   0.62* Feedlot CS 0.42* 0.41* 0.58*   *P < 0.05.FS was also associated with reduced time spent eating dency toward reduced BW at the end of the feedlot(P = 0.040) and tended to reduce DMI (P = 0.07). In period (P = 0.06).the WA Brahman cattle, increasing background FS was Carcass Characteristics. Effects of averageassociated with reduced BW at the beginning and end backgrounding and feedlot FS on carcass traits are pre-of the feedlot period (both P = 0.008), reduced back- sented in Table 7. In the NSW Brahman cattle, in-ground ADG (P = 0.025), and a tendency for reduced creasing background FS was associated with significantfeedlot ADG (P = 0.07). In addition, increasing feedlot reductions in carcass weight (P = 0.001), rib fat (P =FS was associated with reduced BW at the beginning 0.016), and ultimate pH (P = 0.014), and an increase(P = 0.023) and end (P = 0.015) of the feedlot period in the temperature at which the carcass reached pH 6and with a tendency toward reduced feedlot ADG (P (P < 0.001). Carcass weight also tended to be reduced= 0.07). with increasing feedlot FS (P = 0.09). In the WA Brah- In the NSW Angus cattle, increasing background FS man cattle, increasing background FS was associatedwas related to lighter BW at the beginning of back- with reduced carcass weight (P = 0.013), reduced LLMgrounding (P = 0.045), and increasing feedlot FS was area (P = 0.035), and darker meat color (P = 0.028).related to reduced time spent eating (P = 0.038) and It also tended to influence carcass pH decline, with thea tendency toward a decreased feed conversion ratio carcasses tending to take longer to reach pH 6 (P =(FCR; P = 0.07). In WA Angus cattle, no significant 0.07) and at reduced carcass temperatures (P = 0.09).relationships were observed between background FS Increased feedlot FS also tended to be associated withand any growth trait, but increased feedlot FS was as- reduced carcass weight (P = 0.09). For the WA Brah-sociated with reduced background ADG (P = 0.003), man cattle, the quadratic relationship between FS andreduced BW at feedlot entry (P = 0.018), and a ten- carcass weight was slightly stronger than the linear re-Table 6. Significant effects of average flight speed (FS, m/s) determined during either backgrounding or feedlotfinishing on live traits in Brahman and Angus cattle in the New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia (WA)experiments Background FS Feedlot FSBreed Site Trait Slope SE P-value Slope SE P-valueBrahman NSW (n = 164) Beginning background BW, kg −6.9 3.45 0.046          Beginning feedlot BW, kg −11.5 3.61 0.002            Mid feedlot BW, kg −19.1 4.48 <0.001   −9.3 4.50 0.040    End feedlot BW, kg −21.0 5.047 <0.001   −11.1 5.07 0.030    Background ADG, kg −0.02 0.011 0.043            Feedlot ADG, kg −0.08 0.025 0.001   −0.07 0.025 0.007    Feedlot DMI, kg of DM/d −0.37 0.146 0.012   −0.26 0.143 0.07    Feeding time, min/d −4.7 2.33 0.046   −4.68 2.259 0.040  WA (n = 173) Beginning feedlot BW, kg −14.3 5.26 0.008   −11.6 5.06 0.023  End feedlot BW, kg −20.9 7.78 0.008   −18.3 7.45 0.015    Background ADG, kg −0.05 0.020 0.025            Feedlot ADG, kg −0.10 0.056 0.07   −0.08 0.046 0.07Angus NSW (n = 49) Beginning background BW, kg −23.0 11.08 0.045          Feedlot FCR,1 kg of DM/kg of gain         −1.5 0.81 0.07    Feeding time, min/d         −17.6 8.19 0.038  WA (n = 20) Beginning feedlot BW, kg         −34.8 12.70 0.018  End feedlot BW, kg         −27.6 13.13 0.06    Background ADG, kg         −0.16 0.043 0.003 1 FCR = feed conversion ratio. Downloaded from at UNESP on July 20, 2011
  10. 10. 1460 Cafe et al.Table 7. Significant effects of average flight speed (FS, m/s) determined during either backgrounding or feedlotfinishing on carcass traits in Brahman and Angus cattle in the New South Wales (NSW) and Western Australia(WA) experiments Background FS Feedlot FSBreed Site Trait Slope SE P-value Slope SE P-valueBrahman NSW (n = 163) Carcass wt, kg −9.9 2.92 0.001   −5.0 2.93 0.09  Rib fat,1 mm −5.7 0.23 0.016            Ultimate pH1 −0.01 0.006 0.014            Temperature at pH 6, °C 0.81 0.068 <0.001          WA (n = 143) Carcass wt, kg −9.7 3.85 0.013   −6.4 3.73 0.09  LLM area,1 cm2 −2.67 1.20 0.035            Meat color score1 0.48 0.213 0.028            Temperature at pH 6, °C −1.1 0.64 0.09            