Learning goal 2
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Learning goal 2 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Learning Goal 1 The Work of Gregor Mendel
    • Background on Gregor Mendel
    • Details -
    • Reasons for Choosing Peas -
    • Mendel’s Experimental Design
    • His Pea Experiment -
    • Mendel’s Results -
    • Mendel’s Laws
    • Law of Dominance -
    • Law of Segregation -
    • Law of Independent Assortment -
    • Genetic Terms
    • Alleles -
    • Homozygous -
    • Heterozygous -
    • Genotype -
    • Phenotype -
  • 2. Unit IV Learning Goal 1 Describe the research of Gregor Mendel and predict the outcome of genetic crosses.
  • 3. Background on Gregor Mendel
    • Details
    • Austrian monk with an interest in gardening and a good knowledge of mathematics.
    • In the 1840’s he experimented with the traits of garden peas (Pisum sativum).
  • 4. Reasons for Choosing the Garden Pea
    • Many varieties exist.
    • Easy to observe contrasting traits.
    • They self-pollinate.
    • They reproduce quickly.
  • 5. Mendel’s Experimental Design
    • His Pea Experiment
    • He allowed each variety to self-pollinate for several generations to ensure that they were true-breeding (offspring always exhibited the same trait). He called this the P 1 (parent) Generation.
    • He took two of these parent plants with contrasting forms of the same trait and cross-pollinated them.
    • The plants that resulted from this cross were called the F 1 Generation.
    • Mendel then allowed the F 1 plants to self-pollinate to produce the F 2 Generation.
  • 6. Mendel’s Results
    • For every trait, one form would disappear from the F 1 generation.
    • The disappearing trait reappeared in the ¼ of the F 2 generation.
    • This was true of all seven traits that Mendel looked at.
    • He used the term dominant to refer to the form of the trait exhibited in the F 1 generation and recessive to refer to the disappearing trait.
  • 7. Mendel’s Laws
    • Law of Dominance –
    • One form of each trait is dominant and one is recessive.
  • 8. Law of Segregation
    • Members of each gene pair (alleles) separate during gamete formation ( meiosis ).
  • 9. Law of Independent Assortment
    • The genes for different traits separate independently from one another during gamete formation.
  • 10. Genetic Terms
    • Alleles – members of a gene pair symbolized by letters. Dominant alleles are capital letters, and recessive alleles are lower case.
    • Homozygous – the alleles of a gene pair are identical (RR or rr).
    • Heterozygous – the alleles of a gene pair are different (Rr).
    • Genotype – describes the types of alleles of a gene pair
    • Phenotype – describes the expression of the trait in the appearance.