MODULE I
INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION

1
SYLLABUS
 Meaning & Definition, Role, Classification ,
Purpose of communication
Communication Process, Characteristics o...
INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION

3
MEANING
 Communication stands for natural activity of all
human beings to convey opinion, feelings,
information and ideas...
Interpersonal
communication

Mass
communication

Meta
communication

Intrapersonal
communication
Classification
of
communi...
CLASSIFICATION OF COMMUNICATION
 Intrapersonal communication : in which individual
tries to create an understanding to on...
Mass communication : occurs when message is
sent through large groups of people. In mass
communication exchange of inform...
 Non verbal communication : it includes using
of pictures, signs, gestures and facial expression
for exchanging informati...
NATURE OF COMMUNICATION
 It is process : communication is process in which
there are some identifiable interrelated event...
 Communication is systematic : component of
communication is affected by the other. The
one who sends the message, the me...
 Communication social process : human being cannot
live isolated life. Communication is process which helps
individual to...
ROLE OF COMMUNICATION
Inter
personal

Informat
ional
role

Role of
communication

Decision
al role

INTRODUCTION TO COMMUN...
ROLE OF COMMUNICATION
 Interpersonal role : it is important for organization to
maintain proper relationship within and o...
 Decisional role : decision making is based on
receiving and interpreting all relevant and
necessary information. Manager...







PURPOSE OF COMMUNICATION
To inform : is primary objective of communication. Information
or data is transferred ...
 To motivate : high level of morale and motivation are
necessary for effective productivity at workplace. Employees
are m...
FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION
Problem
solving

Decision
making
Facilitate
change

Influence

Group
building

Feedback

Inform...
FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION
 Information sharing : the main purpose of
communication is to transmit information to
individ...
 Problem solving : communication helps in solving
various
companies
related
issues
between
management and trade union in ...
 Group building : communication helps in
building better relation in organization by
timely transmission of information a...
COMMUNICATION PROCESS
ONE WAY COMMUNICATION PROCESS

Sender

Encoding

Message

INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION

Channel

Re...
ONE WAY COMMUNICATION PROCESS
 Sender according to his ideas , behaviour pattern
and intentions, selects message to commu...
DEMERITS/ DISADVANTAGES/ PROBLEMS IN ONE
WAY COMMUNICATION
 Receiver may not understand actual meaning
of message.
Actio...
TWO WAY COMMUNICATION PROCESS
Sources creates
messages
Feedb
ack

Selects channel

Sends message

Noise

Interprets
messag...
TWO WAY COMMUNICATION PROCESS
 Information source : communication process
begins with source of information. Sender has
s...
 Decoding : the receiver gets the message through
decoding, by receiving, understanding and interpreting
the message. Dec...
TWO WAY COMMUNICATION
Ideation

Implementation of SAP in company

Encoder

Editor writes policy responsible for
implementa...
SHANNON – WEAVER MODEL
Noise

Informati
on source

Encoding
process

Decoding
process

Destinatio
n

Feedback

INTRODUCTIO...
ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION
 Message : refers to information or data which is to be
sent by one person to another to create...
 Channel : it is medium through which the sender
conveys message to receiver. The medium of
communication can be written,...
 Acting : receiver after getting information in
form of message interprets the same and acts
according to hi understandin...
Candid
ness
Correct
ness

Courtes
y

Clarity
Seven Cs
of
commun
ication

Concret
eness

Comple
teness

Concise
ness

INTRO...
CHARACTERISTICS OF SUCCESSFUL COMMUNICATION
( SEVEN CS OF COMMUNICATION )
 Candidness : refers to speaker or person shoul...
 Completeness : clarity is also ensured by
completeness. In conversation is the speaker
misses few important words or top...
 Concreteness : refers to being specific, definite
while communicating information may be
through oral or written communi...
 Courtesy : refers to using humble words while
having conversation or addressing people, avoid
usage of harsh words. It a...
IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION IN
MANAGEMENT
 Forecasting and planning : and planning requires
appropriate and collection of...
 Instructing : function of instruction depends upon
interpersonal exchange of information regarding,
products, process an...
 Sense of unity of purpose and commitment to a
single organizational goal can be developed only
through the inspiring and...
COMMUNICATION STRUCTURE
BOD