Time to pH 6, h 0.22 0.120 0.07        Angus NSW (n = 49) Carcass wt, kg −27.0 14.47 0.07          Rump fat, mm −4.0 2.03 0.06            Time to pH 6, h 0.56 0.093 <0.001          WA (n = 17) LLM area,1 cm2         −5.9 1.61 0.005  Marble score1 −79.4 28.27 0.020         1 Meat Standards Australia (2009) grading data, where marble score is from 100 to 1,100 in increments of 10; meat color score is from 1 (lightest)to 9 (darkest), and ultimate pH is the pH at grading. LLM = musculus longissimus lumborum.lationship, with most of the decline in carcass weight Objective Meat Quality. Effects of average back-occurring for cattle with a background or feedlot FS of grounding and feedlot FS on objective meat quality>2 m/s (P = 0.012 and 0.06, respectively). traits are presented in Table 8. In the NSW Brahmans, In the NSW Angus cattle, increasing background FS increasing background FS was related to increased cook-tended to reduce carcass weight (P = 0.07) and rump ing loss in TS 1-d aged LLM (P = 0.036), and increas-fat (P = 0.06) and significantly increased the time to ing feedlot FS tended to be related to increased shearreach pH 6 (P < 0.001), but no significant effects of force (SF) of AT 1-d aged LLM (P = 0.05). In the WAfeedlot FS on carcass traits were observed. In the WA Brahmans, increasing background FS was related to in-Angus cattle, increasing background FS was associated creased SF of TS 7-d aged LLM (P = 0.044), increasedwith reduced marbling score (P = 0.020), and increas- compression in AT 1-d aged STN (P = 0.043), and in-ing feedlot FS was associated with reduced LLM area creased cooking loss (P = 0.023) and darker meat color(P = 0.005). (P = 0.006) of AT 7-d aged LLM. Increasing feedlotTable 8. Significant effects of average flight speed (FS, m/s) determined during either backgrounding or feedlotfinishing on objective meat quality traits in Brahman and Angus cattle in the New South Wales (NSW) and West-ern Australia (WA) experiments Background FS Feedlot FSBreed Site Trait1 Slope SE P-value Slope SE P-valueBrahman NSW (n = 161) AT 1-d aged LLM SF, N         4.2 2.10 0.050  TS 1-d aged LLM cook, % 0.84 0.396 0.036          WA (n = 137) TS 7-d aged LLM SF, N 4.3 2.11 0.044   4.2 1.86 0.027  AT 1-d aged STN comp, N 1.4 0.70 0.043            AT 1-d aged LLM cook, %         0.65 0.292 0.028    AT 7-d aged LLM cook, % 0.65 0.284 0.023            TS 7-d aged LLM cook, %         0.70 0.286 0.016    AT 1-d aged LLM color L*         −0.84 0.461 0.07    AT 7-d aged LLM color L* −1.6 0.56 0.006   −1.1 0.53 0.034Angus NSW (n = 48) AT 1-d aged LLM SF, N 11.2 4.32 0.013          AT 7-d aged LLM SF, N 7.3 4.04 0.08          WA (n = 16) AT 7-d aged LLM SF, N 15.8 7.70 0.07          TS 1-d aged LLM SF, N 13.1 5.89 0.050   6.6 2.65 0.032    AT 7-d aged LLM comp, N 4.6 2.18 0.07            AT 1-d aged STN comp, N 7.1 3.06 0.045            TS 1-d aged LLM cook, %         2.4 0.92 0.027    AT 7-d aged LLM pH 0.10 0.042 0.049         1 AT = Achilles-suspended side; TS = tenderstretched side; LLM = musculus longissimus lumborum; STN = musculus semitendinosus; SF =shear force; comp = compression; cook = cooking loss; color L* = CIELAB color scale, where 0 = dark and 100 = light. Downloaded from at UNESP on July 20, 2011
  11. 11. Cattle temperament and productivity 1461Table 9. Significant effects of average crush score (CS, score 1 to 5) determined during either backgrounding orfeedlot finishing on live traits in Brahman and Angus cattle in the New South Wales experiment Background CS Feedlot CSBreed Trait Slope SE P-value Slope SE P-valueBrahman (n = 164) Beginning background BW, kg         −11.2 5.25 0.034 Mid feedlot BW, kg −13.8 6.17 0.027   −30.5 6.80 <0.001  End feedlot BW, kg −11.9 6.94 0.09   −30.0 7.83 <0.001  Background ADG, kg −0.04 0.015 0.016          Feedlot ADG, kg         −0.12 0.040 0.003  Feedlot DMI, kg of DM/d         −0.75 0.226 0.001Angus (n = 49) Feed intake per session, kg of DM −0.74 0.302 0.020   −0.98 0.484 0.05 Feeding sessions, No./d 3.7 1.46 0.016   4.9 2.32 0.043FS was also related to increasing SF of TS 7-d aged sions increasing with both increasing background (PLLM (P = 0.027) and to increased cooking loss in AT = 0.016) and feedlot (P = 0.043) CS. Intake per ses-1-d aged LLM (P = 0.028) and TS 7-d aged LLM (P = sion decreased (P = 0.020) with