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Powerpoint3 writing process

  1. 1. The Writing Process Student Instructional Unit #3
  2. 2. Writing Process Notes and Assignment Worksheet Directions: 1. Open the Writing Process Notes and Assignments Worksheet in Microsoft Word. 2. Save this document in your student file under you name. Example: hatch_writing_process_notes_assignments 3. Fill in each section of the notes as you watch the Writing Process PowerPoint Presentation. 4. Save the document each time you add more information, so you do not loose your work. 5. When you are completely done, attach the notes to an e- mail 6. When you are completely done, e-mail the notes to Mr. Hatch – bhatch@weber.k12.ut.us
  3. 3. Student Objectives Students will: • Define the elements of the writing process • Write following the writing process • Learn to pre-write • Learn to draft • Learn to share for the purpose of revision • Learn to revise and edit your paper • Learn to publish a professional paper
  4. 4. The Writing Process At the start of her career, author Annie Dillard thought that all you really needed was “paper, pen, and a lap” to write something. But before too long, she discovered that “in order to write so much as a sonnet [a 14 line poem], I needed a warehouse.” Of course, the author is exaggerating, but only to make a point. Dillard soon learned that she had to spend a lot of time—and write numerous drafts—to produce effective finished products. You may know from experience what Dillard is talking about. Think of your best essays, reports, and stories. You probably put forth a great deal of effort (enough to fill a warehouse?) to produce each one, changing some parts many times from draft to draft. You may also know that writing really becomes satisfying when it reflects your best efforts. If you work hard at your writing, you—and your readers—will almost always be pleased with the results Sebranek, Patrick, Dave Kemper, and Verne Meyer. Writers Inc.: A Student Guide for Writing and Learning. (Wilmington, Massachusetts: Write Source, 2001), 3. Annie Dillard
  5. 5. The Writing Process Writing and Past Misconceptions: Traditionally, the teaching of writing assumed a one-draft only mentality. The object was to get it done, have the required number of pages, and move along. Students were forced into instant writing with one-shot drafts being published in a single sitting. The emphasis has shifted from analyzing finished products to looking at what students think and do as they write. Writing is now viewed as a multistage process. However, it is misleading to think of these stages as occurring in a sequential and linear fashion. The stages are interactive and frequently occur simultaneously. The writing process consists of experience, prewriting / rehearsing, drafting, sharing, revising, editing, and publishing.
  6. 6. Research Paper Topic Remember: As you go through this PowerPoint presentation, you will be dealing with the following research paper topic. Essay Topic: What was the vision or goal of some person, group, or event from history, and how did they accomplish the vision or goal? The Paper Requirements: • 3-4 pages minimum (Not counting your cover page and bibliography.) • 12 font size • Times New Roman font • Double-Spaced • Normal 1 inch margins • Cover Sheet • Bibliography or Works Cited Page • What you consider your best research paper writing – final publishable paper. Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  7. 7. What you will learn. . . Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing • Experience • Prewriting / Rehearsing • Drafting • Sharing • Revising • Editing • Publishing • Assessment
  8. 8. Experience Definition: Each of your experiences becomes part of what you know, what you think, and what you have to say in your writing. Writing is the process of capturing those thoughts and experiences on paper. (Writers Inc. page 4) The first two pre-writing tools may help incorporate your experiences in your writing. 1. Journal Writing 2. Free-Writing Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  9. 9. Experience Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing Quotes: "Sometimes people give titles to me, and sometimes I see them on billboards." Robert Penn Warren “Television has raised writing to a new low.” Samuel Goldwyn (1882 - 1974) “It is not a bad idea to get in the habit of writing down one's thoughts. It saves one having to bother anyone else with them.” Isabel Colegate Experience is a good teacher, but she sends in terrific bills.” Minna Antrim “Never be entirely idle; but either be reading, or writing, or praying or meditating or endeavoring something for the public good.” Thomas a Kempis “If writers stopped writing about what happened to them, then there would be a lot of empty pages.” Elaine Liner “Major writing is to say what has been seen, so that it need never be said again.” Delmore Schwartz "The more that you read, the more things you will know. The more that you learn, the more places you'll go." Dr. Seuss, Author “Read, read, read. Read everything—trash, classics, good and bad, and see how they do it. Just like a carpenter who works as an apprentice and studies the master. Read! You’ll absorb it. Then write.” William Faulkner “The greatest part of a writer’s time is spent in reading, in order to write; a man will turn over half a library to make one book.” Samuel Johnson
  10. 10. Journal Writing Definition: Write in a journal on a regular basis. Explore your personal feelings, develop your thoughts, and record events and happenings of each day. Underline ideas in your journal writing that you would like to explore at a later time. (See Writers INC. page 43) Why write in a journal? When you write regularly in your personal journal, you will begin to discover meaning in your writing. You will begin to enter the world of you inner thoughts. You will be able to recognize the value of your experiences, and how they deeply affect your writing. Recognizing and remembering the experiences from your life will make all of your writing much more vivid, alive, and full of your personality and voice. The Process: 1. Write as often as you can in your journal. 2. We are constantly having thoughts and experiences so it is good to have a notebook on hand. 3. Writing regularly is the key. (See Writers INC. page 144-146 for more ideas.) We will NOT be doing a journal assignment, but it is something to think about for future assignments.Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  11. 11. Free-Writing Definition: Free-writing is writing nonstop for 5-10 minutes to discover possible writing ideas. Begin with a particular focus in mind that is somehow related to your assignment. (See Writers INC. page 43) Why Free-write? When you start to write your paper, often times your voice is lost after you start to plug in all of the great facts and details that you found in your research. Remember, voice is your personal fingerprint on the paper. Voice is your personality, life experiences, and creativity shining through your paper. • Pros: Free-writing is a terrific memory stimulator. This activity reminds you of what we already know and helps you to make connections you might not otherwise make. It helps you to get past the sterile, static, surface responses so that you can burn through to the insightful and fresh "meat" of what you really want to say. • Cons: Free-writing is a time-consuming activity and does not guarantee brilliant results. It is possible to achieve only a clear idea of what you don't want to write. Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  12. 12. Free-Writing Assignment The Process: 1. Write at least 10 minutes without stopping. 2. Don’t stop to fix or edit what you have written. This is only exploratory writing. 3. Keep writing! Even if you are drawing a blank, keep writing about something. 4. When you are done, underline ideas you like and may include in your assignment (See Writers INC. page 45) Create a Free-Write Draft Open your writing_process_notes_assignments and complete the free-writing assignment. Your essay topic is: What was the vision or goal of some person, group, or event from history, and how did they accomplish the vision or goal? Before you start adding all of the details from your research, take 10-15 minutes and simply create a free-write draft of your paper. This will allow your personality and voice to shine through. DO NOT use any of your research information yet, just write what comes to mind. When you are done, remember to save your work in your student file. When you are done free-writing, underline the ideas that you might include in your assignment. Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing Click Back to Main Page
  13. 13. Prewriting / Rehearsing Definition: Prewriting is the stage when writers are getting ready to write. In preparing for writing, writers have to decide on a topic, identify an audience and purpose for writing, determine the appropriate form for the piece, and gather ideas and data. By many educators prewriting is now considered the most crucial of the stages in the writing process, although it was previously the most neglected. Just as athletes need to warm up before a game or an athletic event, writers also need to warm up and get ready. Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  14. 14. Writer’s Block and Prewriting Writer’s Block: "I believe 'writer's block' is the normal state of writing; that is, you rarely have anything just flow easily from your brain to the keyboard. And if it does, it's usually pretty bad. Good writing is almost always hard, and what I think sometimes happens is that writers forget how hard it is, or don't want to do the work any more, and they call this 'writer's block.'" Dave Barry Why Prewrite? Prewriting—even for 5 to 20 minutes—helps me to work past initial, and often unoriginal, responses to my topic. It prevents me from committing to superficial and boring answers. Prewriting helps me to find strong, thoughtful, and clear answers to questions posed. It enables me to discover—concretely—what I already know and to unearth areas of personal interest within the writing task: prewriting enables me to discover myself within the context of my topic. Prewriting also helps me to nail down responses—to move ideas from short-term memory into long-term or written memory—so that I can get to the work of writing rather than trying to remember what I want to say. I think better when I write. Tracy Duckart's Instructional Website at Humboldt State University http://www.humboldt.edu/%7Etdd2/Prewriting.htm Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  15. 15. Prewriting / Rehearsing Quotes: “That everybody is allowed to learn to read spoileth in the long run not only writing but thinking.” Friedrich Nietzsche Don't agonize. Organize. Florynce Kennedy In preparing for battle I have always found that plans are useless, but planning is indispensable. Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890 - 1969) Let our advance worrying become advance thinking and planning. Winston Churchill (1874 - 1965) Meticulous planning will enable everything a man does to appear spontaneous. Mark Caine The best time for planning a book is while you're doing the dishes. Agatha Christie (1890 - 1976) When a play enters my consciousness, is already a fairly well-developed fetus. I don't put down a word until the play seems ready to be written. Edward Albee Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  16. 16. Prewriting / Rehearsing in Action Steps to Choosing a Subject and Gathering Details: (Writers Inc. page 5) 1. Search for a meaningful writing idea—one that truly interests you and meets the requirements of the assignment. 2. Use a selecting strategy (listing, clustering, free-writing, etc.) to identify possible subjects. (See pages 43-45 in Writers Inc.) 3. Learn as much as you can about the subject you choose. Conduct a broad search. (See pages 46-49 in Writers Inc.) 4. Decide on an interesting or important part of the subject—your focus—to develop. Express your focus in a thesis statement, a statement that helps map out your writing. (See page 51 in Writers Inc.) 5. Think about an overall plan or design for organizing your writing. This plan can be anything from a brief list to a detailed outline. (See Page 52 in Writers Inc.) Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  17. 17. Broad Search and Note Cards Learning about your topic: The first major step of prewriting is learning about your topic. Broad Search – Recall the lesson on broad vs. narrow search from the Sources PowerPoint presentation. Start your broad research.  Starting point – I’m just learning about the subject.  