Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Copyright  ©  The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 11 Lecture PowerPoint
2401 Anatomy and Physiology I Chapter 11 Susan Gossett [email_address] Department of Biology Paris Junior College
Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Twelfth Edition Shier    Butler    Lewis  Chapter  11 Nervous System II: Divisions o...
11.1: Introduction <ul><li>The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and spinal cord. </li></ul><ul><li>The b...
11.2: Meninges <ul><li>The meninges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Membranes of CNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect the CNS </li...
Meninges of the Spinal Cord Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. S...
11.3: Ventricles  and Cerebrospinal Fluid <ul><li>There are four (4) ventricles </li></ul><ul><li>The ventricles are inter...
Cerebrospinal Fluid <ul><li>Secreted by the choroid plexus </li></ul><ul><li>Circulates in ventricles, central canal of sp...
11.1 Clinical Application Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure
11.4: Spinal Cord <ul><li>Slender column of nervous tissue continuous with brain and brainstem </li></ul><ul><li>Extends d...
Structure of the Spinal Cord  Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display....
Functions of Spinal Cord <ul><li>Center for spinal reflexes </li></ul><ul><li>Conduit (pathway) for nerve impulses to and ...
Reflex Arcs <ul><li>Reflexes are automatic, subconscious responses to stimuli within or outside the body </li></ul><ul><ul...
Reflex Arcs
General Components of a Spinal Reflex Receptor Sensory neuron Motor neuron White matter Gray matter Spinal cord Dorsal Int...
Reflex Behavior <ul><li>Example is the  knee-jerk reflex </li></ul><ul><li>Simple monosynaptic reflex </li></ul><ul><li>He...
Reflex Behavior <ul><li>Example is a  withdrawal reflex  (flexor reflex) </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents or limits tissue damag...
Reflex Arc <ul><li>Example  crossed extensor reflex </li></ul><ul><li>Crossing of sensory impulses within the reflex cente...
11.2 Clinical Application Uses of Reflexes
Tracts of the Spinal Cord <ul><li>Ascending tracts conduct sensory impulses to the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Descending trac...
Ascending Tracts <ul><li>Major ascending (sensory) spinal cord tracts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fasciculus gracilis and fasci...
Descending Tracts <ul><li>Major descending (motor) spinal cord tracts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corticospinal tracts </li></u...
Nerve Tracts of the Spinal Cord
11.3 Clinical Application Spinal Cord Injuries
11.5: Brain <ul><li>Functions of the brain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interprets sensations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determi...
The Brain Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cerebrum Diencephal...
Brain Development <ul><li>Neural tube </li></ul><ul><li>Three primary vesicles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forebrain </li></ul>...
Brain Development
Structure of the Cerebrum <ul><li>Corpus callosum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects cerebral hemispheres (a commissure) </li>...
Lobes of the Cerebrum <ul><li>Five (5) lobes bilaterally: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal lobe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pa...
Functions of the Cerebrum <ul><li>Interpreting impulses </li></ul><ul><li>Initiating voluntary movements </li></ul><ul><li...
Functional Regions of the Cerebral Cortex <ul><li>Cerebral cortex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin layer of gray matter that con...
Functions of the Cerebral Lobes
Sensory Areas (post-central sulcus) <ul><li>Cutaneous sensory area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parietal lobe </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Sensory Areas Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Parietal lobe S...
Association Areas <ul><li>Regions that are not primary motor or primary sensory areas </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread through...
Association Areas <ul><li>Frontal lobe association areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pl...
Motor Areas (pre-central sulcus) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displ...
Motor Areas Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Parietal lobe Sen...
Hemisphere Dominance <ul><li>The left hemisphere is dominant in most individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant hemisphere con...
Memory <ul><li>Short term memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed neuronal circuit <...
11.4 Clinical Application Traumatic Brain Injury
Basal Nuclei <ul><li>Masses of gray matter </li></ul><ul><li>Deep within cerebral hemispheres </li></ul><ul><li>Caudate nu...
Diencephalon <ul><li>Between cerebral hemispheres and above the brainstem </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounds the third ventricle ...
Diencephalon <ul><li>Thalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gateway for sensory impulses heading to cerebral cortex </li></ul></ul...
Diencephalon <ul><li>Consists of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portions of frontal lobe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portions of te...
11.5 Clinical Application Parkinson Disease
Brainstem <ul><li>Three parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Midbrain </li></ul><ul><li>Pons </li></ul><ul><li>Medulla Oblongata </li>...
Midbrain Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Pyramidal tract Pons...
Pons Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Pyramidal tract Pons Opt...
Medulla Oblongata Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Pyramidal t...
Reticular Formation <ul><li>Complex network of nerve fibers scattered throughout the brain stem </li></ul><ul><li>Extends ...
Types of Sleep <ul><li>Slow wave </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-REM sleep  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Person is tired </li></ul...
Cerebellum <ul><li>Inferior to occipital lobes </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior to pons and medulla oblongata </li></ul><ul><li...
Major Parts of the Brain
11.6 Clinical Application Brain Waves
11.6: Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>Cranial nerves  arising from the brain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Somatic fibers connec...
Nervous System Subdivisions
Structure of a Peripheral Nerve Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or displa...
Nerve and Nerve Fiber Classification <ul><li>Sensory nerves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct impulses into brain or spinal co...
Nerve Fiber Classification <ul><li>General somatic efferent (GSE) fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry motor impulses from C...
Nerve Fiber Classification <ul><li>Special somatic efferent (SSE) fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry motor impulses from b...
Cranial Nerves Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Olfactory bulb...
Cranial Nerves <ul><li>Remember: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cranial nerves are designated ‘ CN ’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cra...
Cranial Nerves I and II <ul><li>Olfactory nerve (CN I) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibe...
Cranial Nerves III and IV <ul><li>Trochlear nerve (CN IV) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily motor nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Cranial Nerve V <ul><li>Trigeminal nerve (CN V) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Three (3) s...
Cranial Nerves VI and VII <ul><li>Abducens nerve (CN VI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily motor nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
Cranial Nerves VIII and IX <ul><li>Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A.k.a acoustic or auditory nerv...
Cranial Nerve X <ul><li>Vagus nerve (CN X) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Somatic motor to m...