increasing background0.016). Increasing feedlot FS was also related to darker CS and tended to decrease (P = 0.05) with increasingmeat color in AT 7-d aged LLM (P = 0.034) and tend- feedlot CS.ed to be related to darker meat color in AT 1-d aged Carcass Characteristics. Effects of averageLLM (P = 0.07). backgrounding and feedlot CS on carcass traits in the In the NSW Angus cattle, increasing background FS NSW experiment are presented in Table 10. In Brah-was associated with increased SF in AT 1-d aged LLM man cattle, increasing feedlot CS was associated with a(P = 0.013) and a tendency toward increased SF in AT reduction in carcass weight (P < 0.001), and increasing7-d aged LLM (P = 0.08). No significant relationships background and feedlot CS were associated with a re-were observed between feedlot FS and objective meat duction in rib fat (P = 0.012 and 0.017). No significantquality traits. In WA Angus cattle, increasing FS tend- effects of CS were observed on carcass traits in theed to be associated with increased SF in AT 7-d aged Angus cattle.LLM (P = 0.07), increased SF in TS 1-d aged LLM Objective Meat Quality. Effects of average back-(P = 0.05), and increased compression in AT 7-d aged grounding and feedlot CS on objective meat qualityLLM (P = 0.07). It was also related to increased com- traits in the NSW experiment are presented in Tablepression in AT 1-d aged STN (P = 0.045) and increased 10. In Brahman cattle, as background CS increased,pH in the laboratory sample of the AT 7-d aged LLM so did SF in TS 7-d aged LLM (P = 0.048) and com-(P = 0.049). Increasing feedlot FS was also associated pression in AT 1-d aged LLM (P = 0.019). As feedlotwith increased SF (P = 0.032) and cooking loss (P = CS increased, SF in AT 1-d aged LLM increased (P =0.027) in TS 1-d aged LLM. 0.024) and tendencies were observed for increased SF with increasing feedlot CS in AT and TS 7-d aged LLMCS and Productivity Traits (P = 0.08 and 0.09). Cooking loss in AT 1-d aged LLM also increased (P = 0.001) with increasing feedlot CS in Growth, Intake, and Efficiency. Effects of the Brahman cattle.average backgrounding and feedlot CS on production In Angus cattle, greater background CS was associ-and feed efficiency traits in the NSW experiment are ated with increased compression in AT 7-d aged LLMpresented in Table 9. In Brahman cattle, increasing (P = 0.04) and with a tendency toward increased SFbackground CS was associated with reduced mid feed- and compression in AT 1-d aged LLM (P = 0.05 and Plot BW (P = 0.027), reduced background ADG (P = = 0.06). Increasing feedlot CS led to increased SF (P0.016), and a tendency toward reduced BW (P = 0.09) = 0.047) and compression (P = 0.045) in AT 1-d agedat the end of the feedlot period. The relationship be- LLM and to a tendency toward increased SF in AT 7-dtween background CS and feedlot ADG and DMI was aged LLM (P = 0.09).quadratic, with most of the decline in carcass ADGand intake occurring in cattle with a background CS DISCUSSION>3 (P = 0.006 and 0.031, respectively). Increased feed-lot CS was related to reduced BW at the beginning of This study shows that the temperament of cattle, asbackgrounding (P = 0.034), mid feedlot (P < 0.001), assessed by FS and CS, was persistent over time, andand at the end of the feedlot period (P < 0.001), and that cattle with faster FS or greater CS (flightier tem-to reduced feedlot ADG (P = 0.003) and DMI (P = peraments) had inferior performance across a compre-0.001). hensive range of beef production traits. Flight speed (or In Angus cattle, increasing CS was related only to its inverse, flight time) and CS are simple to conductfeeding behavior, with the number of daily feeding ses- on farm, and their use is encouraged by various Aus- Downloaded from at UNESP on July 20, 2011