Very general information  A lot of information  Use textbooks, Internet, encyclopedias, and other tertiary reference material that can give you a good general summary of the topic. Note Cards – Recall the lesson on Note Cards from the Sources PowerPoint presentation. You need to print at least 20 note cards and begin gathering specifics and details for your paper. You must have at least a total of six different sources, including three different electronic sources, and three different traditional sources. Click the link below to print your note cards and begin to gather the information and details for your paper. Look at the guide to remember how to use the cards. Remember to use a variety of details and specifics to keep your paper interesting. Use the Types of Specifics List to remember the different types of specifics. Source Note Cards Guide: How to Use the Note Cards Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  18. 18. Graphic Organizers Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing Organizing your information: The second major step of prewriting is organizing your information and ideas. The following is a list of graphic organizer methods. There are two categories of graphic organizer activities: generative / associative activities and more linear organizing activities. They are not mutually exclusive, meaning they do not work independently of each other. Often times it is more effective to use a generative organizer and then a more linear organizer like an outline. Generative / Associative Organizers Linear Organizers Journal Writing (Already Covered) Listing Free Writing (Already Covered) Matrixing Clustering Outlining Cubing 5 Paragraph Essay Outline Dialoging Dramatizing Topical Invention Brainstorming
  19. 19. Clustering Begin a cluster with a nucleus word related to your writing topic or assignment. Then cluster ideas around the nucleus word. Circle each idea you write and draw a line connecting it to the closest related idea. Example: Clustering or Web-Diagram. • Pros: Clustering is a generative tool (i.e. makes use of the unconscious in retrieving information) that helps us to connect thoughts, feelings, and ideas not connected before. It allows us to loosely structure ideas as they occur in a shape that allows for the further generation of ideas. It taps our associative powers in a self- organizing process, encouraging us to create personally meaningful patterns. • Cons: Clustering can frustrate more linear thinkers, those who need neatness and order to think clearly. Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  20. 20. Cubing Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing Cubing asks you to probe your topic from six different perspectives. First, select a topic (issue, person, idea, event, problem, person, object, scene) and write it at the top of your page to help you keep it firmly in mind. Then give yourself three to five minutes to write from each of the perspectives listed below. • Pros: Cubing is an excellent tool for rapidly exploring a topic. It reveals quickly what you know and what you don't know, and it may alert you to decide to narrow or expand your topic. • Cons: Cubing asks us to examine a topic in an unusual way and this may prove frustrating to some writers. It may at first feel awkward at first to describe something like abortion and this may cause a writer to abandon this technique or, worse, the topic itself. Describing: Physically describe your topic. What does it look like? What color, shape, texture, size is it? Identify its parts Comparing: How is your topic similar to other topics/things? How is it different? Associating: What other topic/thing does your topic make you think of? Can you compare it to anything else in your experience? Don't be afraid to be creative here: include everything that comes to mind. Analyzing: Look at your topic's components. How are these parts related? How is it put together? Where did it come from? Where is it going? Applying: What can you do with your topic? What uses does it have? Arguing: What arguments can you make for or against your topic?
  21. 21. Dialoging Dialoging asks that you interact on a personal level with your topic. Just as dialogue captures a conversation between two people, dialogues involve conversing with your topic. First you need two characters. You may imagine two particular people or two sides of an issue, or you may choose to speak as yourself to your topic or aspect of your topic. You may want to label the speakers "1" and "2," or give them names, to help you keep track of who's speaking as you write. Try to keep the dialogue moving fast: don't get bogged down in rehearsing or planning responses. If you get stuck, have one of the speakers ask the other a question. • Pros: A dialogue can be especially practical in the invention stage of a narrative or a persuasive essay. You might also find it useful when searching for topics, looking for focus, exploring an idea, or considering opposing viewpoints. • Cons: When using dialogues, it is easy to get caught up in characterization, to become tied to the way you're producing information rather than the information produced. Dialogues, especially in conjunction with an expository essay, may also engender a too narrative or too conversational tone when a more objective or reserved tone is appropriate. Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  22. 22. Dramatizing Dramatizing has a limited but powerful scope. Many writers find it invaluable when writing personal narrative (to learn more about themselves or other significant people), when writing about literature, or when writing to inform or persuade (to analyze the intended audience). We first need to define a few key terms: To use dramatizing, write answers to as many of the following as possible. Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing Actor Who? Action What happened? Setting Where and When? Motive Why? Method How What is the actor doing? How did the actor come to be involved in this situation? Why does the actor do what he/she does? What else might the actor do? What is the actor trying to accomplish? What do the actor's actions reveal about her/him? How do other actors influence the main actor? What does the actor's language reveal about him/her? How does the event's setting influence the actor's actions? How does the time influence what the actor does? Where did this actor come from? What might the actor become?