Cranial Nerves XI and XII <ul><li>Accessory nerve (CN XI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily motor nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Functions of Cranial Nerves
Spinal Nerves <ul><li>ALL are mixed nerves (except the first pair) </li></ul><ul><li>31 pairs of spinal nerves: </li></ul>...
Spinal Nerves <ul><li>Dorsal root  (aka  posterior root ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory root </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ax...
Dermatome <ul><li>An area of skin that the sensory nerve fibers of a particular spinal nerve innervate </li></ul>C2 C3 C4 ...
Spinal Nerves Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Lateral horn Ve...
Nerve Plexuses <ul><li>Nerve plexus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex networks formed by anterior branches of spinal nerves </...
Brachial Plexus <ul><li>(2) Brachial plexus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed by anterior branches C5-T1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Lumbosacral Plexus <ul><li>(3) Lumbosacral plexus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed by the anterior branches of L1-S5 roots </l...
Plexuses C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T8 T9 T10 T11 T12 L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 S2 S3 S4 S5 Co Posterior view Cervical...
11.7 Clinical Application Spinal Nerve Injuries
11.7: Autonomic Nervous System <ul><li>Functions without conscious effort </li></ul><ul><li>Controls visceral activities <...
Autonomic Nerve Fibers <ul><li>All of the neurons are motor (efferent) </li></ul><ul><li>Preganglionic  fibers </li></ul><...
Sympathetic Division <ul><li>Thoracolumbar  division – location of preganglionic neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Preganglionic f...
Sympathetic Division <ul><li>Postganglionic fibers extend from sympathetic ganglia to visceral organs   </li></ul><ul><li>...
Sympathetic Division Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Lacrimal...
Parasympathetic Division <ul><li>Craniosacral  division – location of preganglionic neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Ganglia are ...
Parasympathetic Division Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Hear...
Autonomic Neurotransmitters <ul><li>Cholinergic  fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Release acetylcholine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Actions of Autonomic Neurotransmitters <ul><li>Result from binding to protein receptors in the membrane of effector cells:...
Terminating Autonomic Neurotransmitter Actions <ul><li>The enzyme acetylcholinesterase rapidly decomposes the acetylcholin...
Control of Autonomic  Activity <ul><li>Controlled largely by CNS </li></ul><ul><li>Medulla oblongata regulates cardiac, va...
11.8: Lifespan Changes <ul><li>Brain cells begin to die before birth </li></ul><ul><li>Over average lifetime, brain shrink...
Important Points in Chapter 11: Outcomes to be Assessed <ul><li>11.1: Introduction   </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the genera...
Important Points in Chapter 11: Outcomes to be Assessed <ul><li>Explain hemisphere dominance. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain st...
Quiz 11 Complete Quiz 11 now! Read Chapter 12.
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Chapter 11 Nervous System II- Divisions of the Nervous System

17,327

Published on

Hole's Anatomy and Physiology

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
1 Comment
39 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • pharm d student at Siddhartha
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
17,327
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2,738
Comments
1
Likes
39
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Chapter 11 Nervous System II- Divisions of the Nervous System"

  1. 1. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Chapter 11 Lecture PowerPoint
  2. 2. 2401 Anatomy and Physiology I Chapter 11 Susan Gossett [email_address] Department of Biology Paris Junior College
  3. 3. Hole’s Human Anatomy and Physiology Twelfth Edition Shier  Butler  Lewis Chapter 11 Nervous System II: Divisions of the Nervous System Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  4. 4. 11.1: Introduction <ul><li>The central nervous system (CNS) consists of the brain and spinal cord. </li></ul><ul><li>The brainstem connects the brain to the spinal cord. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication to the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is by way of the spinal cord. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 11.2: Meninges <ul><li>The meninges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Membranes of CNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect the CNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three (3) layers: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dura mater </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Tough mother” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Venous sinuses </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Falx </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Arachnoid mater </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Spiderweb-like” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Space contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pia mater </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Faithful mother” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encapsulates blood vessels </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Scalp Cranium Cerebrum Cerebellum Spinal cord Meninges Meninges Cerebrum (b) (a) Gray matter White matter Subarachnoid space Falx cerebri Pia mater Dura mater Bone of skull Subcutaneous tissue Skin Tentorium cerebelli Vertebra Dural sinus Arachnoid granulation Arachnoid mater
  6. 6. Meninges of the Spinal Cord Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Spinal cord Spinal cord Pia mater Arachnoid mater Dura mater Dorsal root Dorsal root Spinal nerve Epidural space (a) (b) Ventral root Dorsal root ganglion Thoracic vertebra Spinal nerve Dorsal root ganglion Subarachnoid space Dorsal branch (dorsal ramus) Ventral branch (ventral ramus) Ventral root Epidural space Body of vertebra
  7. 7. 11.3: Ventricles and Cerebrospinal Fluid <ul><li>There are four (4) ventricles </li></ul><ul><li>The ventricles are interconnected cavities within cerebral hemispheres and brain stem </li></ul><ul><li>The ventricles are continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>They are filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) </li></ul><ul><li>The four (4) ventricles are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral ventricles (2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Known as the first and second ventricles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third ventricle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fourth ventricle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interventricular foramen </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebral aqueduct </li></ul>Lateral ventricle Third ventricle Fourth ventricle (a) Interventricular foramen Cerebral aqueduct To central canal of spinal cord Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Third ventricle (b) Cerebral aqueduct To central canal of spinal cord Fourth ventricle Lateral ventricle Interventricular foramen
