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Week 5 Presentation on Deuze

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  • 1. Digital Research and Publishing Presentation Week 5 Digital Environments
    • Deuze, Mark, ‘Participation, Remediation, Bricolage: Considering Principle Components of a Digital Culture’, The Information Society , 22(1), 2006, pp.63-75.
    • Unit: ARIN 6912-2
    • Lecturer: Amit Kelkar
  • 2. Paradigm shifts
    • Print
    • Linear and hierarchical 
    • Online
    • Multivocal networks of meaning
  • 3.
    • “ The problem with email is that it makes you write more (as opposed to instant messaging). And when you finish you wait and wait and wait for a reply but don’t realise that the other person has logged off. So in the end you log off as well while the other person logs on again. That person then replies to you but you’re logged off so there’s more waiting.”
      • Lilia, age 10
  • 4. Culture
    • A set of values, norms, practices and expectations that is shared and constantly renegotiated by a group of people.
  • 5. Digital Culture
    • set of values that regular users create (netiquette)
    • social phenomenon that is observable online and offline
  • 6. Epistemological questions
    • What can we know? How can we know it? Why do we know some things, but not others? How do we acquire knowledge? Is knowledge possible? Can knowledge be certain? How can we differentiate truth from falsehood? Why do we believe certain claims and not others?
  • 7. Jean Baudrillard Simulacra and Simulation
    • identifies three types of simulacra (=used to describe a representation of another thing) and identifies each with a historical period
  • 8. Simulacra
    • First order
    • (pre-modern period) 
    • Second order
    • (Industrial Revolution) 
    • Third order
    • (postmodern age) 
    • Image is clearly an artificial placemarker for the real item
    • Distinctions between image and reality break down due to the proliferation of mass-produced copies. The item's ability to imitate reality threatens to replace the original version
    • The simulacrum precedes the original and the distinction between reality and representation breaks down. There is only the simulacrum.
  • 9.
    • ‘ Endless recycling and quoting of past media content, artistic styles and forms became the new ‘international style’ and the new cultural logic of modern society. Rather than assembling more media recordings or reality, culture is now busy reworking, recombining, and analyzing already accumulated media material.’
    • Jussi Parikka, ‘Copy’, 2008
  • 10.
    • Key assumptions
    • Methodology
    • Primary sources
    • Principal components
  • 11. Assumptions
    • All aspects of everyday life – at least in highly industrialised societies - are influenced or implicated by computerisation.
    • The spaces that are opened up by communication technologies are not new forms of culture in themselves. Rather, w e express ourselves in this culture and this is done as members of an increasingly individualised society in a globalised world
  • 12. Principal components of culture
    • are those values and practices that people need to create an identity and participate in identity politics
  • 13. Principle components of a digital culture
    • Participation Remediation Bricolage
    • What functions and devices enable and extend our ability to communicate?
    • How do we use those devices?
    • What social arrangements are formed around them?
  • 14. Indymedia
    • Journalistic genre
    • Adheres to practices and ideals of ‘open’ publishing  ‘collaborative, nonhierarchical storytelling’ (Deuze)
    • Anyone can post and upload files
    • No formal editorial moderation or filtering process
    • Group weblog?
    • Connect local communities and their issues with global ones
    • Usually oppositional or function outside the mainstream media corporations
    • Global/local and producer/consumer distinctions are becoming meaningless.
  • 15. Traditional journalistic functions
    • Gatekeeping
      • Journalist is the filter of what is news
      • Quality control
    • Framing
      • Using certain narrative techniques
      • Are there any underlying messages?
  • 16. In the proliferation and saturation of screen-based, networked, and digital media that saturate our lives, our reconstitution is expressed as:
    • Active agents in the process of meaning-making
    •  we become participants
    • We adopt but at the same time modify, manipulate, and thus reform consensual ways of understanding reality
    •  we engage in remediation
    • We reflexively assemble our own particular versions of such reality
    •  we are bricleurs
  • 17. Participation
    • Contemporary understanding of participation:
    •  ‘ hypersociability’
          • encourages the involvement of media consumers in a story through social interaction
          • networked individualism
          • participants ‘rebuild structures of sociability from the bottom up’.
