Learning goal 2

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Learning goal 2

  1. 1. Learning Goal 1 The Work of Gregor Mendel Background on Gregor Mendel Details - Reasons for Choosing Peas - Mendel’s Experimental Design His Pea Experiment - Mendel’s Results - Mendel’s Laws Law of Dominance - Law of Segregation - Law of Independent Assortment - Genetic Terms Alleles - Homozygous - Heterozygous - Genotype - Phenotype -
  2. 2. Unit IV Learning Goal 1 Describe the research of Gregor Mendel and predict the outcome of genetic crosses.
  3. 3. Background on Gregor Mendel • Details • Austrian monk with an interest in gardening and a good knowledge of mathematics. • In the 1840’s he experimented with the traits of garden peas (Pisum sativum).
  4. 4. Reasons for Choosing the Garden Pea • Many varieties exist. • Easy to observe contrasting traits. • They self-pollinate. • They reproduce quickly.
  5. 5. Mendel’s Experimental Design • His Pea Experiment • He allowed each variety to self-pollinate for several generations to ensure that they were true-breeding (offspring always exhibited the same trait). He called this the P1 (parent)Generation. • He took two of these parent plants with contrasting forms of the same trait and cross- pollinated them. • The plants that resulted from this cross were called the F1 Generation. • Mendel then allowed the F1 plants to self-pollinate to produce the F2 Generation.
  6. 6. Mendel’s Results • For every trait, one form would disappear from the F1 generation. • The disappearing trait reappeared in the ¼ of the F2 generation. • This was true of all seven traits that Mendel looked at. • He used the term dominant to refer to the form of the trait exhibited in the F1 generation and recessive to refer to the disappearing trait.
  7. 7. Mendel’s Laws • Law of Dominance – One form of each trait is dominant and one is recessive.
  8. 8. Law of Segregation • Members of each gene pair (alleles) separate during gamete formation ( meiosis).
  9. 9. Law of Independent Assortment • The genes for different traits separate independently from one another during gamete formation.
  10. 10. Genetic Terms • Alleles – members of a gene pair symbolized by letters. Dominant alleles are capital letters, and recessive alleles are lower case. • Homozygous – the alleles of a gene pair are identical (RR or rr). • Heterozygous – the alleles of a gene pair are different (Rr). • Genotype – describes the types of alleles of a gene pair • Phenotype – describes the expression of the trait in the appearance.

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