PRODUCT MARKETING  <ul><li>The Airdolphin is a micro wind turbine designed for the domestic market and manufactured in Jap...
PRODUCT PERFORMANCE <ul><li>Will continuously generate at wind speeds of 2.5m/s through 50m/s </li></ul><ul><li>It has a c...
PRODUCT POWER GENERATING CAPABILITY
PRODUCT SAFETY <ul><li>Several technologies help to keep the turbine from disintegrating and allow it to control its outpu...
<ul><li>The RM-1000 Remote Monitor is a multifunctional remote control unit developed exclusively for Zephyr's wind turbin...
PRODUCT INSTALLATION <ul><li>The Airdolphin can be mounted in many situations using a variety of standard towers  and wall...
PRODUCT INSTALLATION <ul><li>Tilt towers are available from 6m to 12m in height and are specially designed to meet the loa...
<ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mjbg787qQnk </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mg_2UA-Dxzo </li></ul>...
PRODUCT & TARGET MARKETING <ul><li>Applications include: </li></ul><ul><li>Parks </li></ul><ul><li>Streets </li></ul><ul><...
Typical Electric Usage & Costs <ul><li>Average retail price of electricity per Kilowatt hours (kWh) for residential consum...
GEOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT <ul><li>KANSAI REGION:  FUKUI, SHIGA, KYOTO, OSAKA (2 nd  largest city in Japan), HYOGO, NARA, WAKA...
ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT <ul><li>KANSAI REGION: </li></ul><ul><li>GENERATES 20% OF JAPAN’S GDP </li></ul><ul><li>COMBINED GROS...
CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT <ul><li>60% OF JAPAN’S NATIONAL TREASURES AND IMPORTANT CULTURAL ASSETS ARE LOCATED IN THIS REGION </...
SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT <ul><li>GENERALLY KNOWN AS “GETTING TO THE HEART OF THINGS” </li></ul><ul><li>KANSAI AND ITS PEOPLE ARE...
POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT <ul><li>GOVERNMENT POLICIES FOSTER INTERNATIONALIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS THAT E...
ENTRY MODE <ul><li>Zephyr Corporation Partnership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales & distribution agent in Kansai Region </li><...
ENTRY MODE <ul><li>About Zephyr Corporation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established June 11, 1997 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>26...
ANALYZING INTERNATIONAL COMPETITORS <ul><li>Mitsubishi Heavy Industries </li></ul><ul><li>Green Power Investment Corporati...
REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY (Zephyr)
GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY (Zephyr) <ul><li>Global Regions: </li></ul><ul><li>Europe – Spain, Italy, United Kingdom, Swe...
GLOBAL PROMOTION STRATEGY <ul><li>“ Ecotricity” is the new catch phrase for generating clean power </li></ul><ul><li>Japan...
Financing sources for Wind energy <ul><li>Financing Sources for Wind power industry have </li></ul><ul><li>included Govern...
Financing sources for Wind energy <ul><li>Indirect Policies include: </li></ul><ul><li>-  Government Tendering: </li></ul>...
Financing sources for Wind Energy <ul><li>Private investors: </li></ul><ul><li>Citizen Wind Power  is a project which has ...
SELECTING COMPANY STRUCTURE <ul><li>Strategic objectives of Wind Power International </li></ul><ul><li>- Product Offering:...
SELECTING COMPANY STRUCTURE <ul><li>Agent of Zephyr </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of being an Agent for Zephyr: </li></ul><...
CREATING AN INFORMATION SUPPORT SYSTEM <ul><li>Domestic information sources for WPI </li></ul><ul><li>- Ministry of  Econo...
<ul><li>Global information sources for WPI </li></ul><ul><li>- Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC.net), a global forum  </li...
IDENTIFYING HUMAN RESOURCES <ul><li>Staffing </li></ul><ul><li>- General Manager (local Japanese hire) </li></ul><ul><li>-...
IDENTIFYING HUMAN RESOURCES <ul><li>Performance Appraisal  </li></ul><ul><li>- Reviewed by General Manager </li></ul><ul><...
MANAGING INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL  AND BUSINESS RISKS <ul><li>Economic and Financial Risks  </li></ul><ul><li>- Japanese ec...
MANAGING INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL  AND BUSINESS RISKS <ul><li>Political and Legal Risks  </li></ul><ul><li>- Government’s f...
INTERNATIONAL PRICING STRATEGY <ul><li>Agent Commission  </li></ul><ul><li>Wholesale price negotiations with Zephyr Corpor...