  12. 12. 1462 Cafe et al.Table 10. Significant effects of average crush score (CS, score 1 to 5) during either backgrounding or feedlot finish-ing on carcass and meat quality traits in Brahman and Angus cattle in the New South Wales experiment Background CS Feedlot CSBreed Trait1 Slope SE P-value Slope SE P-valueBrahman (n = 161) Carcass wt, kg         −16.6 4.50 <0.001 Rib fat, mm −0.77 0.302 0.012   −0.90 0.370 0.017  AT 1-d aged LLM SF, N         7.6 3.34 0.024  AT 7-d aged LLM SF, N         5.5 3.10 0.08  TS 7-d aged LLM SF, N 1.5 0.74 0.048   1.6 0.97 0.09  AT 1-d aged LLM comp, N 0.8 0.35 0.019          AT 1-d aged LLM cook, %         0.98 0.293 0.001Angus (n = 48) AT 1-d aged LLM SF, N 9.4 4.64 0.05   16.0 7.78 0.047 AT 7-d aged LLM SF, N         12.1 6.98 0.09  AT 1-d aged LLM comp, N 1.4 0.72 0.06   2.4 1.16 0.045  AT 7-d aged LLM comp, N 1.1 0.53 0.04         1 AT = Achilles-suspended side; TS = tenderstretched side; LLM = musculus longissimus lumborum; SF = shear force; comp = compression,cook = cooking loss.tralian beef cattle breed societies [for example, Limou- handling events, the cattle showed calmer behavioralsin (CS and pen score), Angus (CS and flight time), responses, presumably as they habituated to handling.and Brahman (flight time); This is consistent with results for repeated tempera-au] to allow selection for a calmer temperament or do- ment assessments reported by other authors (Burrowcility. Despite this, still relatively few published stud- and Dillon, 1997; Curley et al., 2006; Kilgour et al.,ies have described relationships between temperament 2006; Petherick et al., 2009a). The day of measurementand commercially important traits, and the biological effect, significant for both FS and CS, can be attrib-mechanisms that underpin these associations are not uted, at least in part, to the fact that on some days,well understood (Ferguson et al., 2006). the data collection procedures involved closer and more Regular FS and CS measurements were taken prolonged handling.throughout the NSW experiment to study the consis- Correlations between repeated measures for FS andtency of the measures over time with changes in loca- CS in Brahman cattle were usually significant and weretion and during various husbandry and sample collec- greater than for Angus cattle. The variation was alsotion procedures. Management was more intensive than consistently greater for both FS and CS at each as-for commercial herds because of the data and sample sessment in the Brahman than in the Angus cattle,collection required for other aspects of the experiment, indicating that the Brahman cattle had greater indi-but all handling of the animals was conducted as calm- vidual variation in temperament than the Angus cattlely as possible. in the present study. This finding would account for the poorer correlations in Angus cattle among individ-Temperament over Time ual measures of FS and CS, and between averages for FS and CS. For both breeds, the strength of correla- The decreased average feedlot vs. backgrounding CS tions declined over time, indicating small, consistentin NSW, and slower feedlot vs. backgrounding FS in changes over time. Because the behavioral response isWA indicate that the general response of the cattle to a combination of genetic and environmental influenceshandling declined over the duration of the experiment. (Boissy et al., 2005), small changes over time would beIn contrast, FS in NSW was faster at the feedlot than expected. In this regard, it was also notable that theduring backgrounding, where FS was measured after largest decline in the strength of correlations occurredthe cattle had turned 90° after exiting the chute. The with the change in location between backgrounding anddifferences in the way in which backgrounding FS was feedlot finishing. It is also important to note that themeasured resulted in slower speeds, but nonetheless use of average values for FS and CS resulted in greaterprovided a meaningful measure of FS. correlations, indicating that average measures provided Much of the decline in the mean and variation within a more reliable assessment of cattle temperament thanFS was seen after the first 3 measurements, suggest- did any single measure, as suggested by Grandin (1993)ing that the variation between animals stabilized after and Burrow and Dillon (1997).some initial familiarization with handling and the fa-cilities. The mean and variation for CS were also great- Relationships Between Temperamenter during initial measurements, after which both were and Other Traitsagain very consistent for both breeds. Hence, the pat-tern of change in mean and variation for both FS and Relationships between temperament and other pro-CS indicated that after a small number of consistent duction traits were assessed using average FS and CS Downloaded from at UNESP on July 20, 2011
