Design to Live:Inclusive Design in the Majority WorldRicardo Gomes, Professor and Chair Design and Industry Departmentricgomes@sfsu.eduHochschule UlmUniversity of Applied SciencesApril 5th, 2011
Design to Live:Inclusive Design in the Majority WorldWorldThe Shapira Design Archive is a unique and rich body ofmaterials representing the thinking, events and objects of20th century design. It contains well over 2060 knowndesign books, articles, files, documents, audio and videofootage dating from 1957–2008
Design to Live:Inclusive Design in the Majority WorldWorldEarly years of ICSID (1957–1977),Tomas Maldonado, former Rector atHochschule fur Gestalalung,; work at theUniversity of Nairobi DesignDepartment (Selby Mvusi, 1959-1967),the first established Design departmentin sub‐Saharan Africa (1969 – 1971); anda segment of graduate design seminarcurriculum and lectures conducted atUCLA from 1965 – 1992.ICSID
―Design is not a field of specialization, but an interdisciplinaryattitude which requires a total approach integratingcommunication, structure and environment.”Design to Live:Inclusive Design in the Majority WorldWorld“Future Designers must concern themselveswith the Quality of Life andnot merely the decorative arts.”Nathan Shapira
Design to Live:Inclusive Design in the Majority WorldWorldUniversity of NairobiEstablishment of the Design Department at theUniversity of Nairobi (Selby Mvusi, 1965-1970),the firstestablished Design department in sub‐Saharan Africa
Design to Live:Inclusive Design in the Majority WorldWorld
.―95% of the world’s designers focus all of their effortson developing products and services exclusively for therichest 10 % of the world’s customers. Nothing less thana revolution in design is needed to reachthe other 90%‖Source: Design for the Other 90%, Smithsonian Cooper-HewittNational Design Museum, NewYork 2007SustainingSocially-Responsible Designin Our Emerging Society:Designing for a MajorityWorld
The research addresses three topics that designeducation, practice and community development mustencompass in order to facilitate the responsibledevelopment of our future societyin the 21st Century:(1) Design for the Majority(1) Inclusive Design(1) SustainabilityDesign to Live:Inclusive Design in the Majority World
Design to Live:Inclusive Design in the MajorityWorld
peopleexpressionsexperiencesproductsenvironmentsservicesmediabrandsputting people first
Sustaining responsible-design foremerging markets can be described as:markets that have reached a minimum level of GDPmarkets that are in the growth phase of the development cyclemarkets that are vulnerable to internal or external forcesexamples of emerging markets:• Brazil• Russia• India• China• South Africa• Argentina•Thailand•Turkey
1. Focus on price performance Serving the BoP is not justabout lower prices2. Hybrid solutions for innovation BoP consumer problemscannot be solved with only the old technologies3. Scalable and transportable solutions across countries,cultures and languages. Design for ease of adaptation in similarBoP markets is a key consideration for gaining scale.4. Reducing resource intensity must be a critical principle inproduct development. All innovations must focus on conservingresources.12 Principles of Innovation for Bottom of the Pyramid(BoP) Markets,C.K. PrahaladPrahalad identified 12 principles that constitute the buildingblocks of a philosophy of innovation for BoP markets
5. Product development must start from a deepunderstanding of functionality, not just form.Theinfrastructure BoP consumers have to live and work indemands a rethinking of the functionality.6. Build logistic and manufacturing infrastructure.Process innovations are critical in BoP markets.7. Deskilling work is critical. Take into account the skilllevels, poor infrastructure and difficulty of access.8. Educate (semi-literate) customers in product usage.Innovations in educating a semiliterate group ofthe use of new products can pose interesting challenges.12 Principles of Innovation for Bottom of the Pyramid(BoP) Markets,C.K. PrahaladPrahalad identified 12 principles that constitute the buildingblocks of a philosophy of innovation for BoP markets
9. Products must work in hostile environments. Like noise,dust, unsanitary conditions, abuse, electric blackouts and waterpollution.10. Function/ feature should result in adaptable userinterfaces to the heterogeneity of the consumer base. Researchon interfaces is critical.11. Distribution methods should be designed to reach bothhighly dispersed rural markets and highly dense urban markets.Innovations must reach the consumer.12. Focus on broad architecture. To enable quick and easyincorporation of new features and functions.12 Principles of Innovation for Bottom of the Pyramid(BoP) Markets,C.K. PrahaladPrahalad identified 12 principles that constitute the buildingblocks of a philosophy of innovation for BoP markets
Design for the Flat WorldThe convergence of technology and thehyper-connected world are forcing massive shifts in markets,industries and wealth. We need to consider moresophisticated issues even as we try to stay in close touch withthe lives of everyday people.Widespread data connectivity,improved transportation and logistics, and fluctuating currencieshave meant that our work is decreasingly place based.
