1

Principles of Electronic
Communication Systems
Third Edition
Louis E. Frenzel, Jr.

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
2

Chapter 1

Introduction to Electronic Communication

© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
3

Topics Covered in Chapter 1
 1-1: Significance of Human Communication
 1-2: Communication Systems
 1-3: Types of Ele...
1-1: Significance of
Human Communication

4

 Communication is the

process of exchanging
information.
 Main barriers ar...
1-1: Significance of
Human Communication

5

Methods of communication:
1.Face to face
2.Signals
3.Written word (letters)
4...
6

1-2: Communication Systems


Basic components:





Transmitter
Channel or medium
Receiver



Noise degrades or in...
7

1-2: Communication Systems

Figure 1-2:
A general model of all communication systems.
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
8

1-2: Communication Systems
Transmitter is a collection of electronic
components and circuits that converts the
electric...
9

1-2: Communication Systems
 The Communication

Channel is the

medium by which the electronic signal is sent
from one ...
10

1-2: Communication Systems
 RECEIVER is a collection of electronic

components and circuits that accepts the
transmit...
11

1-2: Communication Systems
 TRANSCEIVER is an electronic unit that

incorporates circuits that both send and
receive ...
12

1-2: Communication Systems
 ATTENUATION

Signal
Attenuation,
or
degradation, exists in all media
of wireless transmis...
13

1-2: Communication Systems

Noise
 It

is random, undesirable
electronic energy that enters
the communication system ...
1-3: Types of Electronic
Communication

14

 Electronic communications are

classified according to whether they are:
a. ...
1-3: Types of Electronic
Communication

15

SIMPLEX
 The simplest method of electronic

communication is referred to as
s...
1-3: Types of Electronic
Communication

16

Full Duplex
 Most electronic communication is

two-way and is referred to as
...
1-3: Types of Electronic
Communication

17

Half Duplex
 The form of two-way communication in
which only one party transm...
1-3: Types of Electronic
Communication

18

Analog Signals
 An analog signal is a smoothly
and continuously varying volta...
1-3: Types of Electronic
Communication

19

Figure 1-5: Analog signals
(a) Sine wave “tone.”
(b) Voice. (c) Video (TV) sig...
1-3: Types of Electronic
Communication

20

Digital Signals
 Digital signals change in steps or in
discrete increments.
...
1-3: Types of Electronic
Communication

21

Figure 1-6: Digital signals (a) Telegraph (Morse
code). (b) Continuous-wave (C...
1-3: Types of Electronic
Communication

22

Digital Signals
 Many transmissions are of signals that originate
in digital ...
23

1-4: Modulation and Multiplexing
 Modulation

and multiplexing are
electronic techniques for transmitting
information...
24

1-4: Modulation and Multiplexing
1. Baseband Transmission
 Baseband information can be sent
directly and unmodified o...
25

1-4: Modulation and Multiplexing

2. Broadband Transmission
 A carrier is a high frequency

signal that is modulated ...
26

1-4: Modulation and Multiplexing
Broadband Transmission (continue)
 A broadband transmission takes place when a

carr...
27

1-4: Modulation and Multiplexing

Figure 1-7: Modulation at the transmitter.
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
28

1-4: Modulation and Multiplexing

Figure 1-8: Types of modulation. (a) Amplitude modulation.
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Co...
29

Figure 1-8: Types of modulation.(b) Frequency modulation.
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
30

1-4: Modulation and Multiplexing
Broadband Transmission
 Frequency-shift keying (FSK) takes place

when data is conve...
31

1-4: Modulation and Multiplexing

Multiplexing: Multiplexing is the
process of allowing two or more
signals to share t...
32

1-4: Modulation and Multiplexing

Figure 1-11: Multiplexing at the transmitter.
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
33

1-5: The Electromagnetic Spectrum

The range of

electromagnetic signals
encompassing all
frequencies is referred to
...
34

1-5: The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Figure 1-13: The electromagnetic spectrum.
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
35

1-5: The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Frequency and Wavelength: Frequency

 A signal is located on the frequency

spectru...
36

1-5: The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Wavelength
Wavelength (λ) = speed of light ÷ frequency
Speed of light = 3 × 108 mete...
37

1-5: The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Wavelength:

 Wavelength is the distance occupied

by one cycle of a wave and is us...
38

1-5: The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Figure 1-15: Frequency and wavelength. (a) One cycle. (b) One wavelength.
© 2008 Th...
39

1-5: The Electromagnetic Spectrum
The electromagnetic spectrum is divided into segments:

• Extremely Low Frequencies
...
40

1-5: The Electromagnetic Spectrum

High Frequencies (HF)

3–30 MHz

(short waves; VOA, BBC
broadcasts; government and
...
41

1-5: The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Microwaves and Super High
Frequencies (SHF)

1–30 GHz

Satellite communication, rad...
42

1-5: The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Optical Spectrum
 The optical spectrum exists directly

above the millimeter wave r...
43

1-5: The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Optical Spectrum:

Infrared:
Infrared
radiation is produced by
any physical equipmen...
44

Infrared is used:
In astronomy, to detect stars and

other physical bodies in the
universe,
For guidance in weapons
...
45

Infrared is used:
 In most new TV remote-control

units, where special coded signals
are transmitted by an infrared L...
1-5: The Electromagnetic Spectrum
Optical Spectrum: The Visible Spectrum

46

 Just above the infrared region is the visi...
47

1-5: The Electromagnetic Spectrum

Optical Spectrum: Ultraviolet
Ultraviolet is not used for
communication
Its prima...
48

1-6: Bandwidth
Bandwidth (BW) is that portion

of the electromagnetic spectrum
occupied by a signal.

Channel bandwi...
49

1-6: Bandwidth
More Room at the Top
 Today, virtually the entire frequency spectrum between

approximately 30 kHz and...
50

1-6: Bandwidth
More Room at the Top
 Communication engineering is devoted to making the

best use of that finite spec...
51

1-6: Bandwidth
Spectrum Management and Standards
 Spectrum management is provided by agencies set up

by the United S...
1-7: A Survey of
Communications Applications

52

 Simplex
 AM and FM







broadcasting
Digital radio
TV broadca...
1-7: A Survey of
Communications Applications
 Duplex
 Telephones
 Two-way radio
 Radar
 Sonar
 Amateur radio
 Citiz...
1-8: Jobs and Careers in the
Communication Industry

54

 The electronics industry is roughly divided into

four major sp...
1-8: Jobs and Careers in the
Communication Industry

55

Types of Jobs
 Engineers design communication equipment and

sys...
1-8: Jobs and Careers in the
Communication Industry

56

Types of Jobs
 Technical sales representatives determine custome...
1-8: Jobs and Careers in the
Communication Industry

57

Major Employers
 The communication electronics industry is made ...
1-8: Jobs and Careers in the
Communication Industry

58

Figure 1-18: Structure of the communication electronics industry....
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Chapter01 int to telecom

