Walkability
By Dan Burden
Walkable and Livable Communities Institute
Sustainability on the Edge II
How We Got Into this Mess, and Our ...
How do we take the principles
of active living, combine them
with active transportation and
expand our ideas and concepts
...
How do we take the principles
of active living, combine them
with active transportation and
expand our ideas and concepts
...
Is this the landscape we want to leave
our children?
What’s Wrong Here?
America’s Wealthiest County
What the
Community
Provided What the Customer
Wanted
What the
Community
Provided
What the
Customer
Wanted
Who we built for
Who we did not
build for
Who we built for
Who we did not
build for
The Pedestrian in America has been
marginalized compromised to Death
Thirty percent of North Americans old enough to
drive do not drive. This percentage is increasing.
Choosing a Preferred Alternative
Scenario A: Low Density Scenario B: Baseline
Scenario C: Walkable Neighborhoods Scenario ...
If you come to a fork in the road, take it.” … Yogi Berra
If you want to build a ship. Don’t drum up people
to collect wood and don’t assign them tasks and
work, but rather teach t...
West Lafayette, Indiana (Home of Purdue University)
1962 – Dr. Paul Dudley White
1977, NEA Conference
1964
1980, First Boulder Conf.
1997
1999
2005
2002-05
2010
1997 Kyoto Tr...
LosAngeles,Then
LosAngeles,Now
Driving more miles each
year (like obesity) is a
visible symptom, an
indicator of a disease
that is running amuck in
each ...
2000
Monthly
Household
Transportation
Expenditures
Source:
HTAIndex.com
2008
Monthly
Household
Transportation
Expenditures
Source:
HTAIndex.com
2008
Monthly
Household
Transportation
Expenditures
Urban
center
remains
affordable!
Source:
HTAIndex.com
•Time in car:
- All women 64 min/day
- Single mothers 75 min/day
STPP 2000
From 1969 to 2000, Americans drive:
+88% farthe...
2001 National
Geographic
Magazine Article
on Sprawl
Photo by:
Newsday
Levittown
New York
Where are the parks?
Where are th...
"If we are to have full use of
automobiles, cities must be
remade...awaiting industry that will do
wonders, for prosperity...
“Abundant sunshine, fresh air, fine
green parkways will blend together
seamlessly with dazzling
skyscrapers and seven-lane...
If it weren’t for the damn
pedestrian there would be no
traffic problem in Los Angeles…
… circa 1972, Los Angeles Traffic ...
“A driveable future. An auto company
has a new design competition to imagine
a future city that is car-friendly”
(June 28,...
“Automobiles are often conveniently tagged as the villains
responsible for the ills of cities and the disappointments and ...
ConventionalApproach
System
Management
More
Pavement
MoreLanes
MoreRoads
ITS
MoreCars
More
Car-Carrying
Capacity
Lateral A...
Widen Road
Reduce
Delay
Reduce
Cost
FIRST
ORDER
Move
Home
Range
Farther
Drive
Home
Own More
Cars
SECOND
ORDER
Move
Busines...
Surgeon General’s Report
21% US citizens ages 9-
17 have a diagnosable
mental or addictive
disorder associated with
at lea...
Depressive Disorders
19 million American
adults
• Leading cause of
disability in the USA
• Treatment:
• Medication
• Socia...
“What is the first thing an
infant wants to do and the
last thing an older person
wants to give up?”
A walkability plan must set a stage for
all other modes of transportation to
work, including transit. If people
cannot wal...
Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) around the U.S. have increased by 70
percent over the last 20 years, compared with a two perc...
The World is
Changing
Expect:
Option One:
25% more traffic every ten years.
More intersections failing.
More people spread...
Option Two:
Return to Traditional
streets and land uses
More connectivity
More walking, bicycling and
transit
People livin...
The simple needs of
automobiles are
more easily
understood and
satisfied than the
complex needs of
cities, and a growing
n...
New measure for street performance:
People come to your street to shoot their wedding pictures
"If we want a booming economy of mom and pop stores, we'd
better build the environment where they succeed”
 Build Villages, Not
Traffic
• Right Pattern, Right
Form, Right Scale,
Right Density
• Circulation System and
Connectivit...