  8. 8. Cerebrospinal Fluid <ul><li>Secreted by the choroid plexus </li></ul><ul><li>Circulates in ventricles, central canal of spinal cord, and the subarachnoid space </li></ul><ul><li>Completely surrounds the brain and spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>Excess or wasted CSF is absorbed by the arachnoid villi </li></ul><ul><li>Clear fluid similar to blood plasma </li></ul><ul><li>Volume is only about 120 ml. </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritive and protective </li></ul><ul><li>Helps maintain stable ion concentrations in the CNS </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Third ventricle Fourth ventricle Cerebral aqueduct Subarachnoid space Arachnoid mater Dura mater Pia mater Pia mater Central canal of spinal cord Subarachnoid space Filum terminale Arachnoid mater Dura mater Arachnoid granulations Choroid plexuses of third ventricle Blood-filled dural sinus Choroid plexus of fourth ventricle
  9. 9. 11.1 Clinical Application Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure
  10. 10. 11.4: Spinal Cord <ul><li>Slender column of nervous tissue continuous with brain and brainstem </li></ul><ul><li>Extends downward through vertebral canal </li></ul><ul><li>Begins at the foramen magnum and terminates at the first and second lumbar vertebrae (L1/L2) interspace </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Brainstem Spinal cord (a) (b) Foramen magnum Cervical enlargement Vertebral canal Lumbar enlargement Conus medullaris Cauda equina Filum terminale Conus medullaris Lumbar enlargement Cervical enlargement
  11. 11. Structure of the Spinal Cord Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. White matter Gray matter Lateral funiculus Posterior funiculus Gray commissure Central canal (a) Posterior horn Dorsal root of spinal nerve Dorsal root ganglion Ventral root of spinal nerve Anterior horn Anterior median fissure Portion of spinal nerve Anterior funiculus Posterior median sulcus
  12. 12. Functions of Spinal Cord <ul><li>Center for spinal reflexes </li></ul><ul><li>Conduit (pathway) for nerve impulses to and from the brain and brainstem </li></ul>
  13. 13. Reflex Arcs <ul><li>Reflexes are automatic, subconscious responses to stimuli within or outside the body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple reflex arc (sensory – motor) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common reflex arc (sensory – association – motor) </li></ul></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Receptor (a) Sensory or afferent neuron Motor or efferent neuron Central Nervous System Effector (muscle or gland)
  14. 14. Reflex Arcs
  15. 15. General Components of a Spinal Reflex Receptor Sensory neuron Motor neuron White matter Gray matter Spinal cord Dorsal Interneuron 4 5 3 2 1 (b) Cell body of sensory neuron Effector (muscle or gland) Central canal Ventral I m p u l s e Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  16. 16. Reflex Behavior <ul><li>Example is the knee-jerk reflex </li></ul><ul><li>Simple monosynaptic reflex </li></ul><ul><li>Helps maintain an upright posture </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Spinal cord Patella Patellar ligament Direction of impulse Axon of sensory neuron Cell body of sensory neuron Cell body of motor neuron Axon of motor neuron Effector (quadriceps femoris muscle group) Receptor associated with dendrites of sensory neuron
  17. 17. Reflex Behavior <ul><li>Example is a withdrawal reflex (flexor reflex) </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents or limits tissue damage </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Interneuron Spinal cord Axon of sensory neuron Cell body of sensory neuron Dendrite of sensory neuron Pain receptor in skin Direction of impulse Cell body of motor neuron Axon of motor neuron Effector (flexor muscle contracts and withdraws part being stimulated) Tack
  18. 18. Reflex Arc <ul><li>Example crossed extensor reflex </li></ul><ul><li>Crossing of sensory impulses within the reflex center to produce an opposite effect </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. = Stimulation = Inhibition Interneuron Flexor contracts Sensory neuron + + + – – – Motor neurons Extensor contracts Flexor relaxes Motor neurons Extensor relaxes
  19. 19. 11.2 Clinical Application Uses of Reflexes
  20. 20. Tracts of the Spinal Cord <ul><li>Ascending tracts conduct sensory impulses to the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Descending tracts conduct motor impulses from the brain to motor neurons reaching muscles and glands </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Posterior spinocerebellar tract Lateral corticospinal tract Lateral reticulospinal tract Rubrospinal tract Anterior spinocerebellar tract Lateral spinothalamic tract Anterior reticulospinal tract Medial reticulospinal tract Fasciculus cuneatus Fasciculus gracilis Dorsal column Anterior spinothalamic tract Anterolateral system Anterior corticospinal tract
  21. 21. Ascending Tracts <ul><li>Major ascending (sensory) spinal cord tracts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spinothalamic tracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral and anterior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spinocerebellar tracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Posterior and anterior </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Midbrain Pons Medulla Thalamus Sensory cortex of cerebrum Cerebrum (frontal section) Brainstem (transverse sections) Spinal cord (transverse section) Sensory fibers cross over Spinothalamic tract Fasciculus Cuneatus tract Sensory impulse from skin temperature or pain receptors
  22. 22. Descending Tracts <ul><li>Major descending (motor) spinal cord tracts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corticospinal tracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral and anterior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reticulospinal tracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral, anterior and medial </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rubrospinal tract </li></ul></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Midbrain Pons Brainstem (transverse sections) Spinal cord (transverse section) Motor cortex of cerebrum Cerebrum (frontal section) Corticospinal tract Medulla oblongata Motor fibers cross over Motor impulse to Skeletal muscle
  23. 23. Nerve Tracts of the Spinal Cord
  24. 24. 11.3 Clinical Application Spinal Cord Injuries
  25. 25. 11.5: Brain <ul><li>Functions of the brain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interprets sensations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines perception </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasoning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinates muscular movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulates visceral activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines personality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major parts of the brain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebrum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal lobes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parietal lobes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Occipital lobes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temporal lobes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insula </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diencephalon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebellum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brainstem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Midbrain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medulla oblongata </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. The Brain Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cerebrum Diencephalon Midbrain Pons Medulla oblongata Spinal cord Cerebellum Fornix (b) Skull Meninges Cerebrum Diencephalon Brainstem (a) Sulcus Gyrus Fornix Cerebellum Spinal cord Midbrain Pons Medulla oblongata Corpus callosum Corpus callosum Transverse fissure © Martin M. Rotker/Photo Researchers, Inc.