Comprehensive Anticipatory Design Science ”…is the attempt to anticipate and solve humanity‘smajor problems through the highest technology by providing―more and more life support for everybody,with less and less resources.‖ Buckminster Fuller, 1949Catalyzing the vanguard of a design science revolution
Design Science is a methodology for changing the world.It involves the application of the principles and latest findings of scienceto the creative design and implementation of solutions tothe problems of society.It takes a whole systems, global, and anticipatory approach thatfosters creative collaboration and synergy in the development ofcomprehensive solutions to both global and local problems.It was inspired by the work of Buckminster Fuller and other planners,scientists, and visionaries.
STRATEGIES FOR ACHIEVINGTHEMILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALSSource: DESIGN SCIENCE LAB 2006 NYC REPORT
STRATEGIES FOR ACHIEVINGTHEMILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALSMillennium Development Goal #2Achieve universal primary education and ensure that,by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be ableto complete a full course of primary schooling.Source: DESIGN SCIENCE LAB 2006 NYC REPORT
PurposeThe purpose of the SIB is to provide universalaccess to education for all 100+ million primaryaged children not in school.The distributionof such a “quick fix” solution, while simultaneouslypaying special attention to the educational needsof girls and the communitySCHOOL-IN-A-BOXcurriculumSource: DESIGN SCIENCE LAB 2006 NYC REPORT
WI-FI FOR EDUCATIONGlobalWi-Fi Costs5There are a variety of technologies and associated costs for achieving universalInternet access. Costs range from $500 per village6 to $1,000 per village to set upa wi-fi infrastructure ($341 million to $638 million for all of India’s rural villages),to $2,000 for a village-wide solar powered communications station.Source: DESIGN SCIENCE LAB 2006 NYC REPORT
One Laptop (OLPC)Meets Big BusinessThe big idea of giving PCs topoor children has been challengedby educators and business.The Hyper-Connected World
Design for the Majority:―The Other 90%”.Information Design.
InformationDesign:Health CareDelivery.Design for the Majority:―The Other 90%”.
Technologies forVaccine Deliveryin the 21st centuryCourtesy of J. Lloydsimplicity & efficiency ofVaccine Delivery.InformationDesign:Health CareDelivery.Design for the Majority:―The Other 90%”.
InformationDesign:HealthCareDelivery.Chulha: healthy indoor cookingMore than 1.6 million people are dying annually due to smokeinhalation from indoor wood burning stoves ‗Philanthropy by Design‘Philips Design program looks at promoting social empowerment throughknowledge sharing, creativity and co-design.Design for the Majority:―The Other 90%”.
Courtesy of Vestergaard Frandsen S.A.Designer: Vestrergaard Frandsen(Used in Ghana, Nigeria, Pakistan, Uganda)Design for the Majority:―The Other 90%”.
“LifeStraw”DesignerVestrergaard Frandsen(Used in Ghana, Nigeria, Pakistan, Uganda).Courtesy of Vestergaard Frandsen S.A.Courtesy of Vestergaard Frandsen S.A.Design for the Majority:―The Other 90%”.
Courtesy of Vestergaard Frandsen S.A.HEALTH AND MOBILITYWater Sanitation/TransportationLifeStraw ® Personal and FamilyProject Criteria & Assessment:1) INCOME-GENERATING- Vestergaard Frandsen has managed to turnhumanitarian responsibility into core business. Strong support of theMillennium Development Goals, particularly reducing child mortalityand combating HIV/AIDS, malaria, and reducing the number of peoplewithout access to safe drinking water, is a defining characteristic of ourcompany.2) RETURN ON INVESTMENT–3) AFFORDABILITY- LifeStraw® Personal and LifeStraw® Family are bothpoint-of-use water filters – truly unique offerings fromVestergaard Frandsenthat address the concerns for affordably obtaining safe drinking water at homeand outside.4) ENERGY-EFFICIENCY- Requires no electrical powerDesign for the Majority:―The Other 90%”.
