Presentation Nzthrc Conference 2008


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Sjoerd presented (also on behalf of Elena Cavagnaro and Ina Beqo) this research on the New Zealand Tourism and Hospitality Research Conference 2008.

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Presentation Nzthrc Conference 2008

  1. 1. Gender Related Issues in Service Industry Entrepreneurship: the case of Albania    Sjoerd A. Gehrels Research Group of Service Studies , Leeuwarden, The Netherlands New Zealand Tourism & Hospitality Research Conference, 0 5.12.2008 Ina Beqo Dr. Elena Cavagnaro
  2. 2. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Research Agenda </li></ul>Agenda for presentation
  3. 3. Setting Stenden University of Applied Sciences <ul><li>Stenden University, LeeuwardenThe Netherlands: 10.000 students </li></ul><ul><li>Portfolio of programmes: Associate, Bachelor and Master Degrees </li></ul><ul><li>Campus in South-Africa, Qatar, Thailand and Bali </li></ul><ul><li>Full officially accredited Stenden University in Berlin, Germany </li></ul><ul><li>School of Graduate Studies: 4 Master Programmes (Leisure and Tourism Studies, Hospitality-, Service- and Retail Management </li></ul><ul><li>Stenden Research Group in Service Studies </li></ul>
  4. 5. Doctorate Research in Hospitality Management Education Background Sjoerd Gehrels, Stenden School of Graduate Studies, Programme Director, Master in International Hospitality Management Professional Experience 10 years Hospitality Industry; High Segment Restaurants (1979 - 1988) 20 years Higher Education, Hospitality Management (1989 - now) Education (HE) Diploma in Management, University of Groningen/Chamber of Commerce, NL (1994) MSc Tourism & Hospitality Education, University of Surrey, UK (1999) MBA (Hospitality), Oxford Brookes University, UK (2004) Doctor of Education Programme, University of Stirling, UK (2004 - now)
  5. 6. <ul><li>Background of the research </li></ul><ul><li>Part of Doctorate Research: Influence of Managers’ Characteristics on Management Education (Hospitality) </li></ul><ul><li>Core (original) of the sample: small category special entrepreneurs (SSUSCRO’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Researcher from within that world (reflection) </li></ul><ul><li>Education (students) get input from this study </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion about connection between hospitality industry and education in The Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>MA/BBA students participate in research for dissertation </li></ul>
  6. 7. “ The test for whether or not you can hold a job should not be the arrangement of your chromosomes”—Carroll Turkington <ul><li>I am in the beginning of my career coming from Albania, a developing, ex communism country </li></ul><ul><li>It’s development has to be based on an active civil society, where the ability of both man and women can be developed on equal level </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately it is not like this. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally, in Albania, women have participated in the economical and social life and have reached high levels of education </li></ul><ul><li>Currently however their status is very controversial because it is still the males that dominate the labour market. </li></ul><ul><li>Ina Beqo (MA in International Service Management) </li></ul>
  7. 8. Albania
  8. 9. <ul><li>Poorest country in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Youngest population in Europe: 37 percent under 15 + average age of 25 </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism is growing: the country receives approximately 1.098.765 foreign visitors per year and it is growing by 19% every year </li></ul><ul><li>Government tries to fight corruption and crime </li></ul>Facts about Albania Rank size Country Sq.Km Inhabitants GDP p/cap 10 United States 9,826,630 303,824,640 $46,000 13 Australia 7,686,850 21,007,310 $37,300 82 New Zealand 268,680 4,173,460 $27,200 86 United Kingdom 244,820 60,943,912 $35,000 143 Netherlands 41,526 16,645,313 $39,000 151 Albania 28,748 3,619,778 $5,800
  9. 10. <ul><li>Parties benefitting from this research: </li></ul><ul><li>Ministry of work and social affairs (Albania): latest trends in female’s entrepreneurship development in Tirana and for being able to build up policies and strategies to support such initiatives </li></ul><ul><li>Banks and loan institutions: becoming more receptive towards women entrepreneurs starting </li></ul><ul><li>  Women’s Center in Tirana: to update their materials and research </li></ul><ul><li>Ina: for personal and professional enhancement in her country </li></ul><ul><li>Elena: for getting more insight into one of the next-door countries (is from Italy originally) concerning values (personal and social level) </li></ul><ul><li>Sjoerd: getting more insight into entrepreneurs motivational aspects (EdD study) </li></ul><ul><li>Academics in different countries: to know what is happening in Europe’s women entrepreneurship </li></ul>Purpose/objectives of the study
  10. 11. Problem Statement and Research Questions <ul><li>To what extend does gender influence women entrepreneurship participation within the service industry, in Albania? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there any relation between female’s previous employment experiences with the decision of being self-employed? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the influence of family inheritance and level of education to their carrier development? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there any gender differences in motivation, business start –up and progress? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there any impact of gender on financial related issue? </li></ul><ul><li>Are there female network similar to male network? </li></ul><ul><li>How do female entrepreneurs in Albania consider gender to have influenced their carrier? </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>researchers should address more attention to women’s entrepreneurship in SME’s: women’s entrepreneurship is an enormous untapped source for economic growth for the future and participation of women in entrepreneurship significantly lower than that of men (2 nd OECD Conference of Ministers responsible for SME’s, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>60-90% of all companies in the tourism industry sectors ‘hotels’ and ‘travel agencies’ can be categorized under SME’s (Keller, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>42% of their sample of entrepreneurial women becomes involved in the new venture due to the job frustration in their previous position (Buttner, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>women sometimes acquire networks through contacts in businesses owned by family members, close friends, peers and former employees (More and Buttner, 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>dominant factor to influence motivation of women entrepreneurs: more out of necessity than choice, and positive or ‘attraction’ factors (Monaci, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>women encounter difficulties in gaining access to credit and other sources (Fay and William, 1993) </li></ul>Literature
  12. 13. Conceptual Model
  13. 14. <ul><li>Sample (11 semi-structured interviews): </li></ul><ul><li>Owners of small or medium size enterprises(SME) </li></ul><ul><li>Basic educational background (high school completed) </li></ul><ul><li>Operate at least 2 years in the market </li></ul><ul><li>At least one staff member employed </li></ul><ul><li>Age range between 25 and 45 years </li></ul><ul><li>Living in capital Tirana for at least 5 years </li></ul><ul><li>Operating within the service industry </li></ul><ul><li>Married for at least 1 year </li></ul>Methodology
  14. 15. Methodology Data Gathering Literature review/desk research October- December 2007 Semi-structured interviews December 2007 Data analysis January –February 2008 Completing the report March 2008
  15. 16. Results and Conclusions Res Age Education Marital status Children 1. 32 University degree, law Married None 2. 44 University degree, engineer Married 2 3. 37 University degree, history-geography Married 2 4. 34 University degree, finance Separated but still married 1 5. 40 University degree, economics Married 3 6. 26 University degree, foreign languages Married 1 7. 30 University degree, economics and business law Married None 8. 30 University degree, design Married 1 9. 43 University degree, medicine Married 2 10 29 University degree, chemical engineering Married 1 11. 31 University degree, electronic engineering Married 1
  16. 17. <ul><li>COMPANY owned: </li></ul><ul><li>Consultancy </li></ul><ul><li>Construction company (service department) </li></ul><ul><li>Mode atelier </li></ul><ul><li>Insurance agency </li></ul><ul><li>Language center </li></ul><ul><li>Licence assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Printing company </li></ul><ul><li>Medical center </li></ul><ul><li>Make-up saloon </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee-bar & kindergarten </li></ul><ul><li>Electric appliances for the medical industry </li></ul>
  17. 19. Interview Questions Q1: Could you tell me something about the education and work experience you have been going through in your life?     Q2: Could you please let me know more about your company and your association with it?   Q3: When and why did you decide you wanted to be a entrepreneur in the service industry?   Q4: What or who is your source of inspiration and personal motivation?   Q5: What was the biggest obstacle for you to start-up this company ?   Q6: What were some of the unique challenges you faced as an entrepreneur and how did you address them?
  18. 20. Follow-up issues <ul><li>kind of networks </li></ul><ul><li>gender influence </li></ul><ul><li>relationship with banks and credit loans institutions </li></ul><ul><li>balancing family and working life </li></ul><ul><li>women opportunities compared to men </li></ul><ul><li>cash flow problem </li></ul><ul><li>personal or family sacrifices </li></ul><ul><li>any addition information which is not covered until now in this interview </li></ul>
  19. 21. <ul><li>A strong correlation exists between Albanian women’s previous employment experiences and the decision to become self-employed </li></ul><ul><li>Educational background and family inheritance influence women’s motivation and career development </li></ul><ul><li>There are gender differences in Albania relating to start-up and operating of businesses </li></ul>Results and Conclusions
  20. 22. <ul><li>Impact of gender on financial related issues is obvious and vivid </li></ul><ul><li>The creation of female networks is not done in the same way as male networks </li></ul><ul><li>Women entrepreneurs consider gender to have a negative influence on their career </li></ul>Results and Conclusions
  21. 23. <ul><li>Because of the predicted positive impact that women’s entrepreneurship will have on the SME sector and particularly in service and tourism industry the continuation of research efforts like in this case example is needed </li></ul>Recommendations