  13. 13. Cattle temperament and productivity 1463during backgrounding or finishing. Where effects of of time spent eating. A similar but slightly smaller ef-temperament were significant, cattle with greater FS or fect was obtained using feedlot FS as the measure ofCS grew more slowly, produced smaller carcasses with temperament. Increasing CS was also associated with aless fat cover, and had darker meat that was greater reduced feed intake (of 750 g of DM/d with each unitin SF and compression. It is important to note that increase in feedlot CS) in the NSW Brahman cattle.all significant effects of a more reactive temperament These effects were not accounted for entirely by the(increasing FS or CS) on economically significant traits BW differences at the beginning of the feedlot period,were detrimental. and they remained or tended to remain evident when Faster FS was associated with reduced BW and feedlot entry BW was fitted as a covariate. However,growth rates throughout the experiment in the Brah- there was no evidence of FS or CS being related to dif-man cattle in NSW and WA. Estimates of the reduc- ferences in FCR or NFI in the Brahman cattle. Togeth-tion in feedlot exit BW were 20.0 and 20.9 kg with each er, this suggests that temperament plays a significant1 m/s increase in background FS in the NSW and WA role in controlling feed intake and time spent eating,Brahman cattle, respectively. Increasing CS had similar but that it has lesser effects on efficiency of utilizationeffects in the NSW Brahmans, with a 1-score increase in of feed; hence, poor temperament reduces DMI andbackground CS leading to an 11.9-kg decrease in feedlot ADG through behavioral rather than metabolic mecha-exit BW. Carcass weights were reduced with increasing nisms. This conclusion is in agreement with recent workFS in the Brahmans, by 9.9 kg in NSW and 9.7 kg in by Nkrumah et al. (2007) and Elzo et al. (2009), whoWA for each 1 m/s increase in FS. The NSW Brahmans found that young cattle of mixed breeds with fasteralso had a 16.6-kg reduction in carcass weight per unit feedlot FS had less feedlot DMI but showed no differ-increase in feedlot CS. There was also some indication ence in FCR or NFI.of reduced carcass fatness and LLM area with increas- In the NSW herd, temperament had less effect oning FS, and of reduced carcass fatness with increasing feed intake in Angus than in Brahman cattle. However,CS, in the NSW Brahmans. The inclusion of carcass in the Angus cattle, each meter per second increase inweight as a covariate in the statistical models showed feedlot FS was associated with a 17.6 min/d reductionthat these differences in composition were mostly ex- in feeding time and a tendency toward reduced FCR byplained by the differences in carcass weight. In the An- 1.5 kg of DM/kg of BW gain. This reduction in FCR isgus cattle, increasing FS also tended to reduce BW and the only result relating to poorer temperament withingrowth rate, but the relationships were much weaker the present study that might be considered beneficial.than in Brahmans. In line with the weak trends toward Although caution is required, because of the P-valuelighter BW with increasing FS in the Angus cattle, ten- of 0.07, it is possible that among the Angus cattle, adencies for reductions in BW-related carcass traits were slightly decreased intake with increasing FS allowed forobserved. However, no significant relationships were ob- more efficient digestion (Herd et al., 2004).served between CS and BW-related traits in the Angus The determinants of eating quality of the meat arecattle in the NSW herd. complex and multifactorial, and pre- and postmortem Previously reported results for relationships between events can have major effects on beef tenderness (Mal-cattle temperament and growth have been variable. tin et al., 2003; Ferguson and Warner, 2008). CattleSlower growth rates have been reported in cattle with temperament is assumed to be related to stress respon-faster FS, greater CS, or both in studies conducted un- siveness, and it is likely that the stress response to han-der more intensive management systems (Burrow and dling and transport is greater in temperamental cattle,Dillon, 1997; Voisinet et al., 1997b; Müller and von resulting in depletion of muscle glycogen before slaugh-Keyserlingk, 2006; Behrends