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Literature Review...

Literature Review
PowerPoint Presentation Argumentative Comments on Cognitive attributions and Rape 2011

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  • AU_PSY492_M7_A2_PPT_Gendron_S.doc


  • 1. Susan GendronArgosy University PSY 492 – Powerpoint Presentation/PsychologyApril 18, 2011
    Cognitive attributions
    Situational factors and affective experiences
    Coping mechanisms
    Psychological testing and coping strategies correlated to female victimized rape victims
  • 2. Abstract
    • These five component necessitate implementation of psychotherapeutic counseling interventions by:
    • 3. SARS (Sexual Assault Resource Systems) nursing/medical professionalteams correlated to various levels of trauma experienced by female rape victims during both the acute and chronic stages of their recovery.
    • 4. -Data analysis
    • 5. -Cognitive attributions
    • 6. -Affective (Guilt feeling experiences)
    • 7. -Behavioral strategies
    • 8. -Symptoms of post rape trauma
  • 9. Abstract (2)
    • Data analysis
    • 10. MANOVA one-way multi-variate computerized statistical data analysis
    medium is advantageous as it targets a broad international spectrum
    (Japan v. U. S. A.) correlated to the independent variable, namely,
    “country.” Ho and Chieu (1994).
    • The latter refers to the concept of "collectivism/co-dependency" Asian
    "avoidance" approach of familial psychological coping strategies versus
    Americans post rape female victims' approach to pursue multi-faceted
    SARS (Sexual Assault Resource System). Ho and Chieu (1994).
    • This institutionalized protective environmental safety and multi-specialty professional integrative psychological counseling, psychiatric/medical interventions while addressing protective law enforcement and judiciary sanctions pending post rape legal remedies obtained on behalf of female American (U.S.A.) rape victims status post rape trauma from perpetrator.
  • 11. 4
    Abstract (3)
    • I find the American (internal factor) approach by SARS most advantageous to victims‘ because of its objectivity, thus demonstrates reliability in relation to this independent variable, "country", Ho and Chieu(1994) versus its counterpart of tunnel vision familial subjective support (Japan).
    • 12. The latter contributes to a lengthier, increased guilt-ridden approach concerning Japanese post-rape victims as correlates to cognitive attributions (internal factor/depression) and (external factor/avoidance or refusal (Japan)
    to seek professional counseling for PTSD.
  • 13. 5
    • Situational factors (Glenn and Buyers, 2009) are as follows:
    • 14. Contributing factors such as drug and alcohol abuse and homelessness style of living often are detrimental to female subjects and entice perpetrators to engage their criminal web of rape onto innocent female victims.
    • 15. The latter often manifests itself through the power of deception and crafty coercive efforts initiated by perpetrators seeking self-gratification through inappropriate forced sexual penetration of innocent females craving for sexual enhancement and party living to suppress their underlying depressive emotional instabilities only to leap into downward spirals of furtherance of psychological demise via post-rape episodic malfeasance by perpetrators.
    • 16. Conclusion:
    AS offers more profound reliability than its counterpart IES approach (focuses
    more on Asian (Japan) rape victims’ avoidance factor (Frazier and Burnett, 1994)
    referring to victims’ refusal to seek professional psychological therapy due to
    cultural Asian pride (focus suppress emotions with self-contained co-dependency
    familial support/self-limiting with delayed recovery).
  • 17. 6
    • Unfortunately, post-rape victims' who seek avoidance by falsely convincing themselves they do not require professional counseling or psychiatric
    interventions because they strive for independent living and tend to engage
    into false blame (internal factors) (Meyer & Taylor, 1986; Arataand Burkhart,
    1996) while clinging onto low self-worth while falling deeper into repetitive
    depressive episodes that may lead them in and out of drug and alcohol
    abuse or even prostitution at very young ages (sixteen through late twenties)
    • These predictors of victims’ cognitive attributions (Littleton and Breitkopf,
    2006) stem from coercive pressure by perpetrators forcing their female
    targets to pay for their drug addiction (External factors).
    • SARS teams are truly of beneficence to post-rape female victims' if they will only allow themselves to value their lives by regaining their innermost self
    to counteract and gain psychological coping skills . In doing so, they will
    live more fully productive lives and establish positive long term inter-