  27. 27. Brain Development <ul><li>Neural tube </li></ul><ul><li>Three primary vesicles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forebrain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Prosencephalon) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Midbrain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Mesencephalon) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hindbrain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Rhombencephalon) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Five secondary vesicles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telencephalon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diencephalon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesencephalon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metencephalon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Myelencephalon </li></ul></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Prosencephalon (forebrain) Mesencephalon (midbrain) Rhombencephalon (hindbrain) Neural tube (a) Diencephalon Mesencephalon Myelencephalon Metencephalon Neural tube (b) Telencephalon (c) Diencephalon Midbrain Pons and Cerebellum Spinal cord Cerebral hemispheres Medulla oblongata
  28. 28. Brain Development
  29. 29. Structure of the Cerebrum <ul><li>Corpus callosum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connects cerebral hemispheres (a commissure) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gyri </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bumps or convolutions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sulci </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grooves in gray matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Central sulcus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Fissures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Longitudinal: separates the cerebral hemispheres </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transverse: separates cerebrum from cerebellum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral fissure of Sylvius </li></ul></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Central sulcus Gyrus Sulcus Frontal lobe Lateral sulcus Parietal lobe Occipital lobe Central sulcus Parietal lobe Occipital lobe (a) (b) (c) Parietal lobe Central sulcus Occipital lobe Frontal lobe Insula Temporal lobe Longitudinal fissure Transverse fissure Cerebellar hemisphere Retracted temporal lobe
  30. 30. Lobes of the Cerebrum <ul><li>Five (5) lobes bilaterally: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal lobe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parietal lobe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporal lobe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Occipital lobe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insula aka ‘Island of Reil’ </li></ul></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. (c) Parietal lobe Central sulcus Occipital lobe Frontal lobe Insula Retracted temporal lobe
  31. 31. Functions of the Cerebrum <ul><li>Interpreting impulses </li></ul><ul><li>Initiating voluntary movements </li></ul><ul><li>Storing information as memory </li></ul><ul><li>Retrieving stored information </li></ul><ul><li>Reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Seat of intelligence and personality </li></ul>
  32. 32. Functional Regions of the Cerebral Cortex <ul><li>Cerebral cortex </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thin layer of gray matter that constitutes the outermost portion of cerebrum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains 75% of all neurons in the nervous system </li></ul></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Frontal eye field Central sulcus Parietal lobe Occipital lobe Cerebellum Brainstem Interpretation of auditory patterns Lateral sulcus Auditory area Sensory areas involved with cutaneous and other senses Sensory speech area ( Wernicke’s area) Combining visual images, visual recognition of objects Visual area Temporal lobe Motor speech area (Broca’s area) Motor areas involved with the control of voluntary muscles Concentration, planning, problem solving Front lobe
  33. 33. Functions of the Cerebral Lobes
  34. 34. Sensory Areas (post-central sulcus) <ul><li>Cutaneous sensory area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parietal lobe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interprets sensations on skin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visual area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Occipital lobe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interprets vision </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Auditory area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temporal lobe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interprets hearing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sensory area for taste </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Near base of the central sulcus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sensory area for smell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arises from centers deep within the cerebrum </li></ul></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Frontal eye field Central sulcus Parietal lobe Occipital lobe Cerebellum Brainstem Interpretation of auditory patterns Lateral sulcus Auditory area Sensory areas involved with cutaneous and other senses Sensory speech area ( Wernicke’s area) Combining visual images, visual recognition of objects Visual area Temporal lobe Motor speech area (Broca’s area) Motor areas involved with the control of voluntary muscles Concentration, planning, problem solving Front lobe
  35. 35. Sensory Areas Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Parietal lobe Sensory area Central sulcus Motor area Frontal lobe Swallowing Forearm Arm Pelvis Thigh Leg Lips Forearm Arm Neck Pelvis Thigh Leg Genitals (a) Motor area (b) Sensory area Longitudinal fissure Salivation Vocalization Mastication Facial expression Thumb, fingers, and hand Trunk Foot and toes Tongue and pharynx Teeth and gums Upper face Hand, fingers, and thumb Trunk Foot and toes Longitudinal fissure
  36. 36. Association Areas <ul><li>Regions that are not primary motor or primary sensory areas </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread throughout the cerebral cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze and interpret sensory experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Provide memory, reasoning, verbalization, judgment, emotions </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Frontal eye field Central sulcus Parietal lobe Occipital lobe Cerebellum Brainstem Interpretation of auditory patterns Lateral sulcus Auditory area Sensory areas involved with cutaneous and other senses Sensory speech area ( Wernicke’s area) Combining visual images, visual recognition of objects Visual area Temporal lobe Motor speech area (Broca’s area) Motor areas involved with the control of voluntary muscles Concentration, planning, problem solving Front lobe
  37. 37. Association Areas <ul><li>Frontal lobe association areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex problem solving </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parietal lobe association areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choosing words to express thought </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temporal lobe association areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpret complex sensory experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Store memories of visual scenes, music, and complex patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Occipital lobe association areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze and combine visual images with other sensory experiences </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Motor Areas (pre-central sulcus) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Frontal eye field Central sulcus Parietal lobe Occipital lobe Cerebellum Brainstem Interpretation of auditory patterns Lateral sulcus Auditory area Sensory areas involved with cutaneous and other senses Sensory speech area ( Wernicke’s area) Combining visual images, visual recognition of objects Visual area Temporal lobe Motor speech area (Broca’s area) Motor areas involved with the control of voluntary muscles Concentration, planning, problem solving Front lobe <ul><li>Primary motor areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frontal lobes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control voluntary muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Broca’s area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anterior to primary motor cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually in left hemisphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls muscles needed for speech </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frontal eye field </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Above Broca’s area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls voluntary movements of eyes and eyelids </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Motor Areas Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Parietal lobe Sensory area Central sulcus Motor area Frontal lobe Swallowing Forearm Arm Pelvis Thigh Leg Lips Forearm Arm Neck Pelvis Thigh Leg Genitals (a) Motor area (b) Sensory area Longitudinal fissure Salivation Vocalization Mastication Facial expression Thumb, fingers, and hand Trunk Foot and toes Tongue and pharynx Teeth and gums Upper face Hand, fingers, and thumb Trunk Foot and toes Longitudinal fissure
