Chapter 8 Joints of the Skeletal System

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Chapter 8 Joints of the Skeletal System

  1. 1. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 8 Lecture PowerPoint
  2. 2. 2401 Anatomy and Physiology I Chapter 8 Susan Gossett [email_address] Department of Biology Paris Junior College
  3. 3. Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Twelfth Edition Shier  Butler  Lewis Chapter 8 Joints of the Skeletal System Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  4. 4. 8.1: Introduction <ul><li>Are known as articulations </li></ul><ul><li>Functional junctions between bones </li></ul><ul><li>Bind parts of skeletal system together </li></ul><ul><li>Make bone growth possible </li></ul><ul><li>Permit parts of the skeleton to change shape during childbirth </li></ul><ul><li>Enable body to move in response to skeletal muscle contraction </li></ul><ul><li>Three (3) classifications of joints will be considered </li></ul>
  5. 5. 8.2: Classification of Joints <ul><li>Structural classification: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Fibrous joints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dense connective tissues connect bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between bones in close contact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(2) Cartilaginous joints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage connect bones </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(3) Synovial joints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow free movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functional classification: </li></ul><ul><li>Synarthrotic joints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered immovable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amphiarthrotic joints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slightly movable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diarthrotic joints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freely movable </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Fibrous Joints <ul><li>There are three (3) types of fibrous joints (synarthroses): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Syndesmosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gomphosis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Syndesmosis : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A sheet or bundle of fibrous tissue connecting bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lies between tibia and fibula (interosseous membrane) </li></ul></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Fibula Interosseus membrane of leg Tibia Medial malleolus Anterior tibiofibular ligament (interosseus ligament) Lateral malleolus
  7. 7. Fibrous Joints <ul><li>Suture: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between flat bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teeth-like projections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin layer of connective tissue connects bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skull </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gomphosis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cone-shaped bony process in a socket </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tooth in jawbone </li></ul></ul>Margin of suture Parietal bone Suture Sutural bones Occipital bone (a) (b) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Courtesy of John W. Hole, Jr. Periodontal ligament Alveolar process of mandible Root of tooth Crown of tooth Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  8. 8. Cartilaginous Joints <ul><li>There are two (2) types of cartilaginous joints (amphiarthroses): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synchondrosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symphysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Synchondrosis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bands of hyaline cartilage unite bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epiphyseal plate (temporary) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between manubrium and the first rib (costal cartilages) </li></ul></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Thoracic vertebra Costal cartilage Manubrium First rib
  9. 9. Cartilaginous Joints <ul><li>Symphysis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pad of fibrocartilage between bones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pubic symphysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint between bodies of adjacent vertebrae </li></ul></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Gelatinous core Spinous process Band of fibrocartilage Pubis Fibrocartilage disc of symphysis pubis Intervertebral discs (a) (b) Body of vertebra
  10. 10. 8.3: General Structure of a Synovial Joint <ul><li>Synovial joints are freely moveable (diarthroses) </li></ul><ul><li>There are six (6) types of diarthroses </li></ul><ul><li>There are specific parts of a diarthroses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articular cartilage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint capsule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synovial membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synovial fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meniscus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bursae </li></ul></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Spongy bone Joint cavity filled with synovial fluid Synovial membrane Articular cartilage Joint capsule
  11. 11. 8.4: Types of Synovial Joints <ul><li>Uni-axial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hinge (ginglymoid) joint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pivot or (trochoid) joint </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bi-axial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saddle (sellar) joint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condylar (ellipsoidal) joint </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multi-axial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ball and socket (spheroidal) joint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gliding (plane) joint </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Types of Synovial Joints <ul><li>Pivot Joint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between atlas (C1) and the dens of axis (C2) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hinge Joint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elbow joint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between phalanges </li></ul></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. (e) Pivot joint Dens Transverse ligament Atlas Axis (d) Hinge joint Humerus Ulna Radius
  13. 13. Types of Synovial Joints <ul><li>Saddle Joint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between carpal and 1 st metacarpal (of thumb) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Condylar Joint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between metacarpals and phalanges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between radius and carpals </li></ul></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Metacarpal Phalanx (b) Condylar joint (f) Saddle joint First metacarpal Trapezium
  14. 14. Types of Synovial Joints <ul><li>Ball-and-Socket Joint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hip joint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shoulder joint </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gliding Joint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between carpals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between tarsals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between facets of adjacent vertebrae </li></ul></ul>Hip bone (a) Ball-and-socket joint Head of femur in acetabulum Femur Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. (c) Plane joint Carpals
  15. 15. 8.5: Types of Joint Movements <ul><li>Movement at a joint occurs when a muscle contracts and its fibers pull its moveable end ( insertion ) towards its fixed end ( origin ). </li></ul>
  16. 16. Types of Joint Movements <ul><li>Abduction/adduction </li></ul><ul><li>Dorsiflexion/plantar flexion </li></ul><ul><li>Flexion/extension/hyperextension </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral flexion </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Abduction Adduction Extension Flexion Dorsiflexion Plantar flexion Extension Flexion Hyperextension © McGraw-Hill Companies / Womack Photography Ltd.
  17. 17. Types of Joint Movements Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. © McGraw-Hill Companies / Womack Photography Ltd. Circumduction Medial rotation Lateral rotation Supination Pronation <ul><li>Rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Circumduction </li></ul><ul><li>Supination/pronation </li></ul>
  18. 18. Types of Joint Movements <ul><li>Eversion/inversion </li></ul><ul><li>Protraction/retraction </li></ul><ul><li>Elevation/depression </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Inversion Eversion Protraction Retraction Elevation Depression © McGraw-Hill Companies / Womack Photography Ltd.
  19. 19. 8.6: Examples of Synovial Joints <ul><li>The shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee are large, freely moveable joints. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Shoulder Joint <ul><li>Ball-and-socket </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Head of humerus and glenoid cavity of scapula </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loose joint capsule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bursae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ligaments prevent displacement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very wide range of movement (circumduction) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gliding joint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between acromion process and clavicle </li></ul></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Humerus Articular cartilage Scapula Clavicle Acromion process Subdeltoid bursa Synovial membrane Joint capsule Joint cavity (a)
  21. 21. Shoulder Joint Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. © Paul Reimann Head of humerus Joint cavity Joint capsule Articular cartilage Scapula Humerus (b) Coracohumeral ligament Transverse humeral ligament Tendon of biceps brachii (long head) Acromion process Clavicle Coracoid process Acromion process Subscapular bursa Joint capsule Coracoid process Clavicle Glenohumeral ligaments Glenoid cavity Triceps brachii (long head) Glenoid labrum Scapula Humerus Scapula Articular capsule (glenohumeral ligaments hidden) (a) (b) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  22. 22. Elbow Joint <ul><li>Hinge joint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trochlea of humerus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trochlear notch of ulna </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gliding joint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capitulum of humerus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Head of radius </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flexion and extension </li></ul><ul><li>Many reinforcing ligaments </li></ul><ul><li>Stable joint </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Humerus Joint capsule Synovial membrane Joint cavity Articular cartilage Coronoid process Anular ligament Radius Ulna Olecranon process Trochlea (a)
  23. 23. Elbow Joint Radius Tendon of biceps brachii muscle Anular ligament Humerus Medial epicondyle Ulnar collateral ligament Coronoid process Ulna Humerus Lateral epicondyle Anular ligament Radius Olecranon process Radial collateral ligament Ulna (b) (a) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  24. 24. Hip Joint <ul><li>Ball-and-socket joint </li></ul><ul><li>Head of femur and acetabulum of coxa </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy joint capsule </li></ul><ul><li>Many reinforcing ligaments </li></ul><ul><li>Less freedom of movement than shoulder joint </li></ul><ul><li>Circumduction </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Hip bone Joint cavity Articular cartilage Synovial membrane Joint capsule Ligamentum capitis Femur (a)
  25. 25. Hip Joint Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. (b) Joint cavity Articular cartilage Hip bone Head of femur Joint capsule Femur © Paul Reimann Ilium Iliofemoral ligament Greater trochanter Femur Lesser trochanter Pubis Pubofemoral ligament Ischium Iliofemoral ligament Ischiofemoral ligament Femur Ilium (a) (b) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  26. 26. Knee Joint <ul><li>Largest joint </li></ul><ul><li>Most complex – 3 joints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medial and lateral condyles of distal end of femur and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medial and lateral condyles of proximal end of tibia and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Femur articulates anteriorly with patella </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Strengthened by many ligaments and tendons </li></ul><ul><li>Menisci separate femur and tibia </li></ul><ul><li>Bursae </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Femur Quadriceps femoris tendon (patellar tendon) Synovial membrane Suprapatellar bursa Patella Prepatellar bursa Joint cavity Articular cartilage Menisci Patellar ligament Infrapatellar bursa Joint capsule Tibia (a)
  27. 27. Knee Joint Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Anterior cruciate ligament Femur (b) Lateral condyle Lateral meniscus Articular cartilage Lateral condyle Head of fibula Tibia Fibula © Paul Reimann Gastroc- nemius muscle (cut) Popliteus muscle cut) Oblique popliteal ligament Arcuate popliteal ligament Fibula Tibia Femur Joint capsule Fibular collateral ligament Plantaris muscle (cut) Tibial collateral ligament Tendon of semimembranosus (cut) (a) (b) Femur Lateral condyle Lateral meniscus Lateral condyle Fibular collateral ligament Fibula Tibia Medial condyle Anterior cruciate ligament Medial meniscus Medial condyle Tibial collateral ligament Patellar ligament (cut) Posterior cruciate ligament Tendon of adductor magnus (cut) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  28. 28. 8.1 Clinical Application Replacing Joints
  29. 29. 8.2 Clinical Application Joint Disorders
  30. 30. 8.7: Lifespan Changes <ul><li>Joint stiffness is an early sign of aging </li></ul><ul><li>Fibrous joints first to change; can strengthen however over a lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in symphysis joints of vertebral column diminish flexibility and decrease height (remember water loss from the IVDs) </li></ul><ul><li>Synovial joints lose elasticity </li></ul><ul><li>Disuse hampers the blood supply </li></ul><ul><li>Activity and exercise can keep joints functional longer </li></ul>
  31. 31. Important Points in Chapter 8: Outcomes to be Assessed <ul><li>8.1: Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>List the functions of joints. </li></ul><ul><li>8.2: Classification of Joints </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how joints can be classified according the type of tissue that binds the bones together. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how bones of fibrous joints are held together. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe how bones of cartilaginous joints are held together. </li></ul><ul><li>8.3: General Structure of a Synovial Joint </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the general structure of a synovial joint. </li></ul><ul><li>8.4: Types of Synovial Joints </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish among the six types of synovial joints and give an example of each type. </li></ul><ul><li>8.5: Types of Joint Movements </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how skeletal muscles produce movements at joints, and identify several types of joint movements. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Important Points in Chapter 8: Outcomes to be Assessed <ul><li>8.6: Examples of Synovial Joints </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the shoulder joint and explain how its articulating parts are held together. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the elbow, hip, and knee joints and explain how their articulating parts are held together. </li></ul><ul><li>8.7: Lifespan Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Describe lifespan changes in joints. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Quiz 8 Complete Quiz 8 now! Read Chapter 9.

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