HEALTH AND MOBILITYWater Sanitation/TransportationLifeStraw® Personal and FamilyProject Criteria & Assessment:5) ERGONOMICS AND SAFETY-LifeStraw® Personal and LifeStraw® Family are both point-of-use water filters.The Cochrane review (2006) demonstrates that water filters are the most effectiveinterventions amongst all point-of-use water treatment methods for reducing diarrhoealdiseases. Kills and removes 99.999% of waterborne bacteria.Kills and removes 99% of waterborne viruses.Removes particles down to 15 microns.6) PORTABILITY-LifeStraw® Personal is a portable water purifier for prevention of common diarrhoealdisease – can be carried around for easy access to safe and clean drinking water.7) EASE OF INSTALLATION AND USE-Place LifeStraw® in water and sip through the mouthpiece, product includes a string tohang around the neck8) STRENGTH AND DURABILITY- Requires no electrical power or spare parts for the life timeof the straw. Composition:Outer shell made of high impact polystyrene, life span is 3 yearswhen stored in shade and exposed to maximum 30º C. Filters a minimum of 700 litres of waterDesign for the Majority:―The Other 90%”.
Courtesy of Vestergaard Frandsen S.A.HEALTH AND MOBILITYWater Sanitation/TransportationLifeStraw® Personal and FamilyProject Criteria & Assessment:9) DESIGN FOR AVAILABLE MANUFACTURING CAPACITY-10) CULTURAL ACCEPTABILITY–11) ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY—12) IMPACT--referred to as One of the Ten Things that will Change the Way We Live´ by Forbes Magazine-February 2008, receives the Saatchi & Saatchi Award for World Changing Ideas in NewYork.13) GOVERNMENT IMPACT-14) INCENTIVES FOR PARTICIPATION IN PROJECT-15) EDUCATION- Use and trouble shooting instructions given with product. Other than that it is apretty straight forward product to use16) DISTRIBUTION AND MAINTENANCE OF PRODUCT- Easy to mass-distribute in areaswhere drinking water is contaminatedDesign for the Majority:―The Other 90%”.
Rockerfellor FoundationIDEODESIGN FOR SOCIAL IMPACT:how-to-guide1> Social Impact2> Benefit to the Firm3> Investment Size
an integrative approachculturalforcesmarketforces brandcompanycultureCULTUREINDIVIDUAL BEHAVIORSLOOKING OUTin the worldLOOKING INat the companytargets and extremes clients as people
IDEODESIGN FOR SOCIAL IMPACT:how-to-guideRockerfellor FoundationDesign Principles:• PROVIDEVALUEDemonstrate theValueCauseTransformational ChangeMind the Gap• BE FOCUSEDStay onTargetConserve Energy• SET UP FOR SUCCESSTrain AppropriatelyOptimize for ImpactKnow the PlayersDemand Skin in the Game
IDEODESIGN FOR SOCIAL IMPACT:how-to-guideRockerfellor FoundationMODES OF ENGAGEMENT :• Modify theWayYouWork• Educate Others• Develop Networks•Identify Funding Streams• ModifyYour Structure
IDEODESIGN FOR SOCIAL IMPACT:how-to-guideRockerfellor FoundationMODES OF ENGAGEMENT :• Projectsconcept incubationsabbaticalcatalogue of challenges• Educationempathy field tripsdesign certificationintern hostingpublishing• Networksdesign competitions•Fundingdesign industry fund(1% models)project financing
Design for the Majority:―The Other 90%”.―Q Drum‖Designer: P.J & J.P.S. HendrikseManufacturer: Kaymac Rotomoulders(SouthAfrica, Ethiopia, Kenya,)Courtesy of P.J. Hendrikse
Courtesy of Ryan Dukewww.hipporoller.orghttp://groups.google.com/group/hippo-roller-redesign• Solutions built around carrying multiple 2L bottles.• 2L bottles are readily available in the area.• Easily purchased and because of the recycle value peopletend to purchase them in volume, for the money.• In the rural areas people use them more for collecting waterSan Francisco Chapter:Hippo Roller RedesignExtraHippo: Bottles
Courtesy of Ryan DukeCourtesy of Ryan Dukewww.hipporoller.orghttp://groups.google.com/group/hippo-roller-redesign• Solutions built around carrying multiple jerry can-typewater containers that exist in the area.• Design container prototypes as a model, but with theability to accommodate other “Jerry-Can” types as well.• Jerry Cans are purchased second hand from $1-$5 USD•Volume of the container is 25 liters(the Hippo Roller holds 90L).San Francisco Chapter:Hippo Roller RedesignExtraHippo: Bottles
San Francisco Chapter:Hippo Roller RedesignExtraHippo: BottlesCourtesy of Ryan Dukewww.hipporoller.orghttp://groups.google.com/group/hippo-roller-redesign•Solutions for filtering & purifying water for Hippo Roller users•Open water sources that are used by these people havecontaminents and debris.•Develop easily implemented, small size, inexpensive solutionsfor water treatment.•Around 20%-40% of the Hippo Roller’s water is used for drinking,the rest is used for cleaning, washing, and gardens
Design for the Majority:―The Other 90%”.―Super MoneyMaker Pump‖Designer: Robert Hyde, Martin Fisher, Mark Butcher,Abdilkadir MusaManufacturer: KickStart InternationalUsed in: Angola, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Congo, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana,Haiti, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali,…..Courtesy of Kickstart International
Design for the Majority:―The Other 90%”.―Big Boda Load-Carrying Bicycle‖Designer: WorldBike,Adam FrenchManufacturer: WorldBike & Moses Odhiambo & JacobUsed in: Kenya, Uganda,Courtesy of Worldbike
E.F. Schumacher, “Small is Beautiful‖renowned author, economist-philosopher,called for a reassessment ofthe role and status of design in society. Schumacher states:“What is at stake is not economics, but culture;not the standard of living, but the quality of life”Community Partnerships
What is needed to make Inclusive Design work?Implementation will require getting the institutionalarrangements right:> give incentives for agencies to work with the poor,> keep everyone informed and coordinate betweenstakeholders> define clearly the roles of the various agencies.> keep upgrading going, sustainability concerns mustbe a priority in financing,institutions, and regulations.Community Environments
Community EnvironmentsIt is an inclusive skill development andMentoring approach that sustains the identity,character and incentives which facilitate theimprovement of the community environmentFor ALL.Community Furniture/Toy Design & Production FacilityMonte Azul Favela (slum) Sao Paulo, Brazil
Community EnvironmentsDelft University(Netherlands)DesignExchange StudentsMonte Azul FavelaSao Paulo, Brazil
design curriculum- issues• understanding local consumer behavior• identifying affordable technologies• developing locally adaptive design strategies• easy to understand and use products• design reliability• lifestyle aspirations• infrastructure appropriate concepts
Design Methodology:Curriculum DevelopmentSource: Dr. Elizabeth (Dori) Tunstall,Associate Professor, Design Anthropology, University of Illinois at Chicago
DAI 800: Seminar in DesignRalf Hotchkiss,WhirlwindWheelchair InternationalDr. Shirl Buss, LSA Design
System DesignWhirlwindWheelchair International
Courtesy of Prof. Martin LinderiDo (Industrial Design Outreach Program)Design Methodology:Curriculum Development
International Student Design CompetitionThe ―Focus‖Progressive Designers are beginning to respondto the demographic, environmental and economicrealities of the 21st Century. Designers, educatorsand students should be encouraged to work andfunction outside of their "comfort zone" or sphereof influence.The overall objectives of the student designcompetition was to advocate designers, educators,students and policy-makers to address the evolutionof inclusive and sustainable design in diverse culturesand economies-of-scale.
Universal Design International Student CompetitionRicardoGomesISanFranciscoStateUniversity
How do we as Design Educators,professionals and students move forwardin addressing the human-centeredprocess in creating empathy andinspiring future designers quest in thevalue of sensitive and inclusive solutionsinDesigning for a MajorityWorld?Summary Discussion
― We do not Design for Society,or for that matter Design in order to Design Society.We Design because Society and Ourselves are in fact Design.We do not Design for Living. We Design to Live.‖- Selby Mvusi 1963Design to Live:Inclusive Design in the Majority WorldWorld
Design For Living:Inclusive Design in the MajorityWorldDankeschön!