  40. 40. Hemisphere Dominance <ul><li>The left hemisphere is dominant in most individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant hemisphere controls: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analytical skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computational skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nondominant hemisphere controls: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonverbal tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding and interpreting musical and visual patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides emotional and intuitive thought processes </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Memory <ul><li>Short term memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed neuronal circuit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circuit is stimulated over and over </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When impulse flow ceases, memory does also unless it enters long-term memory via memory consolidation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long term memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes structure or function of neurons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhances synaptic transmission </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. 11.4 Clinical Application Traumatic Brain Injury
  43. 43. Basal Nuclei <ul><li>Masses of gray matter </li></ul><ul><li>Deep within cerebral hemispheres </li></ul><ul><li>Caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus </li></ul><ul><li>Produce dopamine </li></ul><ul><li>Control certain muscular activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily by inhibiting motor functions </li></ul></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Thalamus Hypothalamus Brainstem Putamen Cerebellum Spinal cord Longitudinal fissure Right cerebral hemisphere Caudate nucleus Globus pallidus Basal nuclei
  44. 44. Diencephalon <ul><li>Between cerebral hemispheres and above the brainstem </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounds the third ventricle </li></ul><ul><li>Thalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Epithalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>Optic tracts </li></ul><ul><li>Optic chiasm </li></ul><ul><li>Infundibulum </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior pituitary </li></ul><ul><li>Mammillary bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Pineal gland </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Pyramidal tract Pons Optic nerve Optic chiasma Thalamus Spinal cord Pituitary gland Pineal gland Optic tract Mammillary body (a) (b) Olive Corpora quadrigemina Cerebral peduncles Superior colliculus Inferior colliculus Third ventricle Fourth ventricle Cerebellar peduncles Medulla oblongata
  45. 45. Diencephalon <ul><li>Thalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gateway for sensory impulses heading to cerebral cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receives all sensory impulses (except smell) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Channels impulses to appropriate part of cerebral cortex for interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains homeostasis by regulating visceral activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Links nervous and endocrine systems (hence some say the neuroendocrine system </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Diencephalon <ul><li>Consists of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Portions of frontal lobe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portions of temporal lobe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basal nuclei </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other deep nuclei </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interprets sensory impulses </li></ul></ul>The Limbic System
  47. 47. 11.5 Clinical Application Parkinson Disease
  48. 48. Brainstem <ul><li>Three parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Midbrain </li></ul><ul><li>Pons </li></ul><ul><li>Medulla Oblongata </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Spinal cord Thalamus Hypothalamus Diencephalon Pons Midbrain Corpus callosum Corpora quadrigemina Cerebral aqueduct Reticular formation Medulla oblongata
  49. 49. Midbrain Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Pyramidal tract Pons Optic nerve Optic chiasma Thalamus Spinal cord Pituitary gland Pineal gland Optic tract Mammillary body (a) (b) Olive Corpora quadrigemina Cerebral peduncles Superior colliculus Inferior colliculus Third ventricle Fourth ventricle Cerebellar peduncles Medulla oblongata <ul><li>Between diencephalon and pons </li></ul><ul><li>Contains bundles of fibers that join lower parts of brainstem and spinal cord with higher part of brain </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebral aqueduct </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebral peduncles (bundles of nerve fibers) </li></ul><ul><li>Corpora quadrigemina (centers for visual and auditory reflexes) </li></ul>
  50. 50. Pons Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Pyramidal tract Pons Optic nerve Optic chiasma Thalamus Spinal cord Pituitary gland Pineal gland Optic tract Mammillary body (a) (b) Olive Corpora quadrigemina Cerebral peduncles Superior colliculus Inferior colliculus Third ventricle Fourth ventricle Cerebellar peduncles Medulla oblongata <ul><li>Rounded bulge on underside of brainstem </li></ul><ul><li>Between medulla oblongata and midbrain </li></ul><ul><li>Helps regulate rate and </li></ul><ul><li>depth of breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Relays nerve impulses to and from medulla oblongata and cerebellum </li></ul>
  51. 51. Medulla Oblongata Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Pyramidal tract Pons Optic nerve Optic chiasma Thalamus Spinal cord Pituitary gland Pineal gland Optic tract Mammillary body (a) (b) Olive Corpora quadrigemina Cerebral peduncles Superior colliculus Inferior colliculus Third ventricle Fourth ventricle Cerebellar peduncles Medulla oblongata <ul><li>Enlarged continuation of spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>Conducts ascending and descending impulses between brain and spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>Contains cardiac, vasomotor, and respiratory control centers </li></ul><ul><li>Contains various nonvital reflex control centers (coughing, sneezing, swallowing, and vomiting) </li></ul>
  52. 52. Reticular Formation <ul><li>Complex network of nerve fibers scattered throughout the brain stem </li></ul><ul><li>Extends into the diencephalon </li></ul><ul><li>Connects to centers of hypothalamus, basal nuclei, cerebellum, and cerebrum </li></ul><ul><li>Filters incoming sensory information </li></ul><ul><li>Arouses cerebral cortex into state of wakefulness </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Spinal cord Thalamus Hypothalamus Diencephalon Pons Midbrain Corpus callosum Corpora quadrigemina Cerebral aqueduct Reticular formation Medulla oblongata
  53. 53. Types of Sleep <ul><li>Slow wave </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-REM sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Person is tired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreasing activity of reticular system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dreamless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced blood pressure and respiratory rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ranges from light to heavy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternates with REM sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rapid Eye Movement (REM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paradoxical sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some areas of brain active </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart and respiratory rates irregular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dreaming occurs </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Cerebellum <ul><li>Inferior to occipital lobes </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior to pons and medulla oblongata </li></ul><ul><li>Two hemispheres </li></ul><ul><li>Vermis connects hemispheres </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebellar cortex (gray matter) </li></ul><ul><li>Arbor vitae (white matter) </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebellar peduncles (nerve fiber tracts) </li></ul><ul><li>Dentate nucleus (largest nucleus in cerebellum) </li></ul><ul><li>Integrates sensory information concerning position of body parts </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinates skeletal muscle activity </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains posture </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Thalamus Superior peduncle Middle peduncle Inferior peduncle Pons Medulla oblongata Cerebellum Corpus callosum Longitudinal fissure