  23. 23. Topical Invention Topical invention is a worksheet that walks you through a series of questions to discover more about your topic. To use this resource, simply insert your topic in the spaces provided and answer the questions. Open the link and read through the worksheet. Topical Invention Worksheet From Elizabeth Cowan Neeld As found at Tracy Duckart's Instructional Website at Humboldt State University: http://www.humboldt.edu/%7Etdd2/TopicalInvention.htm Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  24. 24. Brainstorming The same idea as listing. Just write down all the ideas that come to mind. This is not a time for judging the ideas, just get them down. There are no bad ideas, because all ideas can lead to some other idea you may not have thought about. Besides, really great original writing often comes from some pretty off-the-wall brainstorming. This definitely works better as a group activity, because you can “piggy-back” off of the ideas of someone else. Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing Here is a simple brainstorm about WAR.
  25. 25. Listing Begin with a thought or a key word related to your assignment and simply start listing words and ideas. Listing ideas with a group of friends or classmates (brainstorming) is also an effective way to search for writing ideas. • Pros: List making is, for many, a natural activity and makes concrete or tangible ideas that might otherwise remain "slippery" in short-term memory. Lists allow you to focus initially on your ideas rather than the shape, form, or organization of those ideas. • Cons: Lists are linear and rarely allow for associative activity. Too often we feel restricted, when confronted by our list, to remain true to the order of our initial thinking. Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  26. 26. Matrixing A matrix is a two-dimensional display of information. One axis lists the questions or criteria—based upon our analysis of the assignment or essay question—to be applied to the items, or focuses, listed on the other axis. To see an example go to - http://www.humboldt.edu/%7Etdd2/Matrixing.htm • Pros: A matrix helps us to more fully elaborate ideas via recognizing relationships and by requiring us to ask the same questions—to use the same lens, if you will—of each area of support of focus. A matrix imposes a systematic and self-organizing method of inquiry based upon an analysis of the writing task. • Cons: When used as the initial and sole prewriting technique, a matrix can restrict association/recall and limit discovery. Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  27. 27. Outlining The outline is perhaps the most common organizing tool. It provides a shorthand version of the text yet to be generated based upon ideas already formed. Outlines are best used following, and building upon, a more generative and associative prewriting activity (free-writing, listing, clustering, etc.). • Pros: An outline provides a clear and easy to follow representation of the shape and texture of the text. Linear thinkers are particularly fond of this organizational technique, and less-disciplined writers benefit from the clarity it engenders. • Cons: Rigidly followed outlines tend to produce stale, static, and brief texts. Too often, followers of outlines tend to generate one stiff and short paragraph per entry, fail to make smooth connections, and produce stilted texts fraught with rough transitions. Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  28. 28. Outlining Inspiration Software – This visual organizing software allows you to make many different types of organizers and is available on our school computers, or you can try a free 30-day trial at the following website. http://www.inspiration.com/ Inspiration Software Helpful Job Aide and Guide The great thing about Inspiration Software is that you can create a cluster or any other type of graphic organizer and it will then convert your organizer into a Roman numeral outline. Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  29. 29. Diagram (Cluster) View Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing By pushing the outline view button, Inspiration software will take your cluster or web graphic organizer and convert it to a Roman numeral outline. (See the next slide)
  30. 30. Outline View Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing By pushing the diagram view button, Inspiration software will take you back to your cluster or web graphic organizer.