COST/BENEFIT <ul><li>Revenue Sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Installation Survey ($250 each) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sta...
FUTURE PROJECTIONS (Cost/ Benefit Study)
SALES PROJECTIONS
PROFITABILITY
KYOTO PROTOCOL <ul><li>International Agreement created to address “Global Warming”  </li></ul><ul><li>Sets binding targets...
Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate (AP6) <ul><li>International Non-Treaty Agreement </li></ul><ul><...
 
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Wind Power International Japan Venture

1,574 views
1,444 views

Published on

Small Wind Turbines Distributorship Venture in Kasai Region of Japan

Published in: Business, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,574
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
10
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
35
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Wind Power International Japan Venture

  1. 2. PRODUCT MARKETING <ul><li>The Airdolphin is a micro wind turbine designed for the domestic market and manufactured in Japan by the Zephyr Corporation </li></ul><ul><li>Compact, light, safe, efficient, and quiet with high power generation with a life expectancy of 20-25 years </li></ul><ul><li>The core rotor has three ultra-light carbon fiber blades, embossed to dramatically reduce air flow noise </li></ul><ul><li>The robust body and power generation unit can produce power at up to 50m/s wind speed and a rated capacity of 1kilo watt, and with average wind speeds of 5-6 m/s </li></ul><ul><li>The generator's output equates to around one-third of the typical power usage of a family of four </li></ul>
  2. 3. PRODUCT PERFORMANCE <ul><li>Will continuously generate at wind speeds of 2.5m/s through 50m/s </li></ul><ul><li>It has a capacity of over 3kW output at strong winds of 20m/s or more </li></ul><ul><li>When the conditions become too violent, it will switch to stall or soft mode (moderated spinning speed), continuing to work at reduced output up until wind speeds of 50m/s, at which point the turbine will finally stop, or will go back to normal mode once winds have stabled </li></ul>Power Generator
  3. 4. PRODUCT POWER GENERATING CAPABILITY
  4. 5. PRODUCT SAFETY <ul><li>Several technologies help to keep the turbine from disintegrating and allow it to control its output, even during overheating of the power generator, excessive spinning speed, and other negative situations </li></ul><ul><li>Control system has built-in safety control, circuit protection, battery overcharge detection </li></ul><ul><li>During strong winds, Airdolphin's blade slows the rotation, changes the wind-inflow angle, and shifts to stall mode </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>The RM-1000 Remote Monitor is a multifunctional remote control unit developed exclusively for Zephyr's wind turbines </li></ul><ul><li>With the RM-1000, you can check output power (instantaneous generated output) as well as the total power generation (daily/monthly/total) and the amount of CO2 reduction, with the data being accumulated </li></ul><ul><li>The collected data can be downloaded via the MMC and easily managed on a PC </li></ul><ul><li>The power output can be changed according to Airdolphin's rotations, so for example, you can sync the water flow of a fountain to the speed of the wind turbine, or control lightings -- an ideal feature for live events or environmental educations </li></ul>PRODUCT & TARGET MARKETING
  6. 7. PRODUCT INSTALLATION <ul><li>The Airdolphin can be mounted in many situations using a variety of standard towers and wall brackets </li></ul><ul><li>Zephyr does not offer wall/roof mounting options on domestic properties and instead provides a variety of tilt towers </li></ul><ul><li>Wall and roof mountings are available for business premises where use is technically feasible </li></ul>Mounting options
  7. 8. PRODUCT INSTALLATION <ul><li>Tilt towers are available from 6m to 12m in height and are specially designed to meet the load requirements of the Airdolphin in high winds and provide a safe and rigid platform for power generation </li></ul><ul><li>The selected tower height will be dependant on several factors including: - Height of surrounding buildings, obstructions, trees, etc. - Planning restrictions - The higher the tower the better the wind speed available - Asthetic alignment with the surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>Simple conversion of existing masts allows the Airdolphin to be mounted on an existing micro-wind turbine mast with a 100mm diameter </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mjbg787qQnk </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mg_2UA-Dxzo </li></ul>PRODUCT OPERATION Click on the YouTube links below to see the Airdolphin in action