  55. 55. Major Parts of the Brain
  56. 56. 11.6 Clinical Application Brain Waves
  57. 57. 11.6: Peripheral Nervous System <ul><li>Cranial nerves arising from the brain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Somatic fibers connecting to the skin and skeletal muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomic fibers connecting to viscera </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spinal nerves arising from the spinal cord </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Somatic fibers connecting to the skin and skeletal muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomic fibers connecting to viscera </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. Nervous System Subdivisions
  59. 59. Structure of a Peripheral Nerve Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Peripheral nerve Epineurium Axon Neurilemma Myelin sheath Schwann cell Node of Ranvier Endoneurium Perineurium Fascicle Sensory receptor Motor neuron ending
  60. 60. Nerve and Nerve Fiber Classification <ul><li>Sensory nerves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct impulses into brain or spinal cord </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Motor nerves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct impulses to muscles or glands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mixed (both sensory and motor) nerves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain both sensory nerve fibers and motor nerve fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most nerves are mixed nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ALL spinal nerves are mixed nerves (except the first pair) </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Nerve Fiber Classification <ul><li>General somatic efferent (GSE) fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry motor impulses from CNS to skeletal muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General visceral efferent (GVE) fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry motor impulses away from CNS to smooth muscles and glands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General somatic afferent (GSA) fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry sensory impulses to CNS from skin and skeletal muscles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General visceral afferent (GVA) fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry sensory impulses to CNS from blood vessels and internal organs </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. Nerve Fiber Classification <ul><li>Special somatic efferent (SSE) fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry motor impulses from brain to muscles used in chewing, swallowing, speaking and forming facial expressions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Special visceral afferent (SVA) fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry sensory impulses to brain from olfactory and taste receptors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Special somatic afferent (SSA) fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry sensory impulses to brain from receptors of sight, hearing and equilibrium </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. Cranial Nerves Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Olfactory bulb Hypoglossal (XII) Optic tract Olfactory tract Olfactory (I) Optic (II) Oculomotor (III) Abducens (VI) Facial (VII) Glossopharyngeal (IX) Accessory (XI) Trochlear (IV) Trigeminal (V) Vestibulocochlear (VIII) Vagus (X)
  64. 64. Cranial Nerves <ul><li>Remember: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cranial nerves are designated ‘ CN ’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cranial nerves are designated with Roman numerals (I – XII) </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. Cranial Nerves I and II <ul><li>Olfactory nerve (CN I) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibers transmit impulses associated with smell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Optic nerve (CN II) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fibers transmit impulses associated with vision </li></ul></ul>
  66. 66. Cranial Nerves III and IV <ul><li>Trochlear nerve (CN IV) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily motor nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor impulses to muscles that move the eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some sensory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proprioceptors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Oculomotor nerve (CN III) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily motor nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor impulses to muscles that: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Raise eyelids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Move the eyes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus lens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adjust light entering eye </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some sensory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proprioceptors </li></ul></ul></ul>
  67. 67. Cranial Nerve V <ul><li>Trigeminal nerve (CN V) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Three (3) sisters” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) Ophthalmic division </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory from surface of eyes, tear glands, scalp, forehead, and upper eyelids </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) Maxillary division </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory from upper teeth, upper gum, upper lip, palate, and skin of face </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(3) Mandibular division </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory from scalp, skin of jaw, lower teeth, lower gum, and lower lip </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motor to muscles of mastication and muscles in floor of mouth </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Lacrimal nerve Eye Maxilla Mandible Lacrimal gland Infraorbital nerve Tongue Mental nerve Ophthalmic division Maxillary division Mandibular division Lingual nerve Inferior alveolar nerve
  68. 68. Cranial Nerves VI and VII <ul><li>Abducens nerve (CN VI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily motor nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor impulses to muscles that move the eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some sensory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proprioceptors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Facial nerve (CN VII) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory from taste receptors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor to muscles of facial expression, tear glands, and salivary glands </li></ul></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Zygomatic nerve Buccal nerve Facial nerve Mandibular nerve Cervical nerve Temporal nerve Posterior auricular nerve Parotid salivary gland 68
  69. 69. Cranial Nerves VIII and IX <ul><li>Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A.k.a acoustic or auditory nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two (2) branches: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vestibular branch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory from equilibrium receptors of ear </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cochlear branch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory from hearing receptors </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory from pharynx, tonsils, tongue and carotid arteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor to salivary glands and muscles of pharynx </li></ul></ul>
  70. 70. Cranial Nerve X <ul><li>Vagus nerve (CN X) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Somatic motor to muscles of speech and swallowing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomic motor to viscera of thorax and abdomen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory from pharynx, larynx, esophagus, and viscera of thorax and abdomen </li></ul></ul>Meningeal branch Auricular branch Pharyngeal branch Palate Cardiac nerves Heart Liver Kidney Nerve XI Nerve XII Carotid body Large intestine Lung Stomach Spleen Pancreas Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Superior laryngeal nerve Recurrent laryngeal nerve Superior ganglion of vagus nerve Inferior ganglion of vagus nerve Left vagus nerve Small intestine
  71. 71. Cranial Nerves XI and XII <ul><li>Accessory nerve (CN XI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily motor nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We called this “Spinal” Accessory because: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cranial branch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motor to muscles of soft palate, pharynx and larynx </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spinal branch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motor to muscles of neck and back </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some sensory </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proprioceptor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primarily motor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor to muscles of the tongue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some sensory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proprioceptor </li></ul></ul></ul>