Quality
Of
Life
In building facilities to accommodate cars……we often forget about the people
As we age our need for association will continue to grow
As we age access to healthy foods will be critical
Peak Happiness
1965
City Making
Narrow streets
Short blocks
Tight corner radii
Great plazas
Beautiful buildings
Limited parking
Built by Pirates OldTown,
...
newTown,
KeyWest,
Florida
Designed
by college
graduates
If Cities are to reduce
auto-dependence a
working alternative
should include:
Developers no longer
block access to those
p...
© Citizen Planner Institute
Before and After Espanola
Way, circa
1986
Not Walkable Walkable
High Car Dependency Low Car Dependency
Serious Congestion Moderate Congestion
Based on the 1928 drawings by James Perry
The intensity of
uses should
gravitate away
from the
neighborhood
center
Townhou...
Personal choices of where to sit or recreate are not accidental.
Balance of sun and shade are determinant in active and pa...
size
neighborhoods for
a 5-minute walk
Make blocks a
walkable size:
block perimeters of
1,500’ to 2,000’
create a connected
network of streets
Design for a mix
of land uses:
Centers include
denser housing, a
square, civic uses,
and neighborhood-
oriented retail.
Ci...
Internal Trips
100%
External Trips
100%
Internal Trips
60-90%
Connectivity:
Network
CrabappleRd. Hembree Rd.
400
N
3,568 miles of roads
Connectivity:
Effective Network
12% of the Total
Network is
“Effective”
CrabappleRd. Hembree Rd.
400
N
735 miles of roads
Connectivity Requirements
Compact Area Type for
Network Additions
• Link-Node Ratio of 1.6 or
greater
• One external conne...
Chico, CA
Nord Avenue
Chico, CA
Nord Avenue
Meriam Park, Chico, California
If Cities are to
reduce auto-
dependence a
working alternative
should include:
Buildings no longer
“moon” the street
Density with Design
1980s & 90s: Density, but…
Dover Kohl & Partners
Density with Design
In New Projects: Maintain the Relationship of
Building and the Street
Dover Kohl & Partners
Density with Design
In New Projects: Make the Streets Good
Neighbors
Dover Kohl & Partners
Density with Design
In New Projects: Promote the Street as an
Amenity, and Inspire Investment
Dover Kohl & Partners
Well Designed Density
Urban-Advantage.com
What are the problems here?
Lack of Security
Lack of people
Lack of investment
A...
Petaluma, California
Petaluma, California
DOWNTOWN
STRIP CORRIDOR
SHOPPING
CENTERS
Investment
moves to
Investment
moves to
Freeway
Corridor
Courtesy of Michael Free...
Falling out of Favor: Linear Strip format
The Illustrative Plan (above) is the result of this planning process; it shows the
hypothetical buildout of the corridor, ...
Burnaby, British Columbia
High Gate Village - Former Strip Mall
Burnaby, British Columbia
It’s Not What You Think It Is.
11-12 du/a net8-10 du/a net
Land Use Pattern Affects Travel
Higher Density can reduce Vehicle Trips
0.0
2.0
4.0
6.0
8.0
0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 ...
Vancouver now has so much density that there
is no comparison until you travel to Asia … to
Beijing, Hong Kong, or Tokyo.
...
Street and
Trail Division
Shore
line
Ground level retail 70-90%
transparency
Housing above street 60-90%
transparency
Eyes...
Complete Streets
Marine Drive, Dundarave, B.C.
Highway 93, Missoula, Montana
USA
Canada
Marine Drive, Dundarave, B.C.
• Complete Streets,
• Green Streets,
• Context Sensitive
Design
• LEED for Neighborhood
Design
• Healthy Streets
Terms Des...
Above Where would you rather walk? Where would you rather bike? Which is the safest
place to bike?
Or
Below Where would yo...
12 Feet
5 Feet
Natomas,
Curb-to-Curb
Grandview Drive , University Place, WA (33 mph Average Speed)
Street
Design
Manual
Streets
Pay Their Way
Through Increased
Land Value
Increased
Land
Values
New
Maintenance
Funds
Holist...