  9. 10. PRODUCT & TARGET MARKETING <ul><li>Applications include: </li></ul><ul><li>Parks </li></ul><ul><li>Streets </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Private homes </li></ul><ul><li>Rooftops </li></ul><ul><li>Wind Farms </li></ul>
  10. 11. Typical Electric Usage & Costs <ul><li>Average retail price of electricity per Kilowatt hours (kWh) for residential consumers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan $0.22 /kWh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China $0.14/kWh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US $0.12/kWh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Michigan $0.11/kWh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A kilowatt-hour is a unit of energy used by electric companies for charging their consumers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A 100 watt light bulb uses 0.1 kilowatts of power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burning the light bulb for 10 hours uses 0.1 kilowatts multiplied by 10 hours, which equals 1 kilowatt-hour of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An average household uses up to 4,800 kW of electricity a day </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. GEOGRAPHIC ENVIRONMENT <ul><li>KANSAI REGION: FUKUI, SHIGA, KYOTO, OSAKA (2 nd largest city in Japan), HYOGO, NARA, WAKAYAMA, AND TOKUSHIMA PREFECTURES </li></ul><ul><li>COVERS AN AREA WITH A RADIUS OF APPROX. 95 MILES </li></ul><ul><li>OCCUPIES ABOUT 10% OF JAPAN’S LAND AREA </li></ul><ul><li>SITUATED AT THE HEART OF THE JAPANESE ARCHIPELAGO, BETWEEN THE JAPAN SEA AND THE SETO SEA </li></ul><ul><li>HOME TO 24 MILLION PEOPLE </li></ul><ul><li>MILD WEATHER THROUGHOUT THE YEAR (Good Windage?) </li></ul><ul><li>VARIED TOPOGRAPHY RANGING FROM MOUNTAINS TO PLAINS </li></ul>
  12. 13. ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT <ul><li>KANSAI REGION: </li></ul><ul><li>GENERATES 20% OF JAPAN’S GDP </li></ul><ul><li>COMBINED GROSS REGIONAL PRODUCT OF 904 BILLION USD (FY2004) </li></ul><ul><li>$27,000 IN REGIONAL INCOME PER CAPITA </li></ul><ul><li>MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY CONSTITUTES ABOUT 20% OF JAPAN’S TOTAL </li></ul><ul><li>ACTIVELY ENGAGED IN FOREIGN INVESTMENT </li></ul>
  13. 14. CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT <ul><li>60% OF JAPAN’S NATIONAL TREASURES AND IMPORTANT CULTURAL ASSETS ARE LOCATED IN THIS REGION </li></ul><ul><li>KNOWN AS THE BIRTHPLACE OF JAPAN’S THREE PRINCIPLE CLASSICAL PERFORMING ARTS: NOH, BUNRAKU, AND KABUKI </li></ul><ul><li>HOME OF FIVE DESIGNATED UNESCO’S WORLD CULTURAL HERITAGES </li></ul><ul><li>CHANOYU (TEA CEREMONY) AND IKEBANA (FLOWER ARRANGEMENTS) WERE BORN IN THE KANSAI REGION </li></ul>
  14. 15. SOCIAL ENVIRONMENT <ul><li>GENERALLY KNOWN AS “GETTING TO THE HEART OF THINGS” </li></ul><ul><li>KANSAI AND ITS PEOPLE ARE CHARACTERIZED BY PRAGMATISM: REFLECTING THE REGION'S HISTORY AS A MERCHANT CAPITAL </li></ul><ul><li>ACCEPT FOREIGNERS MORE EASILY INTO THEIR MIDST </li></ul><ul><li>AMENITIES TO MAKE LIFE COMFORTABLE AND ENJOYABLE FOR FOREIGNERS, INCLUDING: PLEASANT RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENTS, CULTURAL RESOURCES AND EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS </li></ul>
  15. 16. POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT <ul><li>GOVERNMENT POLICIES FOSTER INTERNATIONALIZATION </li></ul><ul><li>GOVERNMENT PROGRAMS THAT ENCOURAGE RECYCLING, ENVIRONMENTAL PRESERVATION, & VENTURE-FOSTERING </li></ul>
  16. 17. ENTRY MODE <ul><li>Zephyr Corporation Partnership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales & distribution agent in Kansai Region </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Small Wind Turbines for Consumer Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Considerations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of business/partnership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social impact/needs </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. ENTRY MODE <ul><li>About Zephyr Corporation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Established June 11, 1997 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>260 Million Yen in Capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate office in Tokyo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developers, manufacturers, installers and maintainers of wind/solar/water power generation equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales channels via domestic network of specified agents (about 100, including Wind Power International) </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. ANALYZING INTERNATIONAL COMPETITORS <ul><li>Mitsubishi Heavy Industries </li></ul><ul><li>Green Power Investment Corporation </li></ul><ul><li>Japan Wind Development Company </li></ul><ul><li>Eurus Energy </li></ul><ul><li>Hokkaido Green Fund (market direct to consumers) </li></ul><ul><li>J-Power EPDC </li></ul>