  72. 72. Functions of Cranial Nerves
  73. 73. Spinal Nerves <ul><li>ALL are mixed nerves (except the first pair) </li></ul><ul><li>31 pairs of spinal nerves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8 cervical nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(C1 to C8) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 thoracic nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(T1 to T12) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 lumbar nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(L1 to L5) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 sacral nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(S1 to S5) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 coccygeal nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Co or Cc) </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cauda equina C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 T9 T10 T11 T12 L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 S2 S3 S4 S1 S5 Co Posterior view Cervical nerves Thoracic nerves Lumbar nerves Sacral nerves Coccygeal nerve
  74. 74. Spinal Nerves <ul><li>Dorsal root (aka posterior root ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory root </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Axons of sensory neurons are in the dorsal root ganglion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dorsal root ganglion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aka DRG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell bodies of sensory neurons whose axons conduct impulses inward from peripheral body parts </li></ul></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Lateral horn Ventral root (a) (b) Dorsal root Dorsal root Spinal nerve Dorsal root ganglion Posterior median sulcus Posterior horn Anterior horn Central canal Anterior median fissure Dorsal branch of spinal nerve Ventral branch of spinal nerve Visceral branch of spinal nerve Paravertebral ganglion Ventral branch of spinal nerve (ventral ramus) Dorsal branch of spinal nerve (dorsal ramus) Paravertebral ganglion Visceral branch of spinal nerve Ventral root
  75. 75. Dermatome <ul><li>An area of skin that the sensory nerve fibers of a particular spinal nerve innervate </li></ul>C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 T1 C6 C7 S2 S3 C8 L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 T12 T1 S1 (a) (b) S5 C0 S4 S3 S2 S1 L5 L4 L3 L2 L1 L5 L1 C8 T1 T12 C7 C6 C5 C4 C3 C2 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  76. 76. Spinal Nerves Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Lateral horn Ventral root (a) (b) Dorsal root Dorsal root Spinal nerve Dorsal root ganglion Posterior median sulcus Posterior horn Anterior horn Central canal Anterior median fissure Dorsal branch of spinal nerve Ventral branch of spinal nerve Visceral branch of spinal nerve Paravertebral ganglion Ventral branch of spinal nerve (ventral ramus) Dorsal branch of spinal nerve (dorsal ramus) Paravertebral ganglion Visceral branch of spinal nerve Ventral root <ul><li>Ventral root (aka anterior root ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor root </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Axons of motor neurons whose cell bodies are in the spinal cord </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spinal nerve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Union of ventral root and dorsal roots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hence we now have a “mixed” nerve </li></ul></ul>
  77. 77. Nerve Plexuses <ul><li>Nerve plexus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex networks formed by anterior branches of spinal nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The fibers of various spinal nerves are sorted and recombined </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are three (3) nerve plexuses: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(1) Cervical plexus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed by anterior branches of C1-C4 spinal nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lies deep in the neck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply to muscles and skin of the neck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C3-C4-C5 nerve roots contribute to phrenic nerves bilaterally </li></ul></ul>
  78. 78. Brachial Plexus <ul><li>(2) Brachial plexus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed by anterior branches C5-T1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lies deep within shoulders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are five (5) branches: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Musculocutaneous nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supply muscles of anterior arms and skin of forearms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Ulnar and 3. Median nerves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supply muscles of forearms and hands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supply skin of hands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Radial nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supply posterior muscles of arms and skin of forearms and hands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Axillary nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supply muscles and skin of anterior, lateral, and posterior arms </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Musculo- cutaneous n. Musculocutaneous n. Humerus Thoracodorsal n. Lower subscapular n. Suprascapular n. Lateral pectoral n. Medial pectoral n. Axillary n. Axillary n. Radial n. Radial n. Radius Ulna Ulnar n. Ulnar n. Median n. Median n. C5 C5 C6 C6 C7 C7 C8 C8 T1 T1 (a) (b) Ventral rami: C5, C6, C7, C8, T1 Anterior divisions Posterior divisions Trunks: upper, middle, lower Dorsal scapular n.
  79. 79. Lumbosacral Plexus <ul><li>(3) Lumbosacral plexus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formed by the anterior branches of L1-S5 roots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be a lumbar (L1-L5) plexus and a sacral (S1-S5) plexus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extends from lumbar region into pelvic cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obturator nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supply motor impulses to adductors of thighs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Femoral nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supply motor impulses to muscles of anterior thigh and sensory impulses from skin of thighs and legs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sciatic nerve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supply muscles and skin of thighs, legs and feet </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Sciatic n. Saphenous n. Femoral n. Obturator n. Tibial n. Pudendal n. (b) (c) (a) Femoral n. Obturator n. Pudendal n. Sciatic n. L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 Ventral rami Anterior divisions Posterior divisions Lateral femoral cutaneous n. Superior gluteal n. Inferior gluteal n. Superior gluteal n. Inferior gluteal n. Sacral plexus Common fibular (peroneal) n. Posterior cutaneous n. Common fibular (peroneal) n. Tibial n.
  80. 80. Plexuses C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T8 T9 T10 T11 T12 L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 S2 S3 S4 S5 Co Posterior view Cervical plexus (C1–C4) Lumbosacral plexus (T12–S5) Sciatic nerve Brachial plexus (C5–T1) Obturator nerve Phrenic nerve Ulnar nerve Median nerve Radial nerve Axillary nerve T7 S1 Cauda equina Musculocutaneous nerve Femoral nerve Intercostal nerves Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
  81. 81. 11.7 Clinical Application Spinal Nerve Injuries
  82. 82. 11.7: Autonomic Nervous System <ul><li>Functions without conscious effort </li></ul><ul><li>Controls visceral activities </li></ul><ul><li>Regulates smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands </li></ul><ul><li>Efferent fibers typically lead to ganglia outside of the CNS </li></ul><ul><li>Two autonomic divisions regulate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sympathetic division (speeds up) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prepares body for ‘fight or flight’ situations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic division (slows down) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prepares body for ‘resting and digesting’ activities </li></ul></ul></ul>