Managing
director
Senior management
Middle level management
Senior supervisors
First line sup...
COMMUNICATION STRUCTURE IN ORGANIZATION
 Effectiveness of communication system depends
upon the extent to which necessary...
 Vertical communication : this is communication that flows in
upward and downward directions. It usually moves along the
...
 Lateral communication takes between people on the same
level of hierarchy. This channel promotes horizontal flow of
mess...
 External communication : Communication
that takes place between a manager and
external groups such as - suppliers, vendo...
INFORMAL OR GRAPEVINE COMMUNICATION
 Informal communication is also known as grapevine
communication, it is not a planned...
MERITS/ ADVANTAGES/ BENEFITS OF INFORMAL
COMMUNICATION
 Uniting force : grapevine communication develops
comfort level am...
 Good personal relation : as informal communication
gives scope to employees to have interaction without
any boundaries, ...
DEMERITS/ DISADVANTAGES / OF INFORMAL
COMMUNICATION
 Rumours : negative information transmitted through
informal channel ...
Incomplete
information
:
grapevine
information is usually incomplete. So there are
chances of messages being distorted in...
COMMUNICATION AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION
 Conflict may be understood as collision or
disagreement. The conflict may be withi...
LEVELS OF CONFLICT

Intra individual conflict
Inter individual conflict
Intra group conflict
Inter group conflict

INTRODU...
LEVELS OF CONFLICT
 Intra individual conflict : refers to conflict
within an individual. Intra individual conflict
arises...
 Intra group conflict : refers to disputes among
some or all group members, which affect the
group performance.
 Intergr...
CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLES
Accommodation
c
o
o
p
e
r
a
t
i
v
e
n
e
s
s

Collaboration

Compromise

Competition

Avoidance
...
 Accommodation is a style where one party believes in
facilitating the benefit to other party during the process of
negot...
COMMUNICATION IN CONFLICT RESOLUTION

INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION

56
Eyes
Face

Communication
Words

( the way we interact with
fellow humans )

voice

body

INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION

57
COMMUNICATION INVOLVES
• 7% VERBAL – What you said
• 38% VOCAL – How you said it
• 55% VISUAL – Body language/non verbal

...
S

STOP

T

THINK

A

ANALYZE

R

RESPOND

INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION

59
1. Set the tone: After you decide that there is a conflict that must be
resolved, and you agree on a time and place to dis...
4. Summarize your progress Summarize the discussion and
the understanding of the problem. Be sure everyone
involved has he...
6.Agree on a solution Choose a solution that is
acceptable to both parties. It should be specific, stating
exactly what ea...
ADVANTAGES OF COMMUNICATION IN CONFLICT
RESOLUTION
 Stronger relationship : communication helps in creating
better unders...
 Communication ensures effective utilization
of resources, as it provides clarity in terms of
roles and responsibility to...
Means of coordination : communication is
foundation of all group activity. Organization
operation are divided into differ...
COMMUNICATION IN CRISIS
A crisis is any event that is, or expected to
lead to, an unstable and dangerous situation
affect...
COMMON FEATURES OF A CRISIS
 The situation materialises unexpectedly
 Decisions are required urgently
 Time is short
 ...
CRISIS MANAGEMENT PRACTICES THROUGH
COMMUNICATION
 Comprehensive Framework
 Risk assessment & priority model
 Crisis st...
OBJECTIVES OF CRISIS MANAGEMENT
COMMUNICATION
 Maintain connectivity
 Be readily accessible to the news media
 Show emp...
RESPONDING TO CRISIS
 The special communication plan should be put to use
immediately at the onset of the crisis.
 The i...
COMMUNICATION IN CROSS CULTURAL SETTING
Culture provides patterns of acceptable behavior
& beliefs based on Nationality, ...
CULTURAL VALUES
Value

High

Low

Individualism : culture in which Canada
people see themselves first as Australia
individ...
Uncertainty avoidance :cultures in which Israel
people want predictable and certain Japan
futures
Italy
Argentina

Canada
...
BARRIERS TO CROSS CULTURAL
COMMUNICATION
 Cultural barriers : is one of the major hurdle
in cross cultural communication,...
 Semantic errors : refers to difference between
what the sender intends to communicate and
actual transmitted message. It...
STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE CROSS CULTURAL
COMMUNICATION
 Maintain formality : basically refers to using formal verbal
and b...
REFERENCE BOOKS
 M K Seghal and Vandana Khetatarpal (
Business communication )
 PD Chaturvedi and Mukesh Chaturvedi (
Bu...
INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION

78
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  1. 1. MODULE I INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 1
  2. 2. SYLLABUS  Meaning & Definition, Role, Classification , Purpose of communication Communication Process, Characteristics of successful communication Importance of communication in management, Communication structure in organization Communication In conflict resolution, Communication in crisis. Communication and negotiation. Communication in a cross-cultural setting INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 3
  4. 4. MEANING  Communication stands for natural activity of all human beings to convey opinion, feelings, information and ideas to others through words, body language or sign tec. Communication can be defined as purposive interchange, resulting in workable understanding and agreement between the sender and receiver of message. Communication is inter change of thoughts , opinion or information by speech, writing or signs. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 4
  5. 5. Interpersonal communication Mass communication Meta communication Intrapersonal communication Classification of communicati on Verbal communication Group communication Mass communication INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 5
  6. 6. CLASSIFICATION OF COMMUNICATION  Intrapersonal communication : in which individual tries to create an understanding to oneself this process is also know as decoding.  Interpersonal communication : Interpersonal communication is the process of sending and receiving information between two or more people. E.g. Public speaking, small-group communication  Group communication : refers to interaction or sharing of information between small or large groups, like an organization, club, or class room, in which all the individuals retain their individual identity. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 6
  7. 7. Mass communication : occurs when message is sent through large groups of people. In mass communication exchange of information does not happen on individual basis, target information is shared with people in mass. E.g. News paper, radio etc. Verbal communication : refers to communicating through words through written or spoken language. Verbal communication consist of speaking, listening, writing, reading, and thinking. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 7
  8. 8.  Non verbal communication : it includes using of pictures, signs, gestures and facial expression for exchanging information between persons. It is done through sign language, action language or object language. Meta communication : in this speakers choice of words communicates something more than what the actual words state. E.g your presentation was outstanding today. Which may also mean prior presentation of individual were not up to the mark. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 8
  9. 9. NATURE OF COMMUNICATION  It is process : communication is process in which there are some identifiable interrelated events which are initiated by sender to create understanding in mind of receiver.  It is inevitable : individual is social being who is required to interact with people around to create understanding in minds of other, so it is part and partial of persons life.  Meaning based : communication is meaning based as , we must be able to link words together so as to create meaningful sentences and languages. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 9
  10. 10.  Communication is systematic : component of communication is affected by the other. The one who sends the message, the message as well as receiver are interrelated to each other and transmission of data takes place through proper medium. A two way traffic : communication involves two parties the sender who transmits the data and person intended to receive the same. Communication is incomplete process until message creates understanding in mind of receiver. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 10
  11. 11.  Communication social process : human being cannot live isolated life. Communication is process which helps individual to interact and socialize making it social process.  A dynamic process : communication is dynamic in nature as it adopts itself to changing and demanding conditions at workplace. Change in communication channel at workplace from letters to E-mail.  Continuous process : communication is continuous process. It is on going process, in which one interaction is followed by other.  Contextual : communication happens with reference to context. Same words would mean different things if they are said in different context. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 11
  12. 12. ROLE OF COMMUNICATION Inter personal Informat ional role Role of communication Decision al role INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 12
  13. 13. ROLE OF COMMUNICATION  Interpersonal role : it is important for organization to maintain proper relationship within and outside the organization to ensure smooth working of organization. Which can be achieved only through accurate and timely transmission of information through communication.  Informational role : internal information system is important tool through which effective operation can be ensured in organization such as maintenance of stock control, personnel, financial, quality control networks etc. Through effective, interactive and informational communication and strong feedback system high morale of employees can be secured at workplace. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 13
  14. 14.  Decisional role : decision making is based on receiving and interpreting all relevant and necessary information. Managers need to posses the skill of receiving relevant information which helps in effective utilization of resources and efficient management in organization. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 14
  15. 15.     PURPOSE OF COMMUNICATION To inform : is primary objective of communication. Information or data is transferred through communication inside or outside organization to ensure effective working of company. To persuade : it is important to persuade employees to work efficiently, to persuade customers to buy company product. So therefore one of important objective of communication is to persuade. To educate : to disseminate knowledge and develop skills and attitude among people working in organization is another objective of communication. To train : employees in organization have to be trained to achieve effectiveness in area of work. Instruction, demonstration, practice and discussion are important part of training which require communication for the same. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 15
