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Theories of leadership

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  • 1. Theories of Leadership S.G.ISAVE, Tilak College of Education, Pune-30
  • 2. Theory explains
    • What is leadership?
    • Which is an effective leadership?
    • How it is measured?
    • Who can be a good leader?
  • 3. Theories of leadership
    • Philosophical Approach theory.
    • The trait theory.
    • Behavioral theory.
    • Contingency / Situational theory.
  • 4. Philosophical Approach Theory
  • 5. Theory X & Theory Y
    • By Douglas McGregor
    • Theory X assumptions about subordinates.
    • Theory Y assumptions about subordinates.
  • 6. Theory X Assumptions
    • Shrink their responsibilities.
    • Own interest and safety above all things.
    • No creativity.
    • Don’t like to work.
    • No interest in solving institutions problems.
    • Need to be controlled.
  • 7. Behavior of Leader (X)
    • Grater control,
    • Discipline,
    • Supervises,
    • Autocratic,
    • Rigid,
    • Task-oriented.
  • 8. Theory Y Assumptions
    • Not lazy by nature.
    • Can be self-directed.
    • Motivated.
    • Creative.
    • Institution first.
    • Conscious about institute’s development.
  • 9. Behavior of Leader (Y)
    • Caring,
    • Helpful,
    • Supportive,
    • Adjustable,
    • Freedom,
    • Faithful.
  • 10. 2. Trait theory
  • 11. 2. Trait theory –
    • Based on research before 1960.
    • Ralph, Stogdill,
    • Richard Mann,
    • Bernard.
  • 12. Certain traits required for leadership
    • Intelligence,
    • Decision making,
    • Initiative,
    • Confidence,
    • Appearance,
    • Affection,
    • Knowledge,
    • Balanced
  • 13. 3. Behavioral Theories
  • 14. Behavioral Theories
    • 1960s and 1970s
    • Leadership is highly dynamic relationship between leader- members in a specific situation.
  • 15. Dimensions of Behavior of Leader
    • Bureau of Business Research -
    • 1. Initiating structure 2. Consideration.
    • Parsons & Bales -1. Instrumental 2. Expressive.
    • Stogdill, Coons, Brown –
    • 1. System Oriented 2. Person Oriented.
    • Brown – 1. Control 2. Cathartic
    • Getzels & Guba – 1. Non athletic 2. Ideographic
    • Fiddler - 1. Task Oriented 2. Relation Oriented.
  • 16. STOGDILL’s six sub-set of behavior of leader–
    • SYSTEM ORIENTED BEHAVIOR DIMENSION-
    • PRODUCTION
    • INTIATING STRUCTURE.
    • REPRENTATION .
    • ROLE ASSUMPTION.
    • PERSUASIVENESS.
    • SUPERIOR-ORIENTATION.
  • 17. STOGDILL’s six sub-set of behavior of leader
    • PERSON ORIENTED --
    • TOLARANCE OF UNCERTAINITY
    • CONSIDERATION.
    • TOLRANCE OF FREEDOM.
    • DEMAND RECONCILIATION.
    • INTEGRATION.
    • PREDICTIVE ACCURACY.
  • 18. 4.Contingency / Situational Theories
  • 19. 4.Contingency / Situational Theories
    • No universal behavior/trait for leadership.
    • More flexible according to the situation.
    • To adapt the demand of situation and need of followers
  • 20. 4.1 FIELDER’S THEORY OF LEADERSHIP By, Fred Fielder
  • 21. FIELDER’S Theory of Leadership
    • Effectiveness of leadership depends on -------
    • -- Relationship between leader- followers.
    • -- The degree to which the task is structured.
    • -- Power of leader’s position.
  • 22. Major Features
    • Leadership styles – expressed the need to adapt a style according to the situation.
    • Maximum group performance – tried to analyze and identify the style which may maximize the performance of a group.
    • Group-task situation – should adjust the style with the nature of task and nature of subordinates.
  • 23. 4.2.VROOM’S AND YETTON’S NORMATIVE CONTINGENCY THEORY By, Victor Vroom & Philip Yetton
  • 24. Normative Contingency Theory
    • How a leader should behave in particular situation.
    • First diagnose the situation then adapt appropriate leadership style.
  • 25. Normative Contingency Theory
    • Five Leadership styles
    • 1. Autocratic Process–
    • A-I . Decision on available info.
    • A-II . Collection of required info. then decision.
    • 2. Consultative Process –
    • C-I . One to one sharing
    • C-II . Asking an opinion in meeting to a group.
    • 3. Group Process – G-II . Sharing in meeting; but not forcing his decision and accept the decision of group.
  • 26. 4.3.REDDIN’S 3D THEORY OF LEADERSHIP By, William J Reddin
  • 27. REDDIN’S THEORY OF LEADERSHIP
    • Effective leadership theory is the combination of task oriented and relation orientation. Third is effectiveness.
    • 1. Task Oriented.
    • 2. Relation Oriented .
    • 3. EFFECTIVENESS.
  • 28. Situational Contingency (to diagnose the situation))
    • Five Factors --
    • Psychological climate.
    • The technology used.
    • Relation with superior.
    • Relation with co-workers.
    • Relation with subordinates.
  • 29.
    • Low T- Low R style. ( Bureaucrat)
    • Low T- high R ( Developer)
    • High T -low R ( Autocrat)
    • High T - high R ( Executive)
    • (T- task, R- relationship)
    • None of these is universally effective. It depends on the situation in which it is used.
    Four Effective Styles of Leadership
  • 30. Ineffective Styles
    • Compromiser – When TO and RO both are most important but emphasis only one or neither.
    • Missionary – maximum concern to people (RO), minimum to task (TO).
    • It always compromise with task. Try to be popular.
  • 31. Ineffective Styles
    • 3. Autocrat – maximum concern to task minimum to relation. Never shows confidence on others.
    • 4. Deserter – minimum concern to task and relation. Isolated and careless leaders.
  • 32. 4.4 HERSEY’S AND BLANCHARD’S SITUATIONAL THEORY “Life Cycle Theory of Leadership”
  • 33. Maturity Level of members is critical factor in effectiveness of leadership styles.
  • 34. Maturity
    • The skill and willingness to set high but realistic goals.
    • The skills and willingness to take responsibilities for the achievement of their goals.
  • 35. Dimensions of Effectiveness of Leadership
    • Task Orientation.
    • Relationship Orientation.
    • Maturity of the Group .
  • 36. Theory asserts that
    • The maturity level of the group can be increased over time.
    • Due to that leadership style will be shifted from task oriented to relation oriented.
  • 37. 4.5 .PATH-GOAL THEORY OF LEADERSHIP Emerging Theory.
  • 38. PATH-GOAL THEORY OF LEADERSHIP
    • Effectiveness depends on Leadership’s impact on subordinates and his motivation, ability to perform, satisfaction etc.
  • 39. Contingency factors
    • Relation between leader behavior and satisfaction of subordinates depends on
    • Personal characteristics of subordinates i.e. perception about leader’s behavior, task, means, procedures etc.
    • Environment available to subordinates. i.e. task, formal authority of organization, primary work group.
  • 40. Leadership Styles (not tested.)
    • Directive – positive correlation with satisfaction and expectations of subordinates who has negative correlation with correlation with satisfaction.
    • Supportive – positive effect on subordinates who work under stressful, frustrating task.
  • 41. Leadership Styles (not tested.)
    • 3. Achievement Oriented – Cause subordinates to strive higher standards of performance, to build confidence.
    • 4. Participative - Calling subordinates for their contribution.
  • 42. THANKS