  83. 83. Autonomic Nerve Fibers <ul><li>All of the neurons are motor (efferent) </li></ul><ul><li>Preganglionic fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Axons of preganglionic neurons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuron cell bodies in CNS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Postganglionic fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Axons of postganglionic neurons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuron cell bodies in ganglia </li></ul></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Interneurons Spinal cord Dorsal root ganglion Viscera (b) Somatic pathway Skin Somatic motor neuron Dorsal root ganglion Sensory neuron Autonomic ganglion Preganglionic fiber Postganglionic fiber Skeletal muscle Sensory neuron (a) Autonomic pathway
  84. 84. Sympathetic Division <ul><li>Thoracolumbar division – location of preganglionic neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Preganglionic fibers leave spinal nerves through white rami and enter paravertebral ganglia </li></ul><ul><li>Paraverterbral ganglia and fibers that connect them make up the sympathetic trunk </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Ventral root Spinal nerves Spinal cord Dorsal root Pia mater Sympathetic trunk Paravertebral sympathetic ganglion Transverse process Vertebral notch (forms part of intervertebral foramen) Body of vertebra Dura mater Arachnoid mater Dorsal root ganglion
  85. 85. Sympathetic Division <ul><li>Postganglionic fibers extend from sympathetic ganglia to visceral organs </li></ul><ul><li>Postganglionic fibers usually pass through gray rami and return to a spinal nerve before proceeding to an effector </li></ul><ul><li>Exception: preganglionic fibers to adrenal medulla do not synapse with postganglionic neurons </li></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Spinal cord Ventral root Dorsal root Sympathetic trunk Posterior horn Lateral horn Anterior horn Preganglionic neuron Postganglionic neuron Dorsal root ganglion Spinal nerve Visceral effector (intestine) Collateral ganglion To visceral effectors (smooth muscle of blood vessels, arrector pili muscles, and sweat glands) Gray ramus White ramus Dorsal branch of spinal nerve Ventral branch of spinal nerve Paravertebral sympathetic ganglion
  86. 86. Sympathetic Division Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Lacrimal gland Skin Eye Blood vessels Heart Lungs Adrenal gland Kidney Uterus Penis Liver Stomach Gallbladder Pancreas Ovary Scrotum Small intestine Large intestine Trachea Parotid gland, submandibular and sublingual glands Urinary bladder Preganglionic neuron Postganglionic neuron Sympathetic chain ganglia Inferior mesenteric ganglion Spinal cord Superior mesenteric ganglion Celiac ganglion Fibers to skin, blood vessels, and adipose tissue Celiac and pulmonary plexuses
  87. 87. Parasympathetic Division <ul><li>Craniosacral division – location of preganglionic neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Ganglia are near or within various organs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terminal ganglia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Short postganglionic fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continue to specific muscles or glands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preganglionic fibers of the head are included in nerves III, VII, and IX </li></ul><ul><li>Preganglionic fibers of thorax and abdomen are parts of nerve X </li></ul>
  88. 88. Parasympathetic Division Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Heart Trachea Lung Gallbladder Liver Stomach Spleen Pancreas Small intestine Large intestine Kidney Uterus Scrotum Otic ganglion Ciliary ganglion Eye Penis Ovary Sphenopalatine ganglion Cranial nerve III Cranial Nerve VII Submandibular ganglion Cranial nerve IX Cranial nerve X (Vagus) Cardiac and pulmonary plexuses Celiac plexus Superior hypogastric plexus Inferior hypogastric plexus Spinal cord Pelvic nerves Urinary bladder Parotid gland Submandibular and sublingual glands Lacrimal gland Preganglionic neuron Postganglionic neuron
  89. 89. Autonomic Neurotransmitters <ul><li>Cholinergic fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Release acetylcholine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preganglionic sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Postganglionic parasympathetic fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adrenergic fibers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Release norepinephrine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most postganglionic sympathetic fibers </li></ul></ul>Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Brain Postganglionic fiber (axon) Preganglionic fiber (axon) Ganglion Sympathetic neurons ACh = acetylcholine (cholinergic) NE = norepinephrine (adrenergic) ACh ACh ACh ACh ACh ACh NE NE Cranial parasympathetic neurons Sacral parasympathetic neurons Collateral ganglion Paravertebral ganglion Visceral effectors
  90. 90. Actions of Autonomic Neurotransmitters <ul><li>Result from binding to protein receptors in the membrane of effector cells: </li></ul><ul><li>Cholinergic receptors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bind to acetylcholine (Ach) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscarinic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excitatory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nicotinic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excitatory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Adrenergic receptors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bind to epinephrine and norepinephrine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alpha and beta </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both elicit different responses on various effectors </li></ul></ul></ul>
  91. 91. Terminating Autonomic Neurotransmitter Actions <ul><li>The enzyme acetylcholinesterase rapidly decomposes the acetylcholine that cholinergic fibers release. </li></ul><ul><li>Norepinephrine from adrenergic fibers is removed by active transport. </li></ul>
  92. 92. Control of Autonomic Activity <ul><li>Controlled largely by CNS </li></ul><ul><li>Medulla oblongata regulates cardiac, vasomotor and respiratory activities </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus regulates visceral functions, such as body temperature, hunger, thirst, and water and electrolyte balance </li></ul><ul><li>Limbic system and cerebral cortex control emotional responses </li></ul>
  93. 93. 11.8: Lifespan Changes <ul><li>Brain cells begin to die before birth </li></ul><ul><li>Over average lifetime, brain shrinks 10% </li></ul><ul><li>Most cell death occurs in temporal lobes </li></ul><ul><li>By age 90, frontal cortex has lost half its neurons </li></ul><ul><li>Number of dendritic branches decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased levels of neurotransmitters </li></ul><ul><li>Fading memory </li></ul><ul><li>Slowed responses and reflexes </li></ul><ul><li>Increased risk of falling </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in sleep patterns that result in fewer sleeping hours </li></ul>
  94. 94. Important Points in Chapter 11: Outcomes to be Assessed <ul><li>11.1: Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the general structure of the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the relationship among the brain, brainstem, and spinal cord. </li></ul><ul><li>11.2: Meninges </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the coverings of the brain and spinal cord. </li></ul><ul><li>11.3: Ventricles and Cerebrospinal Fluid </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the formation and function of cerebrospinal fluid. </li></ul><ul><li>11.4: Spinal Cord </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the structure of the spinal cord and its major functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe a reflex arc. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe reflex behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>11.5: Brain </li></ul><ul><li>Name the major parts of the brain and describe the functions of each. </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish among motor, sensory, association areas of the cerebral cortex. </li></ul>
  95. 95. Important Points in Chapter 11: Outcomes to be Assessed <ul><li>Explain hemisphere dominance. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain stages in memory storage. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the functions of the limbic system and reticular formation. </li></ul><ul><li>11.6: Peripheral Nervous System </li></ul><ul><li>List the major parts of the peripheral nervous system. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the structure of a peripheral nerve and how its fibers are classified. </li></ul><ul><li>Name the cranial nerves and list their major functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how spinal nerves are named and their functions </li></ul><ul><li>11.7: Autonomic Nervous System </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the general characteristics of the autonomic nervous system. </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguish between the sympathetic and the parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe a sympathetic and a parasympathetic nerve pathway. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how the autonomic neurotransmitters differently affect visceral effectors </li></ul>
  96. 96. Quiz 11 Complete Quiz 11 now! Read Chapter 12.
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×