TWO WOLVES
One evening an old Cherokee told his
grandson about a battle that goes on inside
people. He said, "My son, the ...
Where There’s
Opposition
There Needs To Be
Courage
Is this an
age-friendly
place?
The Cycle of Strip Development
Land Use
Planning
INPUTS
•Auto Oriented Business
•Single Use Zoning
•Single Family
Resident...
Breaking The Cycle of Strip Development
Land Use
Planning
GROWTH
OUTCOMES
•Increased Mobility
•More Walking &
Bicycling
•I...
How We Got Into this Mess, and Our Way Out
How We Got Into this Mess, and Our Way Out
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How We Got Into this Mess, and Our Way Out
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Presentation by Dan Burden at South Fraser OnTrax's 2nd Annual Sustainability on the Edge Event.

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How We Got Into this Mess, and Our Way Out

  1. 1. Walkability
  2. 2. By Dan Burden Walkable and Livable Communities Institute Sustainability on the Edge II How We Got Into this Mess, and Our Way Out
  3. 3. How do we take the principles of active living, combine them with active transportation and expand our ideas and concepts to achieve a fully sustainable world? Have we reached the precipice yet?
  4. 4. How do we take the principles of active living, combine them with active transportation and expand our ideas and concepts to achieve a fully sustainable world? Simple: by waking up, then using our heads, our heart and our feet. The question is will we do this just in the nick of time? Or not?
  5. 5. Is this the landscape we want to leave our children?
  6. 6. What’s Wrong Here? America’s Wealthiest County
  7. 7. What the Community Provided What the Customer Wanted
  8. 8. What the Community Provided What the Customer Wanted
  9. 9. Who we built for Who we did not build for
  10. 10. Who we built for Who we did not build for
  11. 11. The Pedestrian in America has been marginalized compromised to Death
  12. 12. Thirty percent of North Americans old enough to drive do not drive. This percentage is increasing.
  13. 13. Choosing a Preferred Alternative Scenario A: Low Density Scenario B: Baseline Scenario C: Walkable Neighborhoods Scenario D: High Infill
  14. 14. If you come to a fork in the road, take it.” … Yogi Berra
  15. 15. If you want to build a ship. Don’t drum up people to collect wood and don’t assign them tasks and work, but rather teach them to long for the endless immensity of the sea” — Antoine de Saint-Exupery
  16. 16. West Lafayette, Indiana (Home of Purdue University)
  17. 17. 1962 – Dr. Paul Dudley White 1977, NEA Conference 1964 1980, First Boulder Conf. 1997 1999 2005 2002-05 2010 1997 Kyoto Treaty 1985--1996
  18. 18. LosAngeles,Then
  19. 19. LosAngeles,Now
  20. 20. Driving more miles each year (like obesity) is a visible symptom, an indicator of a disease that is running amuck in each of our towns and villages.
  21. 21. 2000 Monthly Household Transportation Expenditures Source: HTAIndex.com
  22. 22. 2008 Monthly Household Transportation Expenditures Source: HTAIndex.com
  23. 23. 2008 Monthly Household Transportation Expenditures Urban center remains affordable! Source: HTAIndex.com
  24. 24. •Time in car: - All women 64 min/day - Single mothers 75 min/day STPP 2000 From 1969 to 2000, Americans drive: +88% farther to shop +137% farther for errands Women effected most • Mom/Family “chauffeur”
  25. 25. 2001 National Geographic Magazine Article on Sprawl Photo by: Newsday Levittown New York Where are the parks? Where are the trails? Where is the public realm? Where do people gather? How do you go place to place? Where do you buy a popsicle? How does a child visit a friend?
  26. 26. "If we are to have full use of automobiles, cities must be remade...awaiting industry that will do wonders, for prosperity will spring up when we revamp our cities” …Post Magazine (circa 1930)
  27. 27. “Abundant sunshine, fresh air, fine green parkways will blend together seamlessly with dazzling skyscrapers and seven-lane highways.”