  19. 20. REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY (Zephyr)
  20. 21. GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY (Zephyr) <ul><li>Global Regions: </li></ul><ul><li>Europe – Spain, Italy, United Kingdom, Sweden, Estonia, Netherlands, Germany, France, Austria, Portugal, Greece, Turkey </li></ul><ul><li>Asia – Japan, China, Mongolia, India, Thailand, Taiwan, Indonesia, Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Oceania - New Zealand, Marshall Islands </li></ul><ul><li>Africa – Uganda, South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Americas - Canada </li></ul>
  21. 22. GLOBAL PROMOTION STRATEGY <ul><li>“ Ecotricity” is the new catch phrase for generating clean power </li></ul><ul><li>Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) </li></ul><ul><li>International Engineering and Technology Fair 2009 - Bangalore, India </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable Energy Technology Conference (RETECH) 2009 - Las Vegas </li></ul><ul><li>Global Climate Summit 2008 – Los Angeles </li></ul><ul><li>INDONESIA JAPAN EXPO 2008 – Jakarta, Indonesia </li></ul><ul><li>Pollutec 2008 – Lyon, France </li></ul><ul><li>DEWEK 2008 – Bremen, Germany </li></ul><ul><li>CanWEA 2008 – Vancouver, Canada </li></ul><ul><li>American Wind Energy Association (AWEA) </li></ul>Airdolphin shown in JETRO booth and visited by Gov. Schwarzenegger in 2008
  22. 23. Financing sources for Wind energy <ul><li>Financing Sources for Wind power industry have </li></ul><ul><li>included Government incentives and Subsidies </li></ul><ul><li>And Private Investments through “Green Funds” </li></ul><ul><li>Government Incentives offered by Japan are of two </li></ul><ul><li>Types: Direct Policies and Indirect Policies </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Policies include </li></ul><ul><li>- Preference for local Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>- Tax incentives, reduced sales and income tax for domestic </li></ul><ul><li> companies </li></ul><ul><li>- Export Credit assistance in form of low interest loans for local </li></ul><ul><li>companies </li></ul>
  23. 24. Financing sources for Wind energy <ul><li>Indirect Policies include: </li></ul><ul><li>- Government Tendering: </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive auctions for wind projects and sights </li></ul><ul><li>- Mandatory Renewable energy targets: </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) legislation for utilities to </li></ul><ul><li>provide 1.35% of electricity from renewable sources </li></ul><ul><li>- Quality Certification: </li></ul><ul><li>Used to standardize wind turbine products and encourage domestic </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturers establish stability in the market </li></ul><ul><li>- Feed-in tariffs: </li></ul><ul><li>Prices for wind electricity are fixed over a period of time to </li></ul><ul><li>establish credibility, provide technical innovation for manufacturers </li></ul><ul><li>and stability to investors </li></ul>
  24. 25. Financing sources for Wind Energy <ul><li>Private investors: </li></ul><ul><li>Citizen Wind Power is a project which has collected </li></ul><ul><li>funds from ordinary citizens to fund projects throughout </li></ul><ul><li>Japan. Citizen Wind Power was set up in 2001 and </li></ul><ul><li>has collected more than $18 million and funded 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Projects throughout Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>The fund operates on the contributions made by ordinary </li></ul><ul><li>citizens through the 5% surcharge on the electricity </li></ul><ul><li>bills, membership dues and donations to the fund. The </li></ul><ul><li>first project was in Hokkaido and more are planned in </li></ul><ul><li>Akita and Aomori </li></ul>
  25. 26. SELECTING COMPANY STRUCTURE <ul><li>Strategic objectives of Wind Power International </li></ul><ul><li>- Product Offering: </li></ul><ul><li>Supply small wind turbine products, </li></ul><ul><li>Airdolphin manufactured by Zephyr Corporation of Japan </li></ul><ul><li>- Target market: </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial and Residential </li></ul><ul><li>Educational institutions in Kansai </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>- Savings on energy costs while combating global warming </li></ul><ul><li>- Sell energy back to power companies at a profit </li></ul>
  26. 27. SELECTING COMPANY STRUCTURE <ul><li>Agent of Zephyr </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of being an Agent for Zephyr: </li></ul><ul><li>- Facilitate sales based on commission and </li></ul><ul><li> not financially involved in Zephyr </li></ul><ul><li>- WPI not responsible for service after sales as agent </li></ul><ul><li>- No distribution costs for WPI </li></ul><ul><li>- No credit risk responsibility for WPI </li></ul>
