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PIT/VIP TOILET AND HAND HYGIENE IN RURAL AFRICA Dr. Dino Sgarabotto Malattie Infettive e Tropicali Azienda Ospedaliera di Padova
Pit toilet• A pit toilet is a dry toilet system which collects human excrement in a large container and range from a simple slit trench (is the simplest type of pit toilet, consisting of a relatively shallow (1-2 metres in depth) to more elaborate systems with ventilation.• A cathole is a one-time use pit toilet often utilized by campers, hikers and other outdoor people
1st Gulf war «Desert Storm» 1990-1 Slit trench latrine
Advanced pit toilet The pit will be larger, and covered with a supporting structure. This structure may be simply a metal plate, or board floor - with a hole over which the user positions themselves during use. Two defects:Toilet basement has to smell and flies!!elevated to prevent surfacewater to fill the toilet
VIP Toilet• The ventilated improved pit latrine, or VIP, is a pit toilet with a black pipe (vent pipe) fitted to the pit, and a screen (flyscreen) at the top outlet of the pipe. VIP latrines are an improvement to overcome the disadvantages of simple pit latrines, i.e. fly and mosquito nuisance and unpleasant odors. The smell is carried upwards by the chimney effect and flies are prevented from leaving the pit and spreading disease
Odor Control Mechanism• The principal mechanism of ventilation in VIP latrines is the action of wind blowing across the top of the vent pipe. The wind creates a strong circulation of air through the superstructure, down through the squat hole,across the pit and up and out of the vent pipe. Unpleasant faecal odors from the pit contents are thus sucked up and exhausted out of vent pipe, leaving the superstructure odor-free. In some cases solar- powered fans are added giving a constant outwards flow from the vent pipe
Insect Control Mechanism• Flies, searching for an egg-laying site are attracted by faecal odors coming from the vent pipe, but they are prevented from entering by the flyscreen at the outlet of the vent pipe.• Some flies may enter into the pit via the squat hole and lay their eggs there. When new adult flies emerge they instinctively fly towards light. However, if the latrine is dark inside the only light they can see is at the top of the vent pipe. Since the vent pipe is provided with a fly screen at the top, flies will not be able to escape and eventually they will die and fall back into the pit.
Tippy-Tap hand washer• The tippy tap is a hands free way to wash your hands that is especially appropriate for rural areas where there is no running water.• It is operated by a foot lever and thus reduces the chance for bacteria transmission as the user touches only the soap.• It uses only 40 millilitres of water to wash your hands versus 500 millilitres using a mug.
Tippy-Tap hand washer• The tippy tap is hygienic – the hands-free design means bacteria is not transferred between users.• The tippy tap saves water – it uses only 40 ml to wash hands thoroughly with soap.• The tippy tap is low cost – it can be made with local, salvaged materials• The tippy tap is simple – children can and do build it easily• The tippy tap is a great way to promote hand washing with soap, especially with children
Every householdin the village should have a pit latrine anda hand washing facility!!
Put stones here to avoidwater puddles (small lakes)and then …mosquitos
Conclusions 1°• Pit or Vip toilets are dry toilets easily built in rural areas. Since the excreta is confined, pathogen transmission to the user is limited.• This technology is a significant improvement over single pit latrines or open defecation.• A horizontal distance of 30 m between the pit and a water source is recommended to limit exposure to chemical and biological contamination (TILLEY et al. 2008). The WHO (1992) advises a minimum of 15 m between a pollution source and a downstream water abstraction point.• They should be located in an area with a good breeze. They are not suited for rocky or compacted soils (that are difficult to dig) or for areas that flood frequently (TILLEY et al. 2008).
Conclusions 2°• Hand-washing is a corner stones of hygiene not only in the hospital but even the house• Proper hand-washing can reduce the incidence of diarrheal disease by 42-47 percent• Tippy tap hand washer can easily be built in every house where there is no piped water
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