  28. 28. If it weren’t for the damn pedestrian there would be no traffic problem in Los Angeles… … circa 1972, Los Angeles Traffic Engineer Compact villages and a strong civilian presence is the only solution to our traffic problems… … circa 1995, San Diego Traffic Engineer
  29. 29. “A driveable future. An auto company has a new design competition to imagine a future city that is car-friendly” (June 28, 2010)
  30. 30. “Automobiles are often conveniently tagged as the villains responsible for the ills of cities and the disappointments and futilities of city planning. But the destructive effects of automobiles are much less a cause than a symptom of our incompetence at city building. The simple needs of automobiles are more easily understood and satisfied than the complex needs of cities, and a growing number of planners and designers have come to believe that if they can only solve the problems of traffic, they will thereby have solved the major problems of cities. Cities have much more intricate economic and social concerns than automobile traffic. How can you know what to try with traffic until you know how the city itself works, and what else it needs to do with its streets? You can't.” Jane Jacobs, Death and Life of Great American Cities , 1961 “How can you know what to try with traffic until ….”
  31. 31. ConventionalApproach System Management More Pavement MoreLanes MoreRoads ITS MoreCars More Car-Carrying Capacity Lateral Approach User View and Comfort Context-Sensitive Design Traffic Calming Personal Security Intensify land use densities Promote Mixed Use Development Transit Supportive Development Demand Management – Pricing, e-commerce, telecommuting, etc… Lane Limits Change Standards Shift Policy Transit Bicycling Walking HOV/HOT Lanes A Balanced Transportation Approach
  32. 32. Widen Road Reduce Delay Reduce Cost FIRST ORDER Move Home Range Farther Drive Home Own More Cars SECOND ORDER Move Business Move Jobs Mega Boxes More Strip More Lane Miles New Construction THIRD ORDER Chain of Impacts
  33. 33. Surgeon General’s Report 21% US citizens ages 9- 17 have a diagnosable mental or addictive disorder associated with at least minimum impairment
  34. 34. Depressive Disorders 19 million American adults • Leading cause of disability in the USA • Treatment: • Medication • Social Contact, including therapy • And…..
  35. 35. “What is the first thing an infant wants to do and the last thing an older person wants to give up?”
  36. 36. A walkability plan must set a stage for all other modes of transportation to work, including transit. If people cannot walk then transit remains ineffective. “What is the first thing an infant wants to do and the last thing an older person wants to give up?” Walking is the exercise that does not need a gym. It is the prescription without medicine, the weight control without diet, and the cosmetic that can’t be found in a chemist. It is the tranquilizer without a pill, the therapy without a psychoanalyst, and the holiday that does not cost a penny. What’s more, it does not pollute, consumes few natural resources and is highly efficient. Walking is convenient, it needs no special equipment, is self-regulating and inherently safe. .”
  37. 37. Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) around the U.S. have increased by 70 percent over the last 20 years, compared with a two percent increase in new highway construction. The U.S. General Accounting Office predicts that road congestion in the U.S. will triple in 15 years even if capacity is increased by 20 percent. Traffic is growing about five times faster than the growth in population. (Data compiled for a report to the U.S. Department of Transportation in 2006 written by Stephen Polzin, (transportation researcher at the University of South Florida in Tampa.) Why we cannot build our way out of traffic
  38. 38. The World is Changing Expect: Option One: 25% more traffic every ten years. More intersections failing. More people spreading out into canyons, ridges and other high risk locations. Also Expect: More cars per household Limited new lanes and limits on intersections being rebuilt More demand for slowing traffic More demand for traffic to stay in motion More demand for safer streets More demand for quieter streets
  39. 39. Option Two: Return to Traditional streets and land uses More connectivity More walking, bicycling and transit People living closer to services, shorter trips by time and distance More funding for well located engine houses Improved and more appropriate equipment More ways to respond Fewer personal injury auto crashes
  40. 40. The simple needs of automobiles are more easily understood and satisfied than the complex needs of cities, and a growing number of planners and designers have come to believe that if they can only solve the problems of traffic, they will thereby have solved the major problems of cities. Following that philosophy led to this, redundantly. A new beaker and measure will lead to this.