  31. 31. Generative Organizer Assignment In order to maintain your voice and personality, you should have completed the free writing assignment. Now, to practice the generative organizers, you will create a generative graphic organizer using the style that works best for you and the type of paper you are writing. You should start to include the great details and specifics you have found during your research. Generative Organizer Assignment You may use the Inspiration software available at school, or found at http://www.inspiration.com/ Inspiration will help you create many of the different types of organizers. (You make create a generative outline and save it to create your post-draft outline. Pushing the Outline View command will convert your organizer to an outline). Inspiration Software Helpful Job Aide and Guide You may use : Clustering or Web-Diagram. Your paper topic (thesis statement) goes in the middle circle. Then, branch out to your three or four main points. Finally, add your details. Line Diagram or Branching. Your paper topic (thesis statement) goes in the top circle. Then, branch out to your three or four main points. Finally, add your details. Cubing Dialoguing Dramatizing Topical Invention Brainstorming See page 48-49 in Writers INC for more Graphic Organizer ideas. Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing E-mail your completed Generative Organizer Assignment to Mr. Hatch at: bhatch@weber.k12.ut.us
  32. 32. Post-Draft Outlining Assignment In order to maintain voice and personality, many writers experience success with a post-draft outline: an outline composed following a drafting session. One post-draft outlining method involves using the just-completed draft as a memory jogger, a way to reveal what the writer has been thinking. The post-draft outline, then, simply organizes and/or rearranges those recently revealed thoughts and starts to include the details and information found during research. Another method involves creating an outline that maps the just-produced draft, that uncovers the draft's organization. Post-Draft Outlining Assignment You will be creating a post-draft outline, because you should have already completed some free-writing, and one other generative organizer. Now you should take those great ideas and organize and rearrange them by using a linear outline. You may use the 5 Paragraph Essay Roman numeral type organizer. You may use the Inspiration software available at school, or found at http://www.inspiration.com/ (You may take your saved generative outline and push the Outline View command to convert your organizer to an outline) Inspiration Software Helpful Job Aide and Guide Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing Click Back to Main Page E-mail your completed Post-Draft Outlining Assignment to Mr. Hatch at: bhatch@weber.k12.ut.us
  33. 33. Drafting Definition: Getting your ideas down without letting concern about correct spelling, punctuation, and grammar get in the way of composing. During the drafting stage, some students will have difficulty getting started while others will plunge right in. Some will draw pictures and make doodles on their paper; while others will write continuously and seemingly without effort. It is important that during this stage students are not hampered with the mechanics of writing. A "free flow" of ideas is encouraged. Students need to be aware that first drafts are not finished products and that any piece of writing can be improved. Revisions will take place during the next stage in the writing process. For now, students should sit back and let their creativity flow forth. Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  34. 34. Drafting Quotes: "Writing to me is a voyage, an odyssey, a discovery, because I am never certain of precisely what I will find." Gabriel Fielding “The first draft of anything is #@!%” Ernest Hemingway “I write longhand and I type and I rewrite on the typed pages.” Joseph Heller “The work was like peeling an onion. The outer skin came off with difficulty... but in no time you'd be down to its innards, tears streaming from your eyes as more and more beautiful reductions became possible.” Edward Blishen “My wife took a look at the first version of something I was writing not long ago and said, "Dammit, man, that's high school stuff." I have to tell her to wait until the seventh draft, it'll work out all right. I don't know why that should be so, that the first or second draft of everything I write reads that way. James Thurber “There seems to be a sort of fatality in my mind leading me to put at first my statement or proposition in a wrong or awkward form.” Charles Darwin “All writing begins life as a first draft, and first drafts are never any good. They’re not supposed to be. Patricia T. O’Conner “The only true creative aspect of writing is the first draft. That’s when it’s comingMain Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  35. 35. Drafting in Action Steps to Writing the First Draft and Connecting Ideas: (Writers Inc. page 5) 1. Write the first draft while your prewriting is still fresh in your mind. 2. Set the right tone by giving your opening paragraph special attention. (See page 55 in Writers Inc.) 3. Refer to your plan for the main part of your writing, but be flexible. A more interesting route may unfold as you write. 4. Don’t worry about getting everything right at this point; just concentrate on developing your ideas. (If you’re working on a computer, save a paper copy of each draft.) Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  36. 36. 1st Draft Assignment Starting Point: You are ready to write your first draft once you. . . .  Completed your free write assignment to help maintain your voice.  Know enough about your subject by completing your note cards assignment (20 cards full of details and specifics).  Established a thesis.  Completed the Generative Organizer and Post-Draft Organizer Assignment. Remember the Big Picture: When writing a first draft, give special attention to these traits of effective writing: ideas, organization, and voice. Ideas - Develop all the worthwhile thoughts and ideas you have collected, and consider new ideas or directions as they come to mind. Organization - Use your prewriting and planning as a general guide when you write. Try to work logically through your draft from the opening to the closing paragraph. Voice – Speak honestly and naturally so the real you comes through in your writing. Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  37. 37. 1st Draft Assignment Continued Assignment: _____ Remember the topic and focus of your paper Essay Topic: What was the vision or goal of some person, group, or event from history, and how did they accomplish the vision or goal? _____ Write your first draft with a pencil and paper, or on the computer. Save the computer version under your name and first_draft. Example: hatch_first_draft. _____ Be sure to include the following in your first draft assignment: Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing  Hook  Thesis statement  Introduction  Body  Conclusion  Topic Sentences  Transition Statements  Zinger  Use a variety of details  Maintain your voice and personality throughout the paper. E-mail your completed First Draft Assignment to Mr. Hatch at: bhatch@weber.k12.ut.us