  16. 16.  To motivate : high level of morale and motivation are necessary for effective productivity at workplace. Employees are motivated in company through process of communication in form of reward. E.g. Letter of appreciation.  To integrate : large business organizations have different business units, departments, and divisions which have varied goals and objectives. Communication provides the means for integrated approach in pursuing organizational goals.  To relate : good business relation is one of the core dimension for success of any business. Communication provides means for building and nurturing mutually beneficial relationship.  To entertain : communication facilitates social bonding through means of various channels of communication. E.g mass media. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 16
  17. 17. FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION Problem solving Decision making Facilitate change Influence Group building Feedback Information sharing Functions of communication INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION Gate keeping 17
  18. 18. FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION  Information sharing : the main purpose of communication is to transmit information to individuals and groups in organization. The information may be in form of policies, rule, changes to be implemented in organization.  Feedback : employees are to be provided feedback on their performance, required improvement to be implemented which is done through the means of communication in companies.  Influence : information is source of power to direct people, thus managers communicate goals to be achieved and strategies through which effective accomplishment of objectives can take place through communication. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 18
  19. 19.  Problem solving : communication helps in solving various companies related issues between management and trade union in relation to hike in salary through negotiation which is possible only through communication.  Assist in decision making : most important role of manager is to take appropriate decision which requires accurate information and suggestion from people working in organization which takes place through effective communication.  Facilitating change : implementing change in organization requires clarity as to why change is being implemented and its benefit to management and organization which is possible through communication. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 19
  20. 20.  Group building : communication helps in building better relation in organization by timely transmission of information at workplace avoiding problem of misunderstanding in company.  Gate keeping : communication helps to build linkages of organization with the outside world. The organization can use its environment to increase its effectiveness. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 20
  21. 21. COMMUNICATION PROCESS ONE WAY COMMUNICATION PROCESS Sender Encoding Message INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION Channel Receiver decodes message 21
  22. 22. ONE WAY COMMUNICATION PROCESS  Sender according to his ideas , behaviour pattern and intentions, selects message to communicate it to receiver.  Sender encodes the message in form ( report, letter, codes, sings, symbols etc )  After encoding the message, sender transmits it to the receiver through medium ( verbal or non verbal ) channel ( Email, telephone conversation, letters etc )  Receiver receives the message, he decodes the message and gives internal response which may or may be as per expectation of sender of message. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 22
  23. 23. DEMERITS/ DISADVANTAGES/ PROBLEMS IN ONE WAY COMMUNICATION  Receiver may not understand actual meaning of message. Action of receiver may not be as per expectation of sender of message. It gives scope for misunderstanding. It may lead to distortion of message. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 23
  24. 24. TWO WAY COMMUNICATION PROCESS Sources creates messages Feedb ack Selects channel Sends message Noise Interprets message Filters Experience Knowledge Feelings INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION Receiver gets message 24
  25. 25. TWO WAY COMMUNICATION PROCESS  Information source : communication process begins with source of information. Sender has some set of raw data which he intends to communicate in form of message to receiver.  Encoding : once the sender of the message is clear about content of message he puts message in form of words ( verbal symbols, signal, etc ) which is known as encoding.  Channel : sender has to choose medium through which message is to be transferred to receiver ( oral, written, electronic, code language ) is known as channel of communication in the process. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 25
  26. 26.  Decoding : the receiver gets the message through decoding, by receiving, understanding and interpreting the message. Decoding process depends on intelligence, experience, feelings of receiver of message.  Acting : the communication process ends with receiver putting interpreted message into action, as intended by sender.  Noise : is know as distortion or hindrance which prevents proper transmission of message from sender to receiver of message.  Filters : depend on receivers mind set. Receivers positive or negative experience, attitude, ability to understand and think logically on part of receiver. Bad experience of Mr A with Mr B in past due to personal conflict may reduce interest level or concentration on message communicated by MR B to A. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 26
  27. 27. TWO WAY COMMUNICATION Ideation Implementation of SAP in company Encoder Editor writes policy responsible for implementation of software Message Information about procedure to implement SAP work on the same Channel Mail , company website Receiver Person to whom the message is sent Feedback Employees reaction to policy communicated INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 27