    personal relationships.
  • 18. 7
    • Beck Inventory delivers more specificity and efficacy correlated to the victims responses that comprise of an in-depth questionnaire totaling
    21 questions. (Beck, 1976).
    • This method establishes a more solidified foundational basis for staging the recovery process in accordance with the varying degrees of psychological trauma by SARS professionals’ implementation of integrative psychological applications during the first twelve months post rape. This period of time is highly critical on behalf of rape victims.
    • 19. AS/Attribution Scale (Meyer and Taylor, 1986;Arata and Burkhart, 1996)
    is more proactive than IES (Impact Event Scale), (Horowitz et al., 1979).
    • The AS presents greater advantages as it targeted three components:
    (I.e.“behavioral, charaterological or societal (external) attribution scales.
    • The external scale responses were relative to “Men don’t respect women”
    versus the internal scale assessed responses to low self-worth issues
    (“I am a poor judge of character”). Internal consistency was justified
    at .73 and .78. (Meyer and Taylor,k 1986; Arata and Burkhart, 1996).
  • 20. 8
    Methods of Measurements
    • Behavioral component yields greater post-rape recovery emotional stability (91%) - (I.e. Hands-on interests encouraged through community support activities versus Cognitive component of immersing self into work = (6%).
    • 21. Music lessons (Learn to play instrument)
    • 22. Hands-on art mediums, crafts
    • 23. Fashion designing
    • 24. Face painting with children (Festivals)
    • 25. Domestic housework
    • 26. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) encompasses following:
    • 27. 21 response questionnaire to research participants/self-report measure
    • 28. Statistical results revealed Mean BDI score/sample (12.10) with
    • 29. SD/Standard Deviation equating (8.94)
    • 30. Statistical significance: Mildly depressed/range of participants
  • 9
    Social Support
    • Interesting enough, statistics proved the female gender offered more consistent and frequented emotional support to female post-rape victims
    • 31. Evidentiary facts statistically proved that men = Mean(4.31)
    representing their being less emotionally supportive toward their female counterpart
    rape victims at three days post-rape (During the female subjects acute hospitalization
    • Lack of male emotional psychological support may attributed to significant others experiencing feelings of emotional powerlessness and/or loss toward their loved ones traumatic experience and potentially even guilt.
  • 10
     Glenn,Shannon, A., ; Byers,E .S., (2009)
    The roles of situational factors, attributions, and guilt in the well-being of women who have experienced sexual coercion; The Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality; Attribution Scale (AS), (Meyer and Taylor, 1986; Arata& Burkhart, 1996); The Guilt Subscale of the Personal Feelings Questionnaire, (Harder and Lewis, 1987; Harder and Zallma, 1990).
     Littleton, H., Breitkopf, C. R., (2006)
    Coping with the experience of rape; Predictors” of victims’ cognitive attributions; Maladaptive avoidance coping; Psychology of Women Quarterly.
    Frazier, P., Burnett, J. W., (1994)
    Immediate Coping Strategies Among Rape Victims: “Factor analyzed responses, p.3;(Burr and Katz, 1987), “Avoidance, Nervous/Anxiety
    and Self-Destructive scales.” Journal of Counseling and Development, Department of Psychology, University of Minn.
  • 32. 11
     Yamawaki, Niwako, (2007)
    Differences Between Japanese and American College Students in
    Giving Advice About Help Seeking to Rape Victims: Correlations
    Among Dependent, Moderator and Mediator Variables (Thorndike, 1997); The Journal of Social Psychology; Retrieved on March 7, 2011, from http://wf2dnvrfeat,org/gRewP18227//
    Arata, CM, (1999)
      Coping with rape: The roles of prior sexual abuse and attributions of blame;
    The Journalof Interpersonal Violence.
    Beck, AT. (1976)
      Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York: Penguin Books.
    Burt, M. R., (1980)
    Journal of Social and Personality Psychology. Cultural myths and support
    for rape. Horowitz, M., Wilner, N. and Alvarez, W. (1979)
      Impact of Event Scale: A measure of subjective distress. Psychosomatic Medicine.
  • 33. 12
    Horowitz, M., Wilner, N. and Alvarez, W. (1979)
      Impact of Event Scale: A measure of subjective distress. Psychosomatic Medicine.
    Faulkner, GE, Kolts, R. . and Hicks, GF. (2008)
      Sex roles ideology, relationship context, and response to sexual coercion in college females.
     Butler, K., (1996)
    Researching PTSD: The Biology of Fear; Some New Research Offers Startling Insights into The Nature of PTSD; Family Therapy Networker. Retrieved on
    March 7, 2011, from clean-copy?id....