  38. 38. Bibliography Assignment – 1st Draft Complete the bibliography or works cited page for your paper. This is something that may change as you do additional drafts or add more information. Remember: You need to have specifics and details from at least (6) different sources – including (3) traditional sources and (3) electronic sources. Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing You may use the printable style guides: APA MLA Turabian Or any websites from the sources PowerPoint. • The Citation Machine (Great – Generates your citation in MLA or APA style) http://citationmachine.net/index.php • http://emulibrary.com/emulib_cite.html • http://www.lib.duke.edu/libguide/cite/works_cited.htm Click Back to Main Page
  39. 39. Sharing Definition: Authors share their writing by reading aloud to themselves, reading in pairs, in writing circles, during peer reviews, and during a conference with the teacher. Listeners respond to the writer by noting what they liked about the piece, asking questions about the author's intent or any confusing parts, and providing suggestions for improvement. The author always has the option of incorporating the suggestions or ignoring them. Ownership is a must! Students should have control of the responsibility for their own writing. Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  40. 40. Sharing “Three keys to more abundant living: caring about others, daring for others, sharing with others.” William Arthur Ward “The greatest good you can do for another is not just to share your riches but to reveal to him his own.” Benjamin Drisaeli “Get around people who have something of value to share with you. Their impact will continue to have a significant effect on your life long they have departed.” Jim Rohn “The greatest gift is to give people your enlightenment, to share it. It has to be the greatest.” Buddha Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  41. 41. Reading Aloud Assignment Read your paper aloud to at least one other person. _____ As you read, make notes on your paper of any rough or confusing areas. _____ As you read, make notes on your paper of particularly effective areas. _____ Summarize any comments and suggestions and your notes in your writing_process_notes_assignments_worksheet. _____ Decide which comments and suggestions you might want to take into account. _____ Save this information for later. Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing Click Back to Main Page
  42. 42. Revising Definition: The purpose of revision is to clarify and shape the meaning and to organize and polish the writing. "Writing, like a potter's clay, only becomes a thing of usefulness or beauty through repeated smoothing and shaping" (Walshe, 1981, 40). It is at this stage that the author rethinks what has been written. Revision involves adding, substituting, deleting, and moving ideas and words around as writers rework and polish their pieces. Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  43. 43. Revising Quotes: "As you continue writing and rewriting, you begin to see possibilities you hadn't seen before." Robert Hayden “Words and sentences are subject to revision; paragraphs and whole compositions are subjects of prevision.” Barrett Wendell “There is no such thing as good writing, only good rewriting.” John Irving “The beautiful part of writing is that you don’t have to get it right the first time, unlike say , a brain surgeon. You can always do it better, find the exact word, the apt phrase, the leaping smile.” Robert Cormier “The great thing about revision is that it’s your opportunity to fake being brilliant.” Will Shetterly “Books aren’t written—they’re rewritten. Including your own. It is one of the hardest things to accept, especially after the seventh rewrite hadn’t quite done it.” Michael Crichton “The most essential gift for a good writer is a built-in-shock-proof #@!*-detector.” Ernest Hemingway “My sense of a poem - my notion of how you revise - is: you get yourself into a state where what you are intensely conscious of is not why you wrote it or how you wrote it, but what you wrote.” Philip Levine “I found I'm quite happy working on a sentence for an hour or more, searching for the right phrase, the right word. I compare it to the work of a stone cutter — chipping away at the raw material until it's just right, or as right as you can get it”. Harriet Doerr Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  44. 44. Revising Leave time in your writing schedule for revising your paper. Before writing your final draft, put your paper aside for a day or two (another reason to leave time) and then reread it. This way, you will gain a fresh perspective and may detect weaknesses that you hadn’t noticed before. A rough draft always needs smoothing out. As you reread your paper, ask these questions: (1) Does the paper have thematic unity, and do its parts clearly follow one another? (2) Is there adequate support for the major claims and interpretations? (3) Are the points made clearly and convincingly? While you examine the overall structure of the paper for defects, you also need to look closely at the language itself. If you have repeated yourself, eliminate the repetition; if you have included material that is unrelated, discard it. Check the connections between paragraphs to see if the reader can follow your argument. Make sure that you accomplish what you set out to do in your introduction and that your conclusion makes it clear that you have done so. Go over the footnotes or endnotes [citations] and the bibliography to check style and accuracy. Benjamin, Jules R. A Student’s Guide to History. Seventh Edition. (Boston: Bedford Books, 1998), 103. Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  45. 45. Revising in Action Steps to Improving Your Writing: (Writers Inc. page 6) 1. Review your first draft, checking the ideas, organization, and voice of your writing. (See pages 63-67 in Writers Inc.) 2. Ask at least one classmate to react to your work—do a peer review. 3. Add, cut, reword, or rearrange ideas as necessary. ( You may have to change some parts several times before they say what you want them to say.) 4. Carefully assess the effectiveness of your opening and closing paragraphs. 5. Look for special opportunities to make your writing as meaningful and interesting as possible. (See page 62 in Writers Inc.) 6. DO NOT worry about conventions at this point. That will come later during the editing process. Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  46. 46. Revision Assignment Starting Point: You are ready to revise once you. . . .  