  1. 1. 1 Principles of Electronic Communication Systems Third Edition Louis E. Frenzel, Jr. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  2. 2. 2 Chapter 1 Introduction to Electronic Communication © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  3. 3. 3 Topics Covered in Chapter 1  1-1: Significance of Human Communication  1-2: Communication Systems  1-3: Types of Electronic Communication  1-4: Modulation and Multiplexing  1-5: The Electromagnetic Spectrum  1-6: Bandwidth  1-7: A Survey of Communication Applications  1-8: Jobs and Careers in the Communication Industry © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  4. 4. 1-1: Significance of Human Communication 4  Communication is the process of exchanging information.  Main barriers are language and distance.  Contemporary society’s emphasis is now the accumulation, packaging, and exchange of information. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  5. 5. 1-1: Significance of Human Communication 5 Methods of communication: 1.Face to face 2.Signals 3.Written word (letters) 4.Electrical innovations: •Telegraph •Telephone •Radio •Television •Internet (computer) © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  6. 6. 6 1-2: Communication Systems  Basic components:    Transmitter Channel or medium Receiver  Noise degrades or interferes with transmitted information. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  7. 7. 7 1-2: Communication Systems Figure 1-2: A general model of all communication systems. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  8. 8. 8 1-2: Communication Systems Transmitter is a collection of electronic components and circuits that converts the electrical signal into a signal suitable for transmission over a given medium.  Transmitters are made up of oscillators, amplifiers, tuned circuits and filters, modulators, frequency mixers, frequency synthesizers, and other circuits. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  9. 9. 9 1-2: Communication Systems  The Communication Channel is the medium by which the electronic signal is sent from one place to another.  Types of media include •Electrical conductors •Optical media •Free space •System-specific media (e.g., water is the medium for sonar). © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  10. 10. 10 1-2: Communication Systems  RECEIVER is a collection of electronic components and circuits that accepts the transmitted message from the channel and converts it back into a form understandable by humans.  Receivers contain amplifiers, oscillators, mixers, tuned circuits and filters, and a demodulator or detector that recovers the original intelligence signal from the modulated carrier. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  11. 11. 11 1-2: Communication Systems  TRANSCEIVER is an electronic unit that incorporates circuits that both send and receive signals. Examples are:  Telephones  Fax machines  Handheld CB radios  Cell phones  Computer modems © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  12. 12. 12 1-2: Communication Systems  ATTENUATION Signal Attenuation, or degradation, exists in all media of wireless transmission. It is proportional to the square of the distance between the transmitter and receiver. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  13. 13. 13 1-2: Communication Systems Noise  It is random, undesirable electronic energy that enters the communication system via the communicating medium and interferes with the transmitted message. McGraw-Hill Companies © 2008 The
  14. 14. 1-3: Types of Electronic Communication 14  Electronic communications are classified according to whether they are: a. One-way (simplex) b. two-way transmissions a) b) full duplex half duplex OR A. Analog Signals. B. Digital Signals. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  15. 15. 1-3: Types of Electronic Communication 15 SIMPLEX  The simplest method of electronic communication is referred to as simplex.  This type of communication is oneway. Examples are:  Radio  TV broadcasting  Beeper (personal receiver) © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  16. 16. 1-3: Types of Electronic Communication 16 Full Duplex  Most electronic communication is two-way and is referred to as duplex.  When people can talk and listen simultaneously, it is called full duplex. The telephone is an example of this type of communication. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  17. 17. 1-3: Types of Electronic Communication 17 Half Duplex  The form of two-way communication in which only one party transmits at a time is known as half duplex. Examples are:  Police, military, etc. radio transmissions  Citizen band (CB)  Family radio  Amateur radio © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  18. 18. 1-3: Types of Electronic Communication 18 Analog Signals  An analog signal is a smoothly and continuously varying voltage or current. Examples are:  Sine wave  Voice  Video (TV) © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  19. 19. 1-3: Types of Electronic Communication 19 Figure 1-5: Analog signals (a) Sine wave “tone.” (b) Voice. (c) Video (TV) signal. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  20. 20. 1-3: Types of Electronic Communication 20 Digital Signals  Digital signals change in steps or in discrete increments.  Most digital signals use binary or two-state codes. Examples are:  Telegraph (Morse code)  Continuous wave (CW) code  Serial binary code (used in computers) © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  21. 21. 1-3: Types of Electronic Communication 21 Figure 1-6: Digital signals (a) Telegraph (Morse code). (b) Continuous-wave (CW) code. (c) Serial binary code. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  22. 22. 1-3: Types of Electronic Communication 22 Digital Signals  Many transmissions are of signals that originate in digital form but must be converted to analog form to match the transmission medium.  