    • Traditional social capital shrinking?
  • 18. Political repercussions
    • passive and “informational” 
    • citizenry
    • rights-based, monetorial and voluntarist citizenry
  • 19. Remediation
    • constant remix of older media forms by newer ones and vice versa
    • an expression of a distinctly private enactment of human agency in the face of omnipresent computer-mediated reality.’
    • ‘ All mediation is remediation. We are not claiming this as an a priori truth, but rather arguing that at this extended historical moment, all current media function as remediators and that remediation offers us a means of interpreting the work of earlier media as well. Our culture conceives of each medium or constellation of media as it responds to, redeploys, competes with, and reforms other media. In the first instance, we may think of something like a historical progression, of newer media remediating older ones and in particular of digital media remediating their predecessors. But ours is a genealogy of affiliations, not a linear history, and in this genealogy, older media can also remediate newer ones.’
      • Bolter, Jay David, and Richard Grusin. Remediation: Understanding New Media. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999, p.55.
  • 20. Distantiation
    • Deuze: Remediation always involves an element of ‘distantiation’:
        • manipulation of a dominant way of doing things in order to juxtapose, challenge and/or subvert the mainstream as a consequence of the extreme fragmentation of society .
  • 21.
    • Newspapers/Newscasts
    • traditionally function on the basis of selectivity and linearity
    • Blogs
    • arranged chronologically
    • more similar to the way we think and act
    • adds value to the content that is produced by the mainstream?
  • 22. B ri c o l a g e
    • legitimises and attributes quality to people’s actions online
    • incorporates borrowing, hybridity, mixture and plagiarism
    • used to create new insights or meanings
  • 23. Summary of paradigm shifts
    • Professional detached 
    • observation
    • Access based on 
    • expertise claimed on the basis
    • of institutional authority
    • Top-down delivering 
    • of messages
    • Preferring the personal experiential account
    • Heralding openness for all
    • Attributing more weight to providing a bottom-up platform for individual voices
  • 24. Bibliography
    • Baudrillard, Jean, ‘The precession of Simulacra’ in Simulacra and Simulation , University of Michigan Press, 2006, pp.1-43.
    • Baudrillard, Jean, ‘The implosion of meaning in the media’ in Simulacra and Simulation , University of Michigan Press, 2006, pp.79-86.
    • Baudrillard, Jean, ‘On Nihilism’ in Simulacra and Simulation , University of Michigan Press, 2006, pp.159-168.
    • Bolter, Jay David, and Richard Grusin. Remediation: Understanding New Media. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999, p.55.
    • Browner, S.P., R.Sears, et al., ‘Literature and the internet: some theoretical considerations’ in Literature and the internet: a guide for students, teachers, and scholars , New York: Garland, 2000, pp.115-127.
    • Deuze, Mark, 2003, ‘The Web and its journalisms: Considering the consequences of different types of media online’, New Media & Society, 5(2), pp.203-230.
    • Lessig, Lawrence, Free culture: the nature and future of creativity, New York, Penguin Press, 2005.
    • Jayaram, Mahalakshmi, ‘News in the age of instant communication’ in Practising journalism – values, constraints, implications , Nalini Rajan (ed.), Sage Publications, New Dehli, 2005, pp 285-303.
    • Jensen, Michael J., Danziger, James N. and Venkatesh, Alladi, ‘Civil society and Cyber society: The role of the Internet in Community Associations and Democratic Politics’, The Information Society , 23(1), pp.39-50.
    • Parikka, J., ‘Copy’ in Fuller, M., Software studies: a lexicaon, Camebridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2008, pp.125-129.
    • Putnam, Robert, ‘A decline of social capital? – The German case’ in Democracies in flux: The evolution of social capital in contemporary society , Oxford, OUP, 2004, pp. 189-244.
    • Putnam, Robert, ‘Australia – making the lucky country’ in Democracies in flux: The evolution of social capital in contemporary society , Oxford, OUP, 2004, pp. 333-358.
    • Websites
    • http://www.bloggersblog.com/
    • http://www.indymedia.com/mc/index.php
    • ‘ State of the Blogosphere 2008’ accessed 21/08/2009 on http://technorati.com/blogging/state-of-the-blogosphere/