Completed your first draft.  Set it aside for a day or two (if possible). Remember the Big Picture: When revising, pay special attention to these traits of good writing: ideas, organization, and voice. Ideas – Make sure that you have included sufficient information to support or develop your thesis. Always keep your readers in mind when you evaluate the effectiveness of your ideas. Have you answered their pressing questions about your subject? Organization – Check the overall design of your writing, making sure that it moves smoothly and logically from one main point to the next. Also check the effectiveness of each main part—the introduction, body, and conclusion—in your writing. Voice – Does your writing sound like you are genuinely interested in your subject? Does the tone or your writing match your purpose (polite, serious, lighthearted)? Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  47. 47. Revision Assignment Continued Revision Self-Evaluation Checklist Assignment 1. Print the Revision Self-Evaluation Checklist Worksheet. 2. Complete the worksheet as you read your paper. Peer Review Assignment 1. Print the Peer Review Worksheet. 2. Have 2 fellow students complete the Peer Review Worksheet after reading your paper. Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing Click Back to Main Page
  48. 48. Editing Definition: Editing is the process of getting the piece ready for the audience. The writer is expected to attend to the surface features of writing -- mechanics, grammar, and spelling. Students must recognize that in order to communicate effectively with an audience, writing must be free of errors that can interfere with the understanding of the message or can distract from the writing itself. Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  49. 49. Editing Quotes: "Pause when you come across a well put sentence or idea in your reading. Study it and learn from it." -Anonymous “Typos are very important to all written form. It gives the reader something to look for so they aren't distracted by the total lack of content in your writing.” Randy K. Milholland “Editing should be, especially in the case of old writers, a counseling rather than a collaborating task. The tendency of the writer-editor to collaborate is natural, but he should say to himself, ''How can I help this writer to say it better in his own style?'' and avoid ''How can I show him how I would write it, if it were my piece?” James Thurber “It is perfectly okay to write garbage—as long as you edit brilliantly” C.J. Cherryh “[Books are] never finished, only abandoned.” Paraphrased from Leonardo da Vinci “You write to communicate to the hearts and minds of others what's burning inside you. And we edit to let the fire show through the smoke.” Arthur Polotnik “The Review's labyrinthine editing process does to the written word what the Cuisinart does to broccoli” David Marqolick Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  50. 50. Editing in Action Steps to Checking for Style and Accuracy: (Writers Inc. page 6) 1. Edit your revised writing for sentence smoothness and word choice. (See page 77-78 in Writers Inc.) 2. Then check for errors in usage, punctuation, capitalization, spelling, and grammar. 3. Have a dictionary, thesaurus, and your Writers Inc. handbook close at hand as you work. 4. Ask a reliable editor—a friend, a classmate, a parent, or a teacher— to check your writing for errors you may have missed. 5. Prepare a neat final copy of your writing. 6. Proofread the final draft for errors before submitting it. Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  51. 51. Editing Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing Starting Point: You are ready to edit once you. . . .  Completed your major revisions—adding, cutting, rewriting, or rearranging, the ideas in your writing.  Make a clean copy of your revised writing.  Set your writing aside for a day or two (if possible). Remember the Big Picture: When you edit and proofread, pay attention to the following three traits of effective wiring: sentence fluency, word choice, and conventions. Sentence Fluency – Rewrite any sentences that disrupt the fluency or flow of your writing. Vary sentence beginnings and lengths. Word Choice – Replace any words or phrases that get in the way of your message or set the wrong tone. Also replace any overused words, words that are not specific enough, and so on. Conventions – Make sure that your writing follows the basic standards of spelling, punctuation, mechanics, grammar, and usage.
  52. 52. Editing Finally, examine your writing for errors in spelling and grammar. Proofread carefully and slowly. At a normal reading speed your eyes can go right by major errors. You are so familiar with your paper that you may not see what is on the page. Reading your paper aloud will help you catch unclear phrases. Showing it to a friend will let you know where your readers might have problems. Benjamin, Jules R. A Student’s Guide to History. Seventh Edition. (Boston: Bedford Books, 1998), 103. Editing Self-Evaluation Checklist Assignment 1. Print the Editing Self-Evaluation Checklist Worksheet. 2. Complete the worksheet as you read your paper. Remember to have a reliable editor check your work as well – student, parent, teacher. (You could do another peer review.) Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing Click Back to Main Page
  53. 53. Publishing Definition: This stage of the writing process occurs when a completed text is reworked and edited to the satisfaction of the author. This includes “white space”, formatting, and neatness. Although many young authors will want to publish everything they write, not all pieces will reach the publishing stage. A high standard should be set for overall correctness and presentation for the pieces that are to be published. Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  54. 54. Publishing Quotes: “To write what is worth publishing, to find honest people to publish it, and get sensible people to read it, are the three great difficulties in being an author.” Charles Caleb Colton “All those people whose faces decorate the shopping bags of Barnes and Noble, with a few exceptions, would never get published today.” Mark Crispin Miller Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  55. 55. Publishing in Action Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing Steps to Sharing Your Final Work: (Writers Inc. page 6) 1. Share the finished product with your teacher, writing peers, friends, and family members. 2. Decide if you are going to include the writing in your portfolio. (See page 35 in Writers Inc.) 3. Post it on your personal or class Website or publish it on-line. (See pages 38-39 in Writers Inc.) 4. Consider submitting your work to a school, a local, or a national publication. (Ask your teacher for recommendation for places to publish.) Make sure to follow the requirements for submitting manuscripts. (See pages 36-37 in Writers Inc.)