Digital data over the telephone network. Analog signals.  They are first digitized with an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter.  The data can then be transmitted and processed by computers and other digital circuits. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  23. 23. 23 1-4: Modulation and Multiplexing  Modulation and multiplexing are electronic techniques for transmitting information efficiently from one place to another.  Modulation makes the information signal more compatible with the medium.  Multiplexing allows more than one signal to be transmitted concurrently over a single medium. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  24. 24. 24 1-4: Modulation and Multiplexing 1. Baseband Transmission  Baseband information can be sent directly and unmodified over the medium or can be used to modulate a carrier for transmission over the medium.  In telephone or intercom systems, the voice is placed on the wires and transmitted.  In some computer networks, the digital signals are applied directly to coaxial or twisted-pair cables for transmission. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  25. 25. 25 1-4: Modulation and Multiplexing 2. Broadband Transmission  A carrier is a high frequency signal that is modulated by audio, video, or data.  A radio-frequency (RF) wave is an electromagnetic signal that is able to travel long distances through space. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  26. 26. 26 1-4: Modulation and Multiplexing Broadband Transmission (continue)  A broadband transmission takes place when a carrier signal is modulated, amplified, and sent to the antenna for transmission.  The two most common methods of modulation are:  Amplitude Modulation (AM)  Frequency Modulation (FM)  Another method is called phase modulation (PM), in which the phase angle of the sine wave is varied. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  27. 27. 27 1-4: Modulation and Multiplexing Figure 1-7: Modulation at the transmitter. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  28. 28. 28 1-4: Modulation and Multiplexing Figure 1-8: Types of modulation. (a) Amplitude modulation. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  29. 29. 29 Figure 1-8: Types of modulation.(b) Frequency modulation. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  30. 30. 30 1-4: Modulation and Multiplexing Broadband Transmission  Frequency-shift keying (FSK) takes place when data is converted to frequency-varying tones.  Devices called modems (modulatordemodulator) translate the data from digital to analog and back again.  Demodulation or detection takes place in the receiver when the original baseband (e.g. audio) signal is extracted. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  31. 31. 31 1-4: Modulation and Multiplexing Multiplexing: Multiplexing is the process of allowing two or more signals to share the same medium or channel.  The three basic types of multiplexing are:  Frequency division  Time division  Code division © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  32. 32. 32 1-4: Modulation and Multiplexing Figure 1-11: Multiplexing at the transmitter. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  33. 33. 33 1-5: The Electromagnetic Spectrum The range of electromagnetic signals encompassing all frequencies is referred to as the electromagnetic spectrum. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  34. 34. 34 1-5: The Electromagnetic Spectrum Figure 1-13: The electromagnetic spectrum. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  35. 35. 35 1-5: The Electromagnetic Spectrum Frequency and Wavelength: Frequency  A signal is located on the frequency spectrum according to its frequency and wavelength.  Frequency is the number of cycles of a repetitive wave that occur in a given period of time.  A cycle consists of two voltage polarity reversals, current reversals, or electromagnetic field oscillations.  Frequency is measured in cycles per second (cps).  The unit of frequency is the hertz (Hz).Companies © 2008 The McGraw-Hill
  36. 36. 36 1-5: The Electromagnetic Spectrum Wavelength Wavelength (λ) = speed of light ÷ frequency Speed of light = 3 × 108 meters/second Therefore: λ = 3 × 108 / f Example: What is the wavelength if the frequency is 4MHz? λ = 3 × 108 / 4 MHz = 75 meters (m) © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  37. 37. 37 1-5: The Electromagnetic Spectrum Wavelength:  Wavelength is the distance occupied by one cycle of a wave and is usually expressed in meters.  Wavelength is also the distance traveled by an electromagnetic wave during the time of one cycle.  The wavelength of a signal is represented by the Greek letter lambda (λ). © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  38. 38. 38 1-5: The Electromagnetic Spectrum Figure 1-15: Frequency and wavelength. (a) One cycle. (b) One wavelength. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  39. 39. 39 1-5: The Electromagnetic Spectrum The electromagnetic spectrum is divided into segments: • Extremely Low Frequencies 30–300 Hz. • Voice Frequencies (VF) 300–3000 Hz. • Very Low Frequencies (VLF) include the higher end of the human hearing range up to about 20 kHz. • Low Frequencies (LF) o30–300 kHz. • Medium Frequencies (MF) 300–3000 kHz AM radio 535–1605 kHz. (ELF) © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  40. 40. 40 1-5: The Electromagnetic Spectrum High Frequencies (HF) 3–30 MHz (short waves; VOA, BBC broadcasts; government and military two-way communication; amateur radio, CB. Very High Frequencies (VHF) 30–300 MHz FM radio broadcasting (88–108 MHz), television channels 2–13. Ultra High Frequencies (UHF) 300–3000 MHz TV channels 14–67, cellular phones, military communication. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  41. 41. 41 1-5: The Electromagnetic Spectrum Microwaves and Super High Frequencies (SHF) 1–30 GHz Satellite communication, radar, wireless LANs, microwave ovens Extremely High Frequencies (EHF) 30–300 GHz Satellite communication, computer data, radar © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  42. 