  28. 28. SHANNON – WEAVER MODEL Noise Informati on source Encoding process Decoding process Destinatio n Feedback INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 28
  29. 29. ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION  Message : refers to information or data which is to be sent by one person to another to create understanding in mind of each other. Here individuals stands for two persons the sender and receiver of message.  Sender : refers to person who has data in form of information who intends to create understanding in mind of sender, encodes the message and communicates the same through channel of communication.  Encoding : data available with sender is to be transformed into message which receiver can understand and react to the same. Converting data into meaningful information through words, gestures, sing, symbol etc is known as encoding . INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 29
  30. 30.  Channel : it is medium through which the sender conveys message to receiver. The medium of communication can be written, oral, audio – visual etc. It is to be noted that channel of communication should be in accordance with nature of message and accessibility of receiver of message.  Receiver : is targeted person whom the message is sent to. Receiver after getting the message tries to create understanding about message.  Decoding : this involves where receiver depending on his knowledge, attitude , tries to interpret message . INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 30
  31. 31.  Acting : receiver after getting information in form of message interprets the same and acts according to hi understanding of message. Receiver completes the chain of communication by responding to message.  Feedback : this is step through which sender of the message gets an idea whether receiver has understood message or not. It gives scope both to the sender and receiver of message to clarify their doubts relating to message. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 31
  32. 32. Candid ness Correct ness Courtes y Clarity Seven Cs of commun ication Concret eness Comple teness Concise ness INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 32
  33. 33. CHARACTERISTICS OF SUCCESSFUL COMMUNICATION ( SEVEN CS OF COMMUNICATION )  Candidness : refers to speaker or person should be clear about what he wants to communicate. His talk should not be influenced by others opinion. Their should transparency, loyalty, sincerity in his talk. Speaker should be unbiased and should have fairness as guiding principle in their talk.  Clarity : refers to words used by the speaker should be clear and simple end un creating proper understanding in minds of receiver. In face to face conversation the speaker along with verbal should have positive facial expression towards the audience. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 33
  34. 34.  Completeness : clarity is also ensured by completeness. In conversation is the speaker misses few important words or topic it may not create any sense in mind of audience. So the communicator should have clarity of thought and be clear about content to be communicated.  Conciseness : message will be effective only when it is short and sweet. Elaborative message may make reader or listener to loose their patience due to which they may not have clarity of message which may cost sender or speaker negative response. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 34
  35. 35.  Concreteness : refers to being specific, definite while communicating information may be through oral or written communication. Information communicated to target person or audience should not be vague as it has to clearly specify the meaning and objective of communicating data.  Correctness : it refers to avoiding grammatical mistake in spoke and written language. E.g. mistake in using tense while communicating information or addressing person. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 35
  36. 36.  Courtesy : refers to using humble words while having conversation or addressing people, avoid usage of harsh words. It also requires speaker to be patience listener where he should not interrupt when audience are expressing their opinion. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 36
  37. 37. IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION IN MANAGEMENT  Forecasting and planning : and planning requires appropriate and collection of data required to predict the future challenges. To train employees to work in challenging atmosphere they are required to be trained which is done through means of communication.  Organizing : as a management function, determines the formal and informal relationship within and outside the organization. These relationship are developed and maintained through interpersonal communication. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 37
  38. 38.  Instructing : function of instruction depends upon interpersonal exchange of information regarding, products, process and targets for success.  Coordinating : as managers function is core aspect of all functions. Communication is means through which managers get the desired work done by the employees and direct them towards effective accomplishment of goals.  Controlling : ability of management is determined by power of information, which refers to fraction of time within which managers receives and communicates information to employees. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 38
  39. 39.  Sense of unity of purpose and commitment to a single organizational goal can be developed only through the inspiring and persuasive power of communication.  Training and development programmes can be conducted through effective communication.  In order to appraise employees, performance standards must be properly and clearly communicated.  In order to increase employee’s job performance and effectiveness by updating their knowledge.  To promote employees sense of belonging and commitment. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 39
  40. 40. COMMUNICATION STRUCTURE BOD Managing director Senior management Middle level management Senior supervisors First line supervisors Employees/ shop floor employees INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 40
  41. 41. COMMUNICATION STRUCTURE IN ORGANIZATION  Effectiveness of communication system depends upon the extent to which necessary information reaches concerned person at right time.  Network of information supports overall functioning of management by integrating and coordinating the workforce for achieving organizational objectives.  Organization creates a network for information to pass through different levels of authority and functional heads in company. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 41
  42. 42.  Vertical communication : this is communication that flows in upward and downward directions. It usually moves along the formal reporting lines in the company. a. Downward communication is process through which information flows from top management to lower level management in the company. Main purpose of this type of communication is to instruct and guide employees in their job performance. It is directive in nature and demand action by superiors. Face to face conversation, use of public address system, company news papers are channels of downward communication. Lectures, conferences, instructions are E.g. of downward communication. b. Upward communication flows from subordinate to superior in company. It reveals degree to which ideas passed downward are accepted. This communication usually takes place to communicate employees queries and employees performance in company. Reports , ideas, suggestions are E.g. for upward communication. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 42
  43. 43.  Lateral communication takes between people on the same level of hierarchy. This channel promotes horizontal flow of messages, enabling the departments to work with each other without having rigid level for flow of messages. It promotes coordination and team work at workplace. It helps in understanding and solving organizational problems at broader perspective.  Diagonal communication : takes place between people who are neither of same department nor in the same level of hierarchy. Diagonal communication facilitates speedy transmission of messages, but cuts down across organizational structure. This form of communication in company is implemented following two rules : i ) obtain permission from one direct supervisor before undertaking communication ii ) inform the direct supervisor of any significant results of cross communication. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 43
  44. 44.  External communication : Communication that takes place between a manager and external groups such as - suppliers, vendors, banks, financial institutes etc. For instance - To raise capital the Managing director would interact with the Bank Manager. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 44
  45. 45. INFORMAL OR GRAPEVINE COMMUNICATION  Informal communication is also known as grapevine communication, it is not a planned or deliberately created channel of communication. It is free from all the formalities. Formal structure of organization is not followed for transmission of message at work place. FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR INFORMAL COMMUNICATION  Critical situation in organization such as strike or lockout, which creates unstable atmosphere at workplace leading to informal communication.  When employees feel lack of security, they tend to opt for informal channel of communication to attain desired goals. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 45
  46. 46. MERITS/ ADVANTAGES/ BENEFITS OF INFORMAL COMMUNICATION  Uniting force : grapevine communication develops comfort level among employees as they do not interact with each other as per company rules and regulations which facilitates in bringing together workforce in matters in terms of common interest.  Speed : informal channels pass on the messages speedily as they do not follow the confined hierarchy of organization.  Creation of idea : informal communication through sharing of ideas and views or by spreading unofficial grapevine generates ideas and expectations that prove to be of value to organization. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 46
  47. 47.  Good personal relation : as informal communication gives scope to employees to have interaction without any boundaries, which helps in developing good employee relation at workplace with least effort of organization.  Supplement to other channels : all the information cannot be transmitted to employees through the official channels. Some useful information which cannot be conveyed through formal channel can be communicated through informal channel of communication.  Feedback : employees in organization may hesitate to express their problems to management, in such situation informal channel of communication is proved to be more effective. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 47
  48. 48. DEMERITS/ DISADVANTAGES / OF INFORMAL COMMUNICATION  Rumours : negative information transmitted through informal channel of communication can prove to be provocative and disastrous for relationship between employees and management in company.  Inadequacy : informal communication can manage only certain kind of organizational information, which relates to non functional issues and matters.  Changing interpretations : when information is communicated through informal channel it may not be generalized in nature, employees in organization may perceive it according to their wish, positive or negative in nature. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 48
  49. 49. Incomplete information : grapevine information is usually incomplete. So there are chances of messages being distorted in company. Lack of authenticity : informal communication spreads by word of mouth. It may not be supported by tangible facts. Problem in fixing responsibility : origin of information flow cannot be ascertained through informal channel of communication. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 49
  50. 50. COMMUNICATION AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION  Conflict may be understood as collision or disagreement. The conflict may be within an individual when there is incompatibility between his or her own goals and events, between two individuals when one person disagree with others opinion. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 50
  51. 51. LEVELS OF CONFLICT Intra individual conflict Inter individual conflict Intra group conflict Inter group conflict INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 51
  52. 52. LEVELS OF CONFLICT  Intra individual conflict : refers to conflict within an individual. Intra individual conflict arises from frustration, numerous roles which demand equal attention but the individual is not able to accomplish effectively.  Inter individual conflict : occurs between two individuals in organization. It arises because of difference in perception, personalities, value systems, socio cultural factors etc. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 52
  53. 53.  Intra group conflict : refers to disputes among some or all group members, which affect the group performance.  Intergroup conflict : are also known as organizational conflict, refers to conflict between the groups, departments or sections in an organization. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 53
  54. 54. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLES Accommodation c o o p e r a t i v e n e s s Collaboration Compromise Competition Avoidance Assertiveness INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 54
  55. 55.  Accommodation is a style where one party believes in facilitating the benefit to other party during the process of negotiation taking future benefit into consideration.  Collaboration : is one form of win - win approach where neither of the party tend to compromise and both of them are satisfied by negotiation process.  Compromise : in this process one party agrees to conditions of other without taking ones benefit to consideration, this situation arises when one party to negotiation is stronger than other.  Avoidance : in this situation when one party finds no advantage in negotiating with the other one of the part tries to avoid conversation process which is known as negotiation.  Competition : in this situation both parties are stronger and do not believe in compromising but focus on competing with each other to win in persisting situation. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 55
  56. 56. COMMUNICATION IN CONFLICT RESOLUTION INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 56
  57. 57. Eyes Face Communication Words ( the way we interact with fellow humans ) voice body INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 57
  58. 58. COMMUNICATION INVOLVES • 7% VERBAL – What you said • 38% VOCAL – How you said it • 55% VISUAL – Body language/non verbal INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 58
  59. 59. S STOP T THINK A ANALYZE R RESPOND INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 59
  60. 60. 1. Set the tone: After you decide that there is a conflict that must be resolved, and you agree on a time and place to discuss the problem, set the tone for the first meeting. This can be done by saying something like: "I want us to come to an agreement on this," or "I believe we can work together to resolve this problem." 2. Define and discuss the problem: Identify the issue involved (the surface issue as well as underlying issue). Get everyone to agree on what the problem is. “Can we agree to discuss the following issue…? OR “The problem we need to work on is this:…. Does everyone agree?” Allow ample time to discuss the problem. Take notes if necessary. Get a clear idea. 3. what the problem is and how both parties view it : “We have a problem getting this project started. If we don’t hurry up, we’ll miss the deadline and nothing will get done. It’s very frustrating.” INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 60
  61. 61. 4. Summarize your progress Summarize the discussion and the understanding of the problem. Be sure everyone involved has heard and perceived the same information. “Jane says that she is the only one interested in taking responsibility for the fundraiser and she wants help. Randy thinks that the fund-raiser is a bad idea.” 5. Explore alternative solutions These should be discussed thoroughly to determine the advantages and disadvantages of each and possible future consequences. “Here are some options: We could move ahead with the fund-raiser and assign duties to each person on the committee. Or we could scrap the idea and plan for one next year. Or we could get other people involved to help us to make it a success.” INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 61
  62. 62. 6.Agree on a solution Choose a solution that is acceptable to both parties. It should be specific, stating exactly what each person will do and how it will be done. The agreement should be balanced so that each person contributes something to the solution. “Jane agrees to handle the advertising and collection of money. Randy agrees to do the planning, assign duties, and help with collecting.” 7. Schedule a follow-up meeting :The follow-up meeting enables those involved to come back together and review how the solution is or is not working and to discuss any unexpected problems that may have arisen. It helps to make both parties accountable for what they agreed to do. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 62
  63. 63. ADVANTAGES OF COMMUNICATION IN CONFLICT RESOLUTION  Stronger relationship : communication helps in creating better understanding in minds of each other through timely exchange of information to avoid misunderstandings.  Problem solving : communication helps individuals to come together , express their opinion which brings into picture many alternatives thus helping in effective way to solve the problem.  Reduced tension : sharing of information helps in gathering data required which increases level of comfort and ensures effective solving of problem.  Increased understanding : communication through transfer of information by proper channel of communication helps in reducing misunderstandings by presenting clear picture of situation. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 63
  64. 64.  Communication ensures effective utilization of resources, as it provides clarity in terms of roles and responsibility to be accomplished which helps in reducing conflict among the line and staff in company.  Improves motivation and morale : communication improves morale and motivation by keeping people informed. Good communication helps people to deliver good performance at work place. Communication brings about meeting minds in company. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 64
  65. 65. Means of coordination : communication is foundation of all group activity. Organization operation are divided into different department, units who have varied goals and objective. Company’s objectives can be achieved only when efforts of all department are directed towards accomplishment of single task. Communication helps various departments to exchange information have understanding about interrelatedness of various task. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 65
