Targeting change efforts at organizational subsystems


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Targeting change efforts at organizational subsystems

  1. 1. Targeting Change EffortsIntervening at a Subsystem Level
  2. 2. Organizational change interventions– transformation arenas • Each arena carries its own unique – Change perspectives – Change problems – Change points – Change promoters – Change perils – Change promises
  3. 3. Decision-focused changeinterventions Perspectives • Empirical • Rational Promises Problems • Clear perceptions • Ill-made decisions • Rational priorities and • Ill-informed decisions plans Perils Points • Underestimating the • Logic people factor • Information • Managing by the numbers Promotes • Robust information flows • Reasoned decisions
  4. 4. Psychologically/Socially-focusedchange interventions Perspectives • Psychological • Sociological Promises • Emotional honesty and Problems openness • Individual insecurity • Individual support • Relational instability • Interpersonal sensitivity Perils Points • Satisfaction>productivity • Emotions • Managers ill-fitted to be • Relations counselors Promotes • Psychological affirmation • Social support
  5. 5. Learning-focused changeinterventions Perspectives • Developmental • Instructional Promises • Enhanced abilities Problems • Energized and expanded • Undeveloped capacities self confidence • Weak self concept Perils Points • Unlearning/learning • Skills resistance • Self concept • Individual learning ceilings Promotes • Equipping • Encouragement
  6. 6. Economics-focused changeinterventions Perspectives • Monetization • Competition Promise • Strategic resource acquisition Problems • Strategic resource • Inadequate resources allocation • Unavailable resources Perils Point • Things >People • Resources • Measuring short/long • Distribution systems term costs/benefits Promotes • Resource development • Resource distribution
  7. 7. Politically-focused changeinterventions Perspectives • Political • Alliances Promises • Power is acquired • Power is appreciated Problems • Power is applied with • Low power principle • Poor negotiation skills Perils Points • Unprincipled manipulation • Power • People treated as means • Networking rather than ends Promotes • Power development • Political maneuvering
  8. 8. Entrepreneurially-focused changeinterventions Perspectives • Innovation • Alliances Promises Problems • Quick on the OUDA Loop • Organizational timidity (risk • Aggressive opportunism aversion) • Lean organizations • Organization bureaucracy • Appetite for risk taking Perils Points • Inadequate discussion and • Opportunity recognition debate about options • Opportunity analysis • Action prized over thinking • Risk management Promotions • Courage and creativity • Removing organizational structural and procedural impediments
  9. 9. Bureaucratically-focused changeinterventions Perspectives Promises • Incremental • Identifying small, high- • Experimental success probability targets of Problems opportunity • Lack of experience with • Achievable change change expectations • All-or-nothing mentality • Slow, steady progress up the • Rush to judgment learning curve Perils Points • Too little change, too late • Phased, limited change • Assumes evolution will • Feedback triumph over revolution Promotion • A variety of small adaptations • Growing accumulation of small successes
  10. 10. Value-focused change interventions Perspectives • Inspirational • Emotional Promises Problems • Articulation of deeply held • Lack of passion for change values • Lack of sustained • Alignment of personal values commitment for change with group causes Perils Points • Mere cheerleading • Ideals and values • Triumph of emotion over • Motivation substantive development Promotion • Charismatic leadership rooted in passionate vision • Compelling devotion to change
  11. 11. Environmentally-focused changeinterventions Perspectives • EnvironmentalPromises • Catalytic• Environmental opportunity Problems perspective • Ignorance of environmental• Alignment of personal values realities with group causes • Intransigence in the face of environmental pressuresPerils• Inaction because of the desire Points for more certainty • Environmental sensitivity• Reactive rather than proactive • Environmental adaptability responses Promotion • Environmental awareness and analysis • Early and sustained adaptability
  12. 12. Organizational change interventions:some observations • Change is occurring somewhere, somehow, in every organization. • Changes occur in different degrees and stages in various places throughout the organization
  13. 13. Organizational change interventions:some observations • However, change is also resisted – there are very real (and sometimes just imagined) individual, interpersonal and institutional reasons for resistance • Not all resistance is bad – organizations are designed to bring stability and predictability and some resistance is normal even among change advocates • Responding positively and creatively to resistance can help us build a better strategy for change
  14. 14. Organizational change interventions:some observations • Effective change management requires managing the MEANING of the change: – What the existing state is and what the desired state is and WHY the desired state is both preferable and necessary – What elements need to be changed to reach the desired state – How and when the changes needed can best be achieved
  15. 15. Organizational change interventions:some observations • There are a variety of change levers and a variety of change approaches. – Different leverage points will be appropriate in different situations – Different change approaches will be effective in different situations – NO change point or approach will be totally effective – each has potential positive and negative impacts
  16. 16. Organizational change interventions:some observations • Change advocates often have a “personal preference” for particular change points and leverage approaches – The problem is that change agents may choose an approach to change that is comfortable for them personally but inappropriate for the subsystem involved. – The most effective change agents are committed to the change rather than to a particular change modality.