  27. 28. CREATING AN INFORMATION SUPPORT SYSTEM <ul><li>Domestic information sources for WPI </li></ul><ul><li>- Ministry of Economic Trade and Industry, Japan (METI) </li></ul><ul><li>- New Energy and Industrial Technology </li></ul><ul><li> Development Organization (NEDO) Japan </li></ul><ul><li>- Japan Electrical Manufacturers Association </li></ul><ul><li>- Japanese Wind Energy Association </li></ul><ul><li>- National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>Global information sources for WPI </li></ul><ul><li>- Global Wind Energy Council (GWEC.net), a global forum </li></ul><ul><li> for wind energy sector </li></ul><ul><li>- International Energy Association (Iea.org), </li></ul><ul><li> an intergovernmental organization which acts as </li></ul><ul><li> an energy advisor to 28 member countries </li></ul><ul><li> (Japan has been a member since 1974) </li></ul>CREATING AN INFORMATION SUPPORT SYSTEM
  29. 30. IDENTIFYING HUMAN RESOURCES <ul><li>Staffing </li></ul><ul><li>- General Manager (local Japanese hire) </li></ul><ul><li>- Up to 6 Sales Representatives initially </li></ul><ul><li>Training and Development </li></ul><ul><li>- Cultural awareness </li></ul><ul><li>- Interpersonal skills </li></ul><ul><li>- Innovativeness/creativity </li></ul>
  30. 31. IDENTIFYING HUMAN RESOURCES <ul><li>Performance Appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>- Reviewed by General Manager </li></ul><ul><li>- Annual Review </li></ul><ul><li>Compensation </li></ul><ul><li>- Commission on Sales Performance </li></ul><ul><li>- Investment Share in Company </li></ul>
  31. 32. MANAGING INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL AND BUSINESS RISKS <ul><li>Economic and Financial Risks </li></ul><ul><li>- Japanese economy in recession </li></ul><ul><li>- Stimulus package inadequate </li></ul><ul><li>- Aging population </li></ul><ul><li>Social and Cultural Risks </li></ul><ul><li>- Male dominated society </li></ul><ul><li>- Japanese are homogenous </li></ul>
  32. 33. MANAGING INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL AND BUSINESS RISKS <ul><li>Political and Legal Risks </li></ul><ul><li>- Government’s finances are deteriorating </li></ul><ul><li>- Japan is in political transition </li></ul><ul><li>Risk Management Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>- Strategic alliances </li></ul><ul><li>- Employing local individuals </li></ul>
  33. 34. INTERNATIONAL PRICING STRATEGY <ul><li>Agent Commission </li></ul><ul><li>Wholesale price negotiations with Zephyr Corporation </li></ul><ul><li>Company branding in Kansai region with the intention to expand partnerships with other corporations </li></ul>
  34. 35. COST/BENEFIT <ul><li>Revenue Sources: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Installation Survey ($250 each) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard Individual Package ($4500 each) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operating Costs (per month) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Office in Osaka…………………….$1800 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 manager $3500 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sales commissions $TBD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selling Agreement ($500) </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. FUTURE PROJECTIONS (Cost/ Benefit Study)
  36. 37. SALES PROJECTIONS
  37. 38. PROFITABILITY
  38. 39. KYOTO PROTOCOL <ul><li>International Agreement created to address “Global Warming” </li></ul><ul><li>Sets binding targets for participating countries and the </li></ul><ul><li>European Union for reducing Greenhouse Gas (GHC) emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide (CO2) </li></ul><ul><li>Methane (CH4) </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrous oxide (N2O) </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) </li></ul><ul><li>Perfluorocarbons (PCFs) </li></ul><ul><li>Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce CO2 Emissions on Average 6% below Participating States’ </li></ul><ul><li>1990 levels </li></ul>
  39. 40. Asia Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate (AP6) <ul><li>International Non-Treaty Agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Participants: Australia, Canada, India, Japan, China, South Korea, U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Announced July 28, 2005 at Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) Regional Forum Meeting </li></ul><ul><li>Launched January 12, 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Member countries account for more than 50% of the world’s Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, energy consumption, GDP, and population </li></ul><ul><li>Member countries’ set individual goals for GHG emission reductions </li></ul><ul><li>No mandatory enforcement mechanism </li></ul>

×