  66. 66. COMMUNICATION IN CRISIS A crisis is any event that is, or expected to lead to, an unstable and dangerous situation affecting an individual, group, community or whole society. Crises are deemed to be negative changes in the security, economic, political, societal or environmental affairs, especially when they occur abruptly, with little or no warning. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 66
  67. 67. COMMON FEATURES OF A CRISIS  The situation materialises unexpectedly  Decisions are required urgently  Time is short  Specific threats are identified  Urgent demands for information are received  There is sense of loss of control  Pressures build over time  Routine business become increasingly difficult  Demands are made to identify someone to blame  Outsiders take an unaccustomed interest  Reputation suffers  Communications are increasingly difficult to manage INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 67
  68. 68. CRISIS MANAGEMENT PRACTICES THROUGH COMMUNICATION  Comprehensive Framework  Risk assessment & priority model  Crisis strategy and communication plan  Response action plans  Protocols – simple and actionable  Relationships with internal and external parties  Training and awareness  Practice INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 68
  69. 69. OBJECTIVES OF CRISIS MANAGEMENT COMMUNICATION  Maintain connectivity  Be readily accessible to the news media  Show empathy for the people involved  Allow distributed access  Streamline communication processes  Maintain information security  Ensure uninterrupted audit trails  Deliver high volume communications  Support multi-channel communications INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 69
  70. 70. RESPONDING TO CRISIS  The special communication plan should be put to use immediately at the onset of the crisis.  The information process goes into operation – informing employees, relevant authorities, concerned public and obtaining help and assistance to fight the crisis.  Media action plan would be critical factor as the media and the organization become interdependent during and after crisis. It is dangerous and sometimes suicidal to pull the wool over the eyes of media.  Determine the steps to contain any rumours which might gain momentum at the onset of the crisis. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 70
  71. 71. COMMUNICATION IN CROSS CULTURAL SETTING Culture provides patterns of acceptable behavior & beliefs based on Nationality, Race, Religion, Historical Roots. Interaction, communication, and other process which involve people or entities from two or more different cultures. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 71
  72. 72. CULTURAL VALUES Value High Low Individualism : culture in which Canada people see themselves first as Australia individuals and believe their own Great Britain interest take priority Japan Taiwan Greece Long term orientation cultures United states that maintain a long term Canada perspective Pacific Rim countries Time orientation culture that perceive time as a scarce resource and that tend to be impatient. Pacific Rim countries Eastern countries United states Power distance cultures in which France management decision are made Spain by boss simply because he or she Japan is the boss INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION United states Israel Germany 72
  73. 73. Uncertainty avoidance :cultures in which Israel people want predictable and certain Japan futures Italy Argentina Canada Australia Singapore Formality : culture that attach Latin American considerable importance to tradition, countries ceremony, social rules etc. United states Canada Materialism : culture that emphasize Japan assertiveness and the acquisitions of Austria money and material objects. Italy Scandinavian countries Context sensitivity : culture that Asian emphasize the surrounding circumstances Hispanic make extensive use of body language and African countries take time to build relationship and establish trust. Northern European countries INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 73
  74. 74. BARRIERS TO CROSS CULTURAL COMMUNICATION  Cultural barriers : is one of the major hurdle in cross cultural communication, as words, body gestures, vary from country to country which may create problem of misperception in company. Socio psychological barriers : refers to practices followed in society which differs in various countries where in countries like US and UK ladies are permitted to work in night shifts. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 74
  75. 75.  Semantic errors : refers to difference between what the sender intends to communicate and actual transmitted message. It happens as meaning of words vary according to language used in various countries.  Mistrust : misunderstanding may occur due to negative perception about people of some countries due to bad experience in past due to which they may not rely on information provided by people from specific countries.  cultural changes leads to more scope for choosing inappropriate channel of communication due to lack of understanding on cultural practices followed by receiver of message. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 75
  76. 76. STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE CROSS CULTURAL COMMUNICATION  Maintain formality : basically refers to using formal verbal and body language during process of communication.  Show respect : refers to having sense of empathy, being patient listener, welcome individuals with friendly gesture.  Communicate clearly : information should be communicated to individual in specific and data should be illustrated with examples.  Value diversity : diversity should be view as asset in organization which can bring a wide range of benefits to organization in terms of expansion of business.  Before communicating the information , it is important to understand the expectation of receiver of message. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 76
  77. 77. REFERENCE BOOKS  M K Seghal and Vandana Khetatarpal ( Business communication )  PD Chaturvedi and Mukesh Chaturvedi ( Business communication ) Lesikar and Flatley ( Basic Business communication ) INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 77
  78. 78. INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION 78

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