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Stephen.Gershen.Quality Presentation Transcript

  • 1. STEPHEN.GERSHEN Total Quality Management
  • 2. What is Quality
    • FEIGENBAUM (1983) DEFINED QUALITY AS FOLLOWS
      • Quality is total composite product (goods and services) characteristics, through which the product in use will meet the needs and expectations of the customers.
      • Concept of quality must start with identification of customer quality requirements and must end only when the finished product is placed into the hands of the customer who remains satisfied through various stages of relationship with the seller
    • American Society of Quality Control (ASQC) and American National Standard Institute (ANSI) defined
      • Quality is totality of features and characteristics of product (goods and services) that bears on its ability to satisfy given needs”
  • 3. Approaches to define Quality
    • Transcendent Approach
      • Quality is absolute and universally recognisable.
      • It is common notion used by laymen
      • There is no subjective judgement and is estimated by looking at the product
    • Product Based Approach
      • Attributes of a particular product in a specific category
      • These attributes are accepted as bench of quality by the industry
      • Others in the same industry try to produce close to this quality
  • 4. Approaches to define Quality
    • User Based Approach
      • Defined as “Fitness for use”
      • Viewed from user’s perspective and is dependent on how well does the product meet needs of the consumer.
      • Also known as Customer Oriented Approach
    • Production Based Approach
      • An outcome of engineering or operational excellence and is measured in terms of quality of conformance
      • The producer has specifications and produces the product as per the specifications
  • 5. Approaches to define Quality
    • Value Based Approach
      • Quality is viewed in context of price
      • Quality is satisfactory, if it provides desired performance at an acceptable price
      • Customer looks at the total value proposition and not the price alone
  • 6. Attributes of Quality
    • Performance
      • Product’s primary operating characteristics
    • Features
      • Augmented product – The “bells & whistles” of the product
    • Reliability
      • Ability of the product to function at the specified level of performance
    • Conformance
      • Degree to which characteristics of the product meet pre-established standards
  • 7. Attributes of Quality
    • Durability
      • Length of time a product can be used before it deteriorates or becomes non functional
    • Serviceability
      • Speed, competence & courtesy of providing ASS
    • Aesthetics
      • Look, feel sound, taste, smell
    • Perceived Quality
      • Resulting from advertisement, image, brand name, earlier use, hearsay
  • 8. Evolution of Quality Management
  • 9.
    • Mass Inspection
      • Inspecting
      • Salvaging
      • Sorting
      • Grading
      • Rectifying
      • Rejecting
    • Quality Control
      • Quality manuals
      • Product testing using SQC
      • Basic quality planning
    Evolution of Quality Management
    • Quality Assurance
      • Emphasis on prevention
      • Proactive approach using SPC
      • Advance quality planning
    • Total Quality Control
      • All aspects of quality of inputs
      • Testing equipments
      • Control on processes
  • 10. Evolution of Quality Management
    • Company wide Quality Control
      • Measured in all functions connected with production such as
        • R&D
        • Design
        • Engineering
        • Purchasing,
        • Operations etc
    • Total Quality Management
      • Measured in all aspects of business,
      • Top management commitment
      • Continuous improvement
      • Involvement & participation of employees
  • 11. Evolution of Quality Management
  • 12. Evolution of Quality Management
  • 13. Gurus of TQM Dr. W E Deming Dr. J M Juran Dr. Philip Crosby
  • 14. Gurus of TQM Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa Dr. Genichi Taguchi Dr. Masaaki Imai
  • 15. Gurus of TQM Dr. Shigeo Shingo Dr. Yoshio Kondo Dr .Armand V. Feigenbaum Dr. James Harrington
  • 16. W E Deming
    • Reduction in process variability by extensive use of statistics will lead to improvement in quality and increase in productivity
    • Talked about New Climate (organisational culture)
      • Joy in work
      • Innovation
      • Co-operation
    • Win-Win approach
    • He proposed a 14 point TQM programme
  • 17. W E Deming 14 Points
  • 18. W E Deming – PDCA Cycle
  • 19. Seven Deadly Sins
    • Lack of vision and mission as regards quality & process improvement
    • Emphasis on short term profit
    • Personal performance appraisal systems
    • Mobility of management
    • Running a company on visible figures alone
      • Customer satisfaction level
      • Employee morale
      • Relationship with your vendors
      • Confidence the market has in your company
  • 20. Deming’s Prize
    • Establish in 1950 originally for Japanese companies for major advances in quality improvement
    • Deming’s Prize is given under Japanese Union of Scientists & Engineers
    • These days Deming’s Prize is awarded to non Japanese companies and even individuals
    • 2001 – Sundram Brake Linings, the world’s first friction material company to win
    • 2008 – Tata Steel is the first integrated steel plant in Asia to win
  • 21. Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award
    • MBNQA is given by United States National Institute of Standards and Technology
    • Original stated purpose of the award were
      • promote quality awareness
      • recognise quality achievements of the US companies
      • publicise successful quality strategies
    • Current award criteria are stated
      • To help improve organizational performance practices, capabilities and results
      • To facilitate communication and sharing of the best practice information among US organizations of all types
      • To serve as a working tool for understanding and managing performance and for guiding planning and opportunities for learning
  • 22. Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award
    • The categories are
      • Leadership
      • Strategic Planning
      • Customer & Market Focus
      • Measurement, Analysis and Knowledge Management
      • Workforce Focus
      • Process Management
      • Results
  • 23. J M Juran
    • Developed the idea of trilogy
      • Quality Planning
      • Quality Improvement
      • Quality Control
    • Conformance to specifications is necessary but not sufficient requirement of a product.
    • Fitness for use by the consumer of the targeted market segment is an essential requirement in addition to conformance
  • 24. J M Juran’s Trilogy
  • 25. Juran’s 10 Points
    • Build awareness of need and opportunities for improvement
    • Set goals for improvement
    • Organise the overall improvement programme
    • Provide the training
    • solve problems through project methodology
    • Report progress
    • Give recognition
    • Communicate results
    • Keep score
    • Institutionalise the improvement process
  • 26. Philip Crosby
      • Quality is defined as conformance to requirements, not as 'goodness' or 'elegance'
      • The system for causing quality is prevention, not appraisal – Quality is Free
      • The performance standard must be Zero Defects, not "that's close enough"
      • The measurement of quality is the Price of Non-conformance, not indices.
      • Cost of quality is only the measure of operational performance
    Do it right the first time Zero Defects Absolutes of QM
  • 27. Crosby 14 points
    • Management commitment
    • Quality improvement team
    • Quality measurement
    • Evaluation of cost of quality
    • Quality awareness
    • Corrective action
    • Establish committee for zero defect planning
    • Supervisor training
    • Zero Defect Day
    • Goal Setting
    • Error cause removal
    • Recognition
  • 28. Cost of Quality
    • Prevention Cost
      • Cost associated with time spend in planning the quality system
      • Consists of the following
        • Process control costs
        • Information systems costs
        • Training Costs
        • General Management cost
  • 29. Cost of Quality
    • Appraisal Costs
      • Cost incurred on measurement & analysis of data in order to detect & correct problems
      • Consist of
        • Cost of maintaining, testing & inspection
        • Process control costs
    • Internal Failure Cost
      • Incurred due to non-conformance
      • Include
        • Scrap and rework costs
        • Cost of corrective action
        • Downgrading costs
  • 30. Cost of Quality
    • External Failure Cost
      • Occur when poor products reach customer
      • Include
        • Costs of customer complaints and returns
        • Product recall costs
        • Warranty claims costs
        • Product liability costs
  • 31. Genichi Taguchi
    • His methodologies held ensure customer satisfaction
    • Taguchi’s Loss Function
    • Taguchi Method – Design of Experiments
  • 32. Taguchi’s Loss Function
    • A quality product is a product that causes a minimal loss (expressed in money!) to society during it's entire life. The relation between this loss and the technical characteristics is expressed by the loss function
  • 33. Taguchi’s Loss Function
  • 34. Kaoru Ishikawa
    • Simplified statistical techniques for QC
    • Cause and Effect diagrams (Ishikawa Diagrams or Fish Bone Diagrams)
    • Company wide quality control
      • quality does not only mean the quality of product, but also of after sales service, quality of management, the company itself and the human life
  • 35. Ishikawa Diagram
  • 36. Ishikawa Diagram
    • Diagrams which show the causes of a certain event
    • Three sets of causes
    • 6 M’s
      • Machine
      • Method
      • Maintenance
      • Man
      • Mother Nature
  • 37. Ishikawa Diagram
    • 8 Ps
      • Price
      • Promotion
      • Process
      • Place/Plant
      • Policies
      • Procedures
      • Product (or Service)
    • 4 Ss
      • Surroundings
      • Suppliers
      • Systems
      • Skills
  • 38. Masaaki Imai
    • Introduced the concept of Kaizen or continuous improvement
  • 39. Shigeo Shingo
    • “ Fool-Proofing” or “Poke-Yoke”
    • Source Inspection systems
    • No statistical sampling is necessary
    • Zero defects through good engineering and process investigation rather than slogans and exhortations
  • 40. Yoshio Kondo
    • Emphasised inter-relationship between quality and people
      • Creativity – joy of thinking
      • Physical activity – joy of working
      • Sociality – joy of sharing pleasure and pain with colleagues
  • 41. Toyota Production System
    • Long – Term Philosophy
      • Base your Management Decisions on a Long-Term Philosophy, even at the Expense of Short-Term Financial Goals
  • 42. 14 Principles of TPS
    • The Right Process Will Produce the Right Results
    • Create Continuous Process Flow to Bring Problems to the Surface
    • Use “Pull” Systems to avoid Over Production
    • Level out the Work Load (Heijunka)
    • Build a Culture of Stopping to Fix Problems, to get Quality Right the First Time
    • Standardised Tasks are the foundation for Continuous Improvement and Employee Empowerment
    • Use Visual Control so no Problems are Hidden
    • Use Only Reliable, Thoroughly Tested Technology that Serves your People and Processes
  • 43. 14 Principles of TPS
    • Add Value to the Organisation by Developing Your People and Partners
    • Grow Leaders who thoroughly understand the Work, Live the Philosophy and Teach it to Others
    • Develop Exceptional People and Teams who follow your Company’s Philosophy
    • Respect your Extended Network of Partners and Suppliers by Challenging them and Helping them Improve
    Continue …….
  • 44. 14 Principles of TPS
    • Continuously Solving Root Problems Drives Organisational Learning
    • Go and See for Yourself to thoroughly Understand the Situation
    • Make Decisions Slowly by Consensus, thoroughly Considering all Options, Implement Decisions Rapidly
    • Become a Learning Organisation through Relentless Reflection (Hansei) and Continuous Improvement (Kaizen)
  • 45. “ 4 P” Model of the Toyota Way
    • Continual organizational learning through Kaizen
    • Go see for yourself to thoroughly understand the
    • situation ( Genchi Genbutsu )
    • Make decisions slowly by consensus, thoroughly
    • considering all options; implement rapidly
    • Grow leaders who live the philosophy
    • Respect, develop, and challenge your
    • people and teams
    • Respect, challenge, and help your suppliers
    • Create process “flow” to surface problems
    • Use pull systems to avoid overproduction
    • Level out the workload (Heijunka)
    • Stop when there is a quality problem (Jidoka)
    • Standardize tasks for continuous improvement
    • Use visual control so no problems are hidden
    • Use only reliable, thoroughly tested technology
    • Base management decisions on a
    • long-term philosophy, even at the
    • expense of short-term financial goals
  • 46. “ 4 P” Model of the Toyota Way
    • Continual organizational learning through Kaizen
    • Go see for yourself to thoroughly understand the
    • situation ( Genchi Genbutsu )
    • Make decisions slowly by consensus, thoroughly
    • considering all options; implement rapidly
    • Grow leaders who live the philosophy
    • Respect, develop, and challenge your
    • people and teams
    • Respect, challenge, and help your suppliers
    • Create process “flow” to surface problems
    • Use pull systems to avoid overproduction
    • Level out the workload (Heijunka)
    • Stop when there is a quality problem (Jidoka)
    • Standardize tasks for continuous improvement
    • Use visual control so no problems are hidden
    • Use only reliable, thoroughly tested technology
    • Base management decisions on a
    • long-term philosophy, even at the
    • expense of short-term financial goals
    Genchi Genbutsu Respect & Teamwork Kaizen Challenge Where Most “ Lean” Companies are
  • 47. “ 4 P” Model of the Toyota Way
    • Continual organizational learning through Kaizen
    • Go see for yourself to thoroughly understand the
    • situation ( Genchi Genbutsu )
    • Make decisions slowly by consensus, thoroughly
    • considering all options; implement rapidly
    • Grow leaders who live the philosophy
    • Respect, develop, and challenge your
    • people and teams
    • Respect, challenge, and help your suppliers
    • Create process “flow” to surface problems
    • Use pull systems to avoid overproduction
    • Level out the workload (Heijunka)
    • Stop when there is a quality problem (Jidoka)
    • Standardize tasks for continuous improvement
    • Use visual control so no problems are hidden
    • Use only reliable, thoroughly tested technology
    • Base management decisions on a
    • long-term philosophy, even at the
    • expense of short-term financial goals
    Genchi Genbutsu Respect & Teamwork Kaizen Challenge Toyota’s Terms
  • 48. Toyota Production System House Leveled Production (Heijunka) Stable and Standardized Processes Visual Management Toyota Way Philosophy
    • Just-in-Time
    • Right Part, Right
    • Amount, Right Time
    • Take Time Planning
    • Continuous Flow
    • Pull System
    • Quick Changeover
    • Integrated Logistics
    • Jidoka
    • (In-station Quality)
    • Make Problems
    • Visible
    • Automatic Stops
    • Andon
    • Person – Machine
    • Separation
    • Error Proofing
    • In-station Quality
    • Control
    • Solve Root Cause of
    • Problems (5 Why’s)
    Best Quality – Lowest Cost – Shortest Lead Time – Best Safety – High Morale Through shortening the production flow by eliminating waste
    • People & Teamwork
    • Selection
    • Common Goals
    • Ringi Decision Making
    • Cross – Trained
    • Waste Reduction
    • Genchi Genbutsu
    • 5 Why’s
    • Eyes for Waste
    • Problem Solving
    Continuous Improvement
  • 49. Deming’s PDCA Cycle Check Check Check Check Plan Plan Plan Plan Act Act Act Act Do Do Do Do Across Companies Company Group Project
  • 50. Creating Flow Eliminate Waste Evaluate Results (Check) Surface Problems (Plan) Counter Measures (Do) Create Flow (Act)
  • 51. Three Ms Muda Waste Muri Overburden Mura Unevenness
  • 52. Toyota’s Leader View PHILOSOPHICAL MANAGEMENT TECHNICAL
    • Technical
    • Stability
    • JIT
    • Jidoke
    • Kaizen
    • Heijunka
    • Management
    • True North
    • Tools to Focus
    • Management Attention
    • Go and See
    • Problem – Solving
    • Presentation Skills
    • Project Management
    • Supportive Culture
    • Philosophy / Basic Thinking
    • Customer First
    • People are most Important Asset
    • Kaizen
    • Go and See -> Focus on Floor
      • Give feedback to Team Members and Earn Respect
    • Efficiency Thinking
      • True (vs. apparent) Condition
      • Total (vs. Individual) Team Involvement
    PEOPLE Long – term Asset –> Learned Skills Machinery Depreciates -> Loses Value People Appreciates -> Continue to Grow
  • 53. Supply Chain Need Hierarchy Learning Enterprise Enabling Systems Clear Expectations Stable, Reliable Processes Fair and Honorable Business Relations Progressing Need Satisfaction Regressing Need Satisfaction Next Level of Improvement Stability
  • 54.
    • Myth
    • What TPS is Not
    • Reality What TPS Is
    • A Tangible recipe for Success
    • A Management Project or Program
    • A set of Tools for Implementation
    • A system for Production Floor only
    • Implementable in a Short or
    • Mid-term Period
    • A Consistent way of Thinking
    • A Total Management Philosophy
    • Focus on Total Customer Satisfaction
    • An Environment of Teamwork and
    • Improvement
    • A Never-ending Search for a
    • Better Way
    • Quality Built in Process
    • Organised, Disciplined
    • Workplace
    • Evolutionary
    Myth vs Reality
  • 55. Motivational Theories & TPS
  • 56.  
  • 57. 5 S
    • Seiri – Sorting
    • Seiton – Straighten or Set in order
    • Seiso – Sweeping, shining or cleanliness
    • Seikestu – Standardising
    • Shitsuke – Sustaining the discipline
  • 58. 5 S’s Sort Clear out rarely used Items by Red Tagging Straighten Organise and Label a Place for Everything Shine Clean It Standardise Create Rules to Sustain the first 3 5’S Sustain Use Regular Management Audits to Stay Disciplined Eliminate Waste
  • 59. Waste in a Value System Time Casting Transportation Staging Setup Machining Inspection Assembly Staging Raw Material Time Finished Parts Value – Added Time Non-Value-Added Time (Waste)
    • Value-added Time is only a Small Percentage
    • of the Total Time
    • Traditional Cost Savings focuses only on
    • Value-adding Items
    • Lean Thinking Focuses on the Value Stream
    • to Eliminate Non-Value-Adding Items
  • 60. Waste in a Truck Assembly Line
  • 61. Thank You Stephen Gershen 610-409-8230 email me