et al., 2009). Others have ter and hence reduced meat quality because of greaterfound little relationship between temperament and carcass pH and the associated darker color (Ferguson etgrowth rates in herds in which the ranges in FS and CS al., 2006). In the present study, increasing FS or CS waswere small and cattle were generally docile (Graham et related to darker LLM meat color and increased muscleal., 2001; Elzo et al., 2009). Our results are consistent pH, shear force, compression, and cooking loss, effectswith the above studies in that the Angus cattle were all considered detrimental to the eating quality of beefgenerally more docile than the Brahmans, and greater (Perry et al., 2001b).effects of temperament on growth were observed in the The relationships between temperament and meatBrahmans. quality were strongest for the WA cattle. Differences It has previously been postulated that cattle with between experimental sites could, at least in part, bea more reactive temperament may grow more slowly due to processing differences resulting in differences inbecause of the greater energy expenditure associated postmortem pH or temperature declines, as discussedwith, for example, more vigilant behavior, resulting in by Cafe et al. (2010b). Greater effects of temperamentpoorer FCR or net feed intake (NFI; Burrow and Dil- on meat quality traits were evident in both breeds inlon, 1997; Petherick et al., 2002). In the NSW Brah- WA, where the carcasses had much faster pH declinesmans, each meter per second increase in background FS and slower cooling rates than in NSW. Relationshipswas associated with a reduction in feed intake of 370 g between temperament and shear force tended to beof DM/d, and a reduction of 4.7 min/d in the amount less significant with 7-d aging. This may indicate that Downloaded from at UNESP on July 20, 2011
  14. 14. 1464 Cafe et al.temperament was related to variation in tenderness be- LITERATURE CITEDcause of factors other than proteolysis. An unexpectedresult was that the Angus cattle, with smaller numbers AUS-MEAT. 2007. AUS-MEAT National Accreditation Standards.of animals and less variation in temperament, showed 2007 Edition. AUS-MEAT Ltd., Brisbane, Queensland, Aus-stronger effects of temperament on SF than did the tralia. Barendse, W. J. 2002. DNA markers for meat tenderness. The Com-Brahman cattle in both herds. monwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, Overall, most relationships with temperament were The State of Queensland through its Department of Primarylinear, indicating that selection of cattle with calmer Industries, The University of New England, The State of Newtemperaments, and not only culling of cattle with the South Wales through its Department of Agriculture, and Meatmost reactive temperaments, can improve productivity and Livestock Australia Limited, assignees. Int. Patent No. W0 02/064820.and the safety and welfare of cattle and can improve Barendse, W., B. E. Harrison, R. J. Bunch, and M. B. for human handlers. Other studies have shown 2008. Variation at the calpain 3 gene is associated with meatboth linear (Burrow and Dillon, 1997) and quadratic tenderness in zebu and composite breeds of cattle. BMC Gen-(Müller and von Keyserlingk, 2006) relationships be- et. 9:41.tween temperament and productivity traits. However, Behrends, S. M., R. K. Miller, F. M. Rouquette Jr., R. D. Randel, B. G. Warrington, T. D. A. Forbes, T. H. Welsh, H. Lippke, J.differences in results between studies may simply de- M. Behrends, G. E. Carstens, and J. W. Holloway. 2009. Re-pend on the extent to which extremes of temperament lationship of temperament, growth, carcass characteristics andexist within the herd, with the presence of extremely tenderness in beef steers. Meat Sci. 81:433–438.reactive animals likely to result in nonlinear relation- Bindon, B. M. 2001. Genesis of the Cooperative Research Centre forships. the Cattle and Beef Industry: Integration of resources for beef quality research (1998–2000). Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 41:843– Flight speed and CS were consistent measures of 853.temperament during the experiment, even with varying Boissy, A., A. D. Fisher, J. Bouix, G. N. Hinch, and P. Le at the time of measurement. The earlier 2005. Genetics of fear in ruminant livestock. Livest. Prod. Sci.