42. 42 1-5: The Electromagnetic Spectrum Optical Spectrum  The optical spectrum exists directly above the millimeter wave region.  Three types of light waves are:  Infrared  Visible spectrum  Ultraviolet © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  43. 43. 43 1-5: The Electromagnetic Spectrum Optical Spectrum: Infrared: Infrared radiation is produced by any physical equipment that generates heat, including our bodies. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  44. 44. 44 Infrared is used: In astronomy, to detect stars and other physical bodies in the universe, For guidance in weapons systems, where the heat radiated from airplanes or missiles can be detected and used to guide missiles to targets. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  45. 45. 45 Infrared is used:  In most new TV remote-control units, where special coded signals are transmitted by an infrared LED to the TV receiver to change channels, set the volume, and perform other functions.  In some of the newer wireless LANs and all fiber-optic communication. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  46. 46. 1-5: The Electromagnetic Spectrum Optical Spectrum: The Visible Spectrum 46  Just above the infrared region is the visible spectrum we refer to as light.  Red is low-frequency or long-wavelength light  Violet is high-frequency or short-wavelength light.  Light waves’ very high frequency enables them to handle a tremendous amount of information (the bandwidth of the baseband signals can be very wide). © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  47. 47. 47 1-5: The Electromagnetic Spectrum Optical Spectrum: Ultraviolet Ultraviolet is not used for communication Its primary use is medical. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  48. 48. 48 1-6: Bandwidth Bandwidth (BW) is that portion of the electromagnetic spectrum occupied by a signal. Channel bandwidth refers to the range of frequencies required to transmit the desired information. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  49. 49. 49 1-6: Bandwidth More Room at the Top  Today, virtually the entire frequency spectrum between approximately 30 kHz and 300 MHz has been spoken for.  There is tremendous competition for these frequencies, between companies, individuals, and government services in individual carriers and between the different nations of the world.  The electromagnetic spectrum is one of our most precious natural resources. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  50. 50. 50 1-6: Bandwidth More Room at the Top  Communication engineering is devoted to making the best use of that finite spectrum.  Great effort goes into developing communication techniques that minimize the bandwidth required to transmit given information and thus conserve spectrum space.  This provides more room for additional communication channels and gives other services or users an opportunity to take advantage of it. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  51. 51. 51 1-6: Bandwidth Spectrum Management and Standards  Spectrum management is provided by agencies set up by the United States and other countries to control spectrum use.  The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) are two agencies that deal in spectrum management.  Standards are specifications and guidelines necessary to ensure compatibility between transmitting and receiving equipment. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  52. 52. 1-7: A Survey of Communications Applications 52  Simplex  AM and FM       broadcasting Digital radio TV broadcasting Digital television (DTV) Cable television Facsimile Wireless remote control  Paging services  Navigation and      direction-finding services Telemetry Radio astronomy Surveillance Music services Internet radio and video © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  53. 53. 1-7: A Survey of Communications Applications  Duplex  Telephones  Two-way radio  Radar  Sonar  Amateur radio  Citizens radio 53  Family Radio service  The Internet  Wide-area networks (WANs)  Metropolitan-area networks (MANs)  Local area networks (LANs) © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  54. 54. 1-8: Jobs and Careers in the Communication Industry 54  The electronics industry is roughly divided into four major specializations: 1. Communications (largest in terms of people employed and the dollar value of equipment purchased) 2. Computers (second largest). 3. Industrial controls. 4. Instrumentation. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  55. 55. 1-8: Jobs and Careers in the Communication Industry 55 Types of Jobs  Engineers design communication equipment and systems.  Technicians install, troubleshoot, repair, calibrate, and maintain equipment.  Engineering Technicians assist in equipment design, testing, and assembly. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  56. 56. 1-8: Jobs and Careers in the Communication Industry 56 Types of Jobs  Technical sales representatives determine customer needs and related specifications, write proposals and sell equipment.  Technical writers generate technical documentation for equipment and systems.  Trainers develop programs, generate training and presentation materials, and conduct classroom training. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  57. 57. 1-8: Jobs and Careers in the Communication Industry 57 Major Employers  The communication electronics industry is made up of the following segments:  Manufacturers  Resellers  Service Organizations  End users © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
  58. 58. 1-8: Jobs and Careers in the Communication Industry 58 Figure 1-18: Structure of the communication electronics industry. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies
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