  41. 41. New measure for street performance: People come to your street to shoot their wedding pictures
  42. 42. "If we want a booming economy of mom and pop stores, we'd better build the environment where they succeed”
  43. 43.  Build Villages, Not Traffic • Right Pattern, Right Form, Right Scale, Right Density • Circulation System and Connectivity • Focus on Access, not Mobility. • Seamless switching from mode to mode in all places Sustainable Future
  44. 44. Quality Of Life In building facilities to accommodate cars……we often forget about the people
  45. 45. As we age our need for association will continue to grow
  46. 46. As we age access to healthy foods will be critical
  47. 47. Peak Happiness 1965
  48. 48. City Making
  49. 49. Narrow streets Short blocks Tight corner radii Great plazas Beautiful buildings Limited parking Built by Pirates OldTown, KeyWest, Florida
  50. 50. newTown, KeyWest, Florida Designed by college graduates
  51. 51. If Cities are to reduce auto-dependence a working alternative should include: Developers no longer block access to those places people want to reach.
  52. 52. © Citizen Planner Institute Before and After Espanola Way, circa 1986
  53. 53. Not Walkable Walkable High Car Dependency Low Car Dependency Serious Congestion Moderate Congestion
  54. 54. Based on the 1928 drawings by James Perry The intensity of uses should gravitate away from the neighborhood center Townhouses frame the square while open space provides an outdoor environment for nearby residents The largest lots of the TND can be at the edge In these cases where a TND is bordered by a principal street higher intensity uses such as medium density housing can be used in creating the edge Civic buildings Should be terminate street or open space vistas
  55. 55. Personal choices of where to sit or recreate are not accidental. Balance of sun and shade are determinant in active and passive activities. In warm climates like Florida, shade is a critical asset to the comfortable year round use of a space. Why are these the only three empty tables at this restaurant? Why did this person choose this spot?
  56. 56. size neighborhoods for a 5-minute walk
  57. 57. Make blocks a walkable size: block perimeters of 1,500’ to 2,000’ create a connected network of streets
  58. 58. Design for a mix of land uses: Centers include denser housing, a square, civic uses, and neighborhood- oriented retail. Civic Buildings Neighborhood Centers Parks and Open Spaces
  59. 59. Internal Trips 100% External Trips 100% Internal Trips 60-90%
  60. 60. Connectivity: Network CrabappleRd. Hembree Rd. 400 N 3,568 miles of roads
  61. 61. Connectivity: Effective Network 12% of the Total Network is “Effective” CrabappleRd. Hembree Rd. 400 N 735 miles of roads
  62. 62. Connectivity Requirements Compact Area Type for Network Additions • Link-Node Ratio of 1.6 or greater • One external connection as well as an additional external connection and stub-out per 50 links or fraction thereof Virg
  63. 63. Chico, CA Nord Avenue
  64. 64. Chico, CA Nord Avenue
  65. 65. Meriam Park, Chico, California
  66. 66. If Cities are to reduce auto- dependence a working alternative should include: Buildings no longer “moon” the street
  67. 67. Density with Design 1980s & 90s: Density, but… Dover Kohl & Partners
  68. 68. Density with Design In New Projects: Maintain the Relationship of Building and the Street Dover Kohl & Partners
  69. 69. Density with Design In New Projects: Make the Streets Good Neighbors Dover Kohl & Partners
  70. 70. Density with Design In New Projects: Promote the Street as an Amenity, and Inspire Investment Dover Kohl & Partners
  71. 71. Well Designed Density Urban-Advantage.com What are the problems here? Lack of Security Lack of people Lack of investment Auto dependence No place to buy a popsicle Lack of diversity Lack of activity Lack of diversity
  72. 72. Petaluma, California
  73. 73. Petaluma, California
  74. 74. DOWNTOWN STRIP CORRIDOR SHOPPING CENTERS Investment moves to Investment moves to Freeway Corridor Courtesy of Michael Freedman
  75. 75. Falling out of Favor: Linear Strip format
  76. 76. The Illustrative Plan (above) is the result of this planning process; it shows the hypothetical buildout of the corridor, locating building footprints (new and existing), open space, and parking areas. The corridor was divided into four study areas, the Western Gateway, the Neighborhood Center, the Village Center, and the Town Center. Each area has it’s own unique characteristics and challenges which were addressed. Quick sketches were done to study buildings that would result from the hypothetical building footprints in the Illustrative Plan, combined with the proposed height limits in the study areas and potential architectural regulations of the new code. each street, which corresponds to written code regulations.
