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  • 1. Lesson 3 Radioactive Dodgeball
  • 2. Learning Outcomes
    • You will be successful if you can:
    • Describe the properties of alpha, beta and gamma radiation.
    • Give uses of radiation in medicine
    • Describe how radiation dose is calculated
    • Link ideas of risk to the use of radiation
  • 3. Radioactivity If a substance is capable of ALWAYS emitting radiation under any conditions we say it is ____________. There are three types of radiation: ALPHA, _____ and GAMMA. These types of radiation are always given off by rocks, _____, building materials, air and cosmic rays around us – this is called BACKGROUND RADIATION. Each type is capable of penetrating different materials: Sheet of paper Few mm of _________ Few cm of lead Words – aluminium, beta, food, radioactive   
  • 4. Dangers of radioactivity OUTSIDE the body  and  are more dangerous as  radiation is blocked by the skin. INSIDE the body an  source causes the most damage because it is the most ionising. Radiation will ionise atoms in living cells – this can damage them and cause cancer or leukaemia. Alpha Beta Gamma
  • 5. Types of radiation 1) Alpha (  ) – an atom decays into a new atom and emits an alpha particle (2 protons and 2 neutrons – the nucleus of a helium atom) 2) Beta (  ) – an atom decays into a new atom by changing a neutron into a proton and electron. The fast moving, high energy electron is called a beta particle. 3) Gamma – after  or  decay surplus energy is sometimes emitted. This is called gamma radiation and has a very high frequency with short wavelength. The atom is not changed. Unstable nucleus Unstable nucleus Unstable nucleus New nucleus New nucleus Alpha particle Beta particle Gamma radiation New nucleus
  • 6. ALARA
    • A s L ow A s R easonably A chievable
    • If something must be done or used , then the risks must be controlled and as low as possible – enforced by Law

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