  56. 56. How to do a cover page. For your final paper, you should include a cover pager. You can find how to do this by going to your MLA, APA, or Turabian style manuals, or there is an example of the minimum expectation at: • http://www.tcc.edu/students/resources/writcent/HA • http://www.slh.k12.nj.us/School/Technology/Title Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  57. 57. Publishing Assignment 1. Pick at least two of the appropriate on-line student publishers on the next two slides. 2. Send your final draft to be published at those two sites. 3. Send it to more if you would like. OR 4. Look at page 37 in the Writers INC. student writing manual for more ideas. 5. Ask your teacher for any current writing contents. Sometimes you can win money or scholarships for really good writing. Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  58. 58. Publishing Your Paper Some links for publishing your paper: Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing A young writer’s magazine http://www.merlynspen.org/ A magazine published by teens http://www.positiveteensmag.com/ptonline/ptonline.htm A magazine written by teens http://www.teenink.com/ A teen forum for writing http://cyberteens.com/cr/ Publishing for teens http://www.teenlit.com/# African-American themed writing http://www.timbooktu.com/
  59. 59. Publishing Your Paper More links for publishing your paper: Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing An anthology for teens http://teenlink.nypl.org/WordSmiths-Current.cfm Produced by writing students http://www.susqu.edu/writers/apprentice.htm Club for amateur young writers http://www.geocities.com/writestuffclub/ Non-fiction submissions http://www.the-squid.com/guidelines/guidelines.htm Created for the young writer http://www.youngwriterssociety.com/forum/index.php Teen writings http://www.writers-voice.com/Teen.htm The Writers Voice The World's Favorite Literary Website Click Back to Main Page
  60. 60. Assessment Definition: At the end of every writing experience, you should ask yourself, “What can I do better next time?” Writing is a continuous process. Written works are never done, writers just stop working on them. Each writing experience should make you a better writer. Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  61. 61. Assessment Reflection Assignment _____ Answer the reflection questions in your writing_process_notes_assignments_worksheet. Keep this in mind as you reflect: “The only way to raise the quality of writing in school is to create, share, and celebrate the specific criteria for that quality with everybody on a regular basis.” Barry Lane Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing
  62. 62. The Writing Process and Six Traits Start 1.Ideas 1. Experience Prewriting 2. Ideas Organization 2. Rehearsing Pre-writing 3. Organization Structure 3. Drafting 4. Voice 4. Sharing 5. Revision 5. Ideas Organization Voice Word Choice Sentence Fluency 6. Editing 6. Conventions 7.Publishing 7. Conventions Presentation 8. Assessment 8. All Traits How can you do even better next time? How do they work together? 8 steps Notice that step 8 – Assessment – connects you back to step 6 – Revision – This is so you can assess how well you did on your paper and plan for how you can do even better on your next paper. = Six Traits = Writing Process Notice that step 5 (Revision) is where you use five of the six traits Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Sharing Editing Publishing
  63. 63. Writing Process Notes and Assignment Worksheet Main Page Experience Prewriting / RehearsingDrafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing Directions: 1. Open and make sure you have finished your saved Writing Process Notes and Assignments Worksheet in Microsoft Word. 2. Save the final document in your student file under you name. Example: hatch_writing_process_notes_assignments 3. When you are completely done, attach the notes to an e- mail 4. When you are completely done, e-mail the notes to Mr. Hatch – bhatch@weber.k12.ut.us THE END CONGRATULATIONS!
  64. 64. Credits and a Big - Thank You - • Sebranek, P., Kemper, D., and Meyer, V., (2001). Writers Inc: A student handbook for writing and learning. Write Source, Great Source Education Group. Wilmington, Massachusetts: Houghton Mifflin Company. • Benjamin, Jules R. A Student’s Guide to History. 8th ed. Bedford: St. Martins, 2001. The book can be found at: http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/book.asp?disc=&idproduct=112400193& compType=TOC • Tracy Duckart's Instructional Website at Humboldt State University http://www.humboldt.edu/%7Etdd2/Prewriting.htm • Microsoft Clipart Suggestions and Comments • Any final comments of suggestions for improvement? E-mail Mr. Hatch your suggestions. Main Page Experience Prewriting / Rehearsing Drafting Sharing Revising Editing Publishing

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