(backgrounding) assessments had stronger and more 93:23–32.frequent relationships with productivity and carcass Burrow, H. M. 1997. Measurements of temperament and their rela- tionships with performance traits of beef cattle. Anim. Breed.traits, but both the backgrounding and the finishing Abstr. 65:477–495.assessments showed significant relationships with meat Burrow, H. M., and R. D. Dillon. 1997. Relationships between tem-quality. Other authors have reported weak to no re- perament and growth in a feedlot and commercial carcass traitslationships between temperament measurements taken of Bos indicus crossbreds. Aust. J. Exp. Agric. 37:407–411.later in life and growth and meat quality (Behrends et Burrow, H. M., G. W. Seifert, and N. J. Corbet. 1988. A new tech- nique for measuring temperament in cattle. Proc. Aust., 2009). In the present study, the uniform measure- Anim. Prod. 17:154–157.ment procedures and frequent handling of the cattle Cafe, L. M., B. L. McIntyre, D. L. Robinson, G. H. Geesink, W.throughout the experiment for intensive data and sam- Barendse, and P. L. Greenwood. 2010a. Production and pro-ple collection, and the young age of the cattle, may cessing studies on calpain-system gene markers for tendernesshave allowed variation in temperament to continue to in Brahman cattle: 1. Growth, efficiency, temperament and car- cass characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 88:3047– detected at a later stage of production. Cafe, L. M., B. M. McIntyre, D. L. Robinson, G. H. Geesink, W. Barendse, D. W. Pethick, J. M. Thompson, and P. L. Green-Conclusions wood. 2010b. Production and processing studies on calpain-sys- tem gene markers for tenderness in Brahman cattle 2. Objective In this study, cattle with a calmer temperament, as meat quality. J. Anim. Sci. 88:3059–3069. Curley, K. O., Jr., J. C. Paschal, T. H. Welsh Jr., and R. D. Randel.measured by reduced FS and CS, had superior perfor- 2006. Technical note: Exit velocity as a measure of cattle tem-mance across a comprehensive range of beef produc- perament is repeatable and associated with serum concentra-tion traits. Repeated assessments of temperament using tion of cortisol in Brahman bulls. J. Anim. Sci. 84:3100–3103.FS and CS were correlated, with the strength of the Elzo, M. A., D. G. Riley, G. R. Hansen, D. D. Johnson, R. O. Myer,correlations declining over time. Correlations between S. W. Coleman, C. C. Chase, J. G. Wasdin, and J. D. Driver. 2009. Effect of breed composition on phenotypic residual feedrepeated measurements of FS were greater than be- intake and growth in Angus, Brahman, and Angus × Brahmantween repeated assessments of CS. A stronger relation- crossbred cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 87:3877–3886.ship was observed between temperament and growth Ferguson, D. M., D. Johnston, H. M. Burrow, and A. Reverter. 2006.and carcass traits in Brahman than in Angus cattle, Relationships between temperament, feedlot performance andwhich, in our experiment, were more docile than the beef quality. Australian Beef—The Leader! The impact of sci- ence on the beef industry. Cooperative Research Centre for BeefBrahmans. Similar strengths of relationships with meat Genetic Technologies, Armidale, New South Wales, Australia.quality were evident in both breeds. In general, cattle Ferguson, D. M., and R. D. Warner. 2008. Have we underestimatedwith poorer temperaments, as assessed by FS or CS, the impact of pre-slaughter stress on meat quality in rumi-had consistently less feed intake and slower growth nants? Meat Sci. 80:12–19.rates, which resulted in smaller carcasses with less fat Gardner, G. E., B. L. McIntyre, G. D. Tudor, and D. W. Pethick. 2001. The impact of nutrition on bovine muscle glycogen me-cover and poorer objective meat quality characteristics. tabolism following exercise. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 52:461–470.No relationship was observed between temperament Graham, J. F., A. J. Clark, K. Thomson, and G. Kearney. 2001. Theand tenderness gene marker status, and temperament relationship between temperament score and flight speed, andwas not modified by HGP implants. pre and post weaning growth of Angus, Hereford, Limousin and Downloaded from at UNESP on July 20, 2011
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