  77. 77. Burnaby, British Columbia
  78. 78. High Gate Village - Former Strip Mall
  79. 79. Burnaby, British Columbia
  80. 80. It’s Not What You Think It Is.
  81. 81. 11-12 du/a net8-10 du/a net
  82. 82. Land Use Pattern Affects Travel Higher Density can reduce Vehicle Trips 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 0.0 20.0 40.0 60.0 80.0 100.0 120.0 Trips/Household(ADT) Density in Units/Acre Source: John Holtzclaw, PhD, Sierra Club Vehicle Trips Walking Trips Significant reduction in VMT as we go from 3-4 units/acre to over 20 units/acre 6-7 du/a 7-10 du/a 11-18 du/a 2-3 du/a 20 du/a
  83. 83. Vancouver now has so much density that there is no comparison until you travel to Asia … to Beijing, Hong Kong, or Tokyo. As Vancouver has built itself into the one city in the “Most Livable City in the World” …Vehicle Miles Per Day (VPD) is declining. Registered car Virtually all growth occurred in brown fields, industrial yards, old rail yards. Virtually all former single family homes are still in place. Loved, cared for, and worth a
  84. 84. Street and Trail Division Shore line Ground level retail 70-90% transparency Housing above street 60-90% transparency Eyes on Trail
  85. 85. Complete Streets
  86. 86. Marine Drive, Dundarave, B.C. Highway 93, Missoula, Montana USA Canada
  87. 87. Marine Drive, Dundarave, B.C.
  88. 88. • Complete Streets, • Green Streets, • Context Sensitive Design • LEED for Neighborhood Design • Healthy Streets Terms Describing Streets of the Future
  89. 89. Above Where would you rather walk? Where would you rather bike? Which is the safest place to bike? Or Below Where would you rather drive? Where would you rather live? Which is the safest place to drive?
  90. 90. 12 Feet 5 Feet Natomas, Curb-to-Curb
  91. 91. Grandview Drive , University Place, WA (33 mph Average Speed)
  92. 92. Street Design Manual Streets Pay Their Way Through Increased Land Value Increased Land Values New Maintenance Funds Holistic Use of Streets Complete Streets Green Streets
  93. 93. TWO WOLVES One evening an old Cherokee told his grandson about a battle that goes on inside people. He said, "My son, the battle is between two wolves inside us all. "One is Evil - It is anger, envy, jealousy, sorrow, regret, greed, arrogance, self-pity, guilt, resentment, inferiority, lies, false pride, superiority, and ego. "The other is Good - It is joy, peace, love, hope, serenity, humility, kindness, benevolence, empathy, generosity, truth, compassion and faith." The grandson thought about it for a minute and then asked his grandfather: "Which wolf wins?" The old Cherokee simply replied, "The one you feed."
  94. 94. Where There’s Opposition There Needs To Be Courage
  95. 95. Is this an age-friendly place?
  96. 96. The Cycle of Strip Development Land Use Planning INPUTS •Auto Oriented Business •Single Use Zoning •Single Family Residential GROWTH OUTCOMES •Isolated Neighborhoods •Multiple Automobile Trips •Poor Mobility •Difficult Walking Transportation Planning INPUTS •Traffic Demand Forecasting •Congestion GROWTH OUTCOMES •Wider Roads •Induced Traffic •More Traffic
  97. 97. Breaking The Cycle of Strip Development Land Use Planning GROWTH OUTCOMES •Increased Mobility •More Walking & Bicycling •Increased Access •Sustainable •Prosperity OUTCOMES •Healthy Neighborhoods •Choices of Transportation •More Open Space •Sense of Place •Sense of Community •Age-in-Place Friendly INPUTS •Diversity of Business •Mixed Use Zoning •Diversity of Residential Units •Context Sensitive Solutions •Community Involvement Transportation Planning Community Planning

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