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Bosnia Herzegovina Pp #2

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    • 1. GORNJI VAKUF/USKOPLJE Bosnia Herzegovina
    • 2. BiH Flag: Created in 1998 Stars: represent Council of Europe Triangle pnts: Bosnia’s 3 main ethnic groups Half Stars: Bosnia’s 2 regions
    • 3. Brief Recap on BiH
      • Location: South-eastern Europe on Balkan Peninsula
      • Surrounding Countries: Croatia (N&W); Serbia (E); Montenegro (S)
      • Capital: Sarajevo
      • Placement: Gornji Vakuf/Uskoplje (W of Sarajevo)
      • Diverse ethnicity: Bosnians; Croatians; & Serbians
    • 4. History
      • Illyrian: 1 st people to settle
      • First century AD: Romans conquered most of country
      • 7-12 th century: Croats & Serbs ruled
      • 1180-1463: Hungary controlled Bosnia
          • BiH united until 1448
      • Late 1400s:
          • Turks captured Bosnia
          • Expanded to Herzegovina
          • Most people converted to Islam
      • Late 1800s: Austro-Hungarian Empire took over Bosnia
          • Following Russo/Serbian-Turk war (1876), Turks were expelled
          • Influx of non-Muslims from North to BiH ( contributing to present-day ethnic mix)
    • 5. History Cont’d
      • 1904: Austria-Hugary annexed Bih
        • To prevent BiH from becoming independent Yugoslavia
        • Caused two events:
          • First Balkan war of 1912-1913
          • 1914: Serbian killed heir to Austro-Hungarian throne: WWI was declared
      • After war (1929): Bosnia became a part of Yugoslavia
      • 1940s (WWII): Josip Broz Tito helped free Bosnia from German control and created communist-ruled Yugoslavia (1945)
      • 1980: Tito died & federation fell apart
      • 1992: BiH claimed independence & ethnic/civil war followed
          • First in Slovania, then Croatia & finally in BiH
    • 6. Central Bosnian Conflict
      • Bosnian War: 1992-1995
      • Serbians vs. Croatians & Bosnians
          • Serbs wanted to reunite all Yugoslav territories but eliminate non-Serbs
          • Fought over territory
      • Summer 1995: NATO intervenes:
          • Germans & U.S. armed and trained Croat & Muslim armies so they could reclaim their territory
      • 1995: divided BiH into Serb Republika Srpska & the Federation of BiH
    • 7. Eastern Bosnian Conflict
      • Conflict between Muslims and Croats
      • Fought in main street in Gornji Vakuf- Uskolje
      • Physical conflict began from January- February 2003, then July 2003 (when city was split)-March 2004
      • Fought over territory & ethnic differences
      • City, especially Muslim area, was destroyed
          • HVO (Croat separatist army) used the nearby hills to snipe and bomb the city
          • City split created primarily homogenized areas, apart from the previously formed cross-cultural families
      • 1995: Dayton Accord (Pease Agreement) was signed
    • 8. Post- War : Social Implications
      • Gornji Vakuf split in middle (lower part “Uskoplje”: Croats; Upper part: Muslims
      • Violence hasn’t erupted since 2004; however, the mixing of ethnic groups isn’t has prominent, families torn
      • Tension = demonstrations
      • Separate city structures: city councils (2); mayors (2); post offices (2); schools systems (2); & health centers (2)
          • I.e., 2007 Alumni noticed that schools have separate entrances for Bosnian and Croatians
      • Mixed city structures: bus station; police force; & public market (both sides shop on Wednesdays)
      • 4% of land has unexploded landmines
          • Limits social and economic activities (also causes health concerns)
    • 9. Post War: Economic Implications
      • Economy: destroyed from war
      • Refocus from primary sector
        • Pre-war: ½ revenuewas generated from agriculture & mineral resources (i.e., iron, coal, zinc, etc.)
        • Present: focus on education, transit, banking & health care
        • 40% unemploeyment rate; those employed mostly work as construction workers and or own or work in cafes
      • Foreign Aid:
        • ~$ 15 billion thus far
        • Unequally distributed (primarly goes to Croatian side)
        • Used for reconstructing cities, power lines & telecommunicaion and transportation systems
      • Ethnic rift = economic stagnation & deteriorated international position
    • 10. General Government Info
      • Independent from Yugoslavia in either March or April 1992
        • Became Federal Democratic Republic
      • Under terms of 1995 Dayton Accord: BiH consists of 2 First-order administrative divisions (federal governments):
        • Muslim/ Croat Federation of Bosnia & Herzegovina (Federacija Bosnia Hercegovina) (2 presidents)
        • Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska (1 president)
      • BiH also has 1 Internationally supervised district:
        • NE Bosnia: Brcko District
        • Responsible for national functions (i.e., foreign, external trade and financial policies)
      • 3-member rotating presidency:
        • Each member is elected by popular vote for 4 year term (similar to the States)
        • Rotates ever 8 months
        • Presidents appoint Chairman of Council of Ministers
      • Last election date: Oct 1 st 2006
      • National Statehood Day: 25 Nov (1943) (commemorates the day BiH became free of Germans & became communist Yugoslavia: Tito’s reign)
    • 11. Omladinsky Centar
      • Founded:
          • Spring 1996
      • Location:
          • Middle of Gornji Vakuf, central Bosnia
          • Formal front line where the war of Muslims & Croats fought
      • Major Organizations Involved:
          • Local NGO; National NGO; International NGO; & Local Leaders
            • Project for: UMCOR (United Methodist Committee on Relief); UNDP (U.N. Development Project) until 1997; and locals
            • Runs without government assistance, in order to work towards multi-culturalism
          • ~12 staff members & 15 volunteers
      • Cost of Operation:
          • Runs on ~7000 KM /month
    • 12. Omladinsky Centar
      • Goal: “Encourage youth to take major roles in peace building”
        • A location where students, teachers and parents can safely interact cross-culturally
      • Target Demographic:
        • 500+ 7-18 yr olds take part in the educational and recreational programs
      • Hours of Operation:
        • 9am-8pm
      • Some programs and courses offered at the center:
        • 4 Computer classes in computer lab for 10-17 yr olds
        • English & German
        • Photography
        • Drama
        • Conflict Resolution & Non-Violent
        • Communication
      • Currently, classes are intermixed
    • 13. Highlights from Former BB Students’ Placements (2006)
    • 14. Omladinsky Centar
    • 15. Canada Day at Omladinsky Centar 2006 Alumni Created this Program (I would like my group to reintroduce this event; I’m going with 4 other Intercordia students this year: Chelsea from King’s college; Ryan from Saskatoon; and the newbies to our group being Jillian from Fredericton & Bridgette from Toronto) "Banana is Unite!" Massive Cdn Word Search Canadian Family Feud Fear Factor
    • 16. Bosnia Herzegovina Vacant hotel Structure with evidence of war: locals don’t like people taking pictures of these memories of the war Field with unexploded mines (also prominent in deserted buildings Vacant hotel Locals hard at work: example of jobs in BiH View of the Gornji-Vakuf from the hillside Buildings near Alumni’s host family’s house. Evidence of war: bullet holes in the side of the buildings. (Muslim side of town)
    • 17. Bosnia Herzegovina July 13, 2006 One of only a hand full of times 2006 Alumni saw a large crowd of people. Usually the town is fairly deserted. Diving competition: They made a dam a couple days before so it would be more safe to dive of the bridge. The winner (best diver) received 100 KMs
    • 18. Weekend Trips to Surrounding Cities Sarajevo Dubrovnik Travnik
    • 19. Weekend Trips to Surrounding Cities Cont’d Split Bashka Voda Mostar Tucepi (tu-che-pi)
    • 20. Websites:
      • http://mikeinbosnia.blogspot.com/2006/08/summer-end-wrap-up.html
      • http://picasaweb.google.com/JMikeLittle/PicturesFromCroatiaSouthernBosnia#4977629112991088658
      • http://www.iexplore.com/dmap/Bosnia-Herzegovina/Dining&nav=next
      • Mulla-Feroze, Gabrielpillai. Welcome to my Country: Bosnia and Herzegovina . 2002